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when viewed in connection with the whole. The first three books deal with centuries of time, and the vast barbarian world: (1) The overthrow of the Lydian kingdom of Croesus, and, in retrospect, the establishment of the Persian monarchy as the heir of the immemorial empires of the East. (2) Egypt in retrospect and description in connection with the Persian Conquest. (3) The consolidation of the Persian Empire under Cambyses and Darius. The last three books are concerned with ten, or, more strictly, three years of conflict on Greek soil, books vii., viii., and ix. being marked respectively by the battles of Thermopylæ, Salamis, and Platea. The three intervening books at once link and divide the extremes, and trace the progress of Persia and the interlacing of Greek and Persian interests to the point where the struggle became inevitable. (4) The campaigns of Persia, in Scythia and Libya, with vast geographical and ethnological digressions. (5) The subjugation of the north coast of the Ægean—Thrace and Macedon. The beginnings of revolt among the Ionic cities, with anecdotal digressions on Athens and Sparta that prepare us for the rôle to be assumed by those cities. (6) The revolt of the Ionians aided by Athens and Eretria; its suppression; the avenging mission of Mardonius against Eretria and

BIBLIOGRAPHY. De Quincey wrote on what he called the "Philosophy of Herodotus," and his essay on "Style" has a fine digression on Herodotus at Olympia. The chief translation is the classical work of Rawlinson in four volumes with elaborate notes and introduction (London, 1858, often reprinted). The translation of G. C. Macaulay (London, 1890) is well spoken of. Stein's annotated German edition (Berlin, 1901 et seq.) is read chiefly by students. Sayce, Herodotus, i.-iii. (London, 1883) deserves attention for his introduction, notes, and appendices. Macan, Herodotus, iv., v., vi., with appendices (London, 1892), is rich in historic criticism. Hauvette, Hérodote: historien des guerres médiques (Paris, 1894), is an excellent monograph. The volume on Herodotus in Blackwood's Ancient Classics is readable. Consult also: Kirchhoff, Ueber die Abfassungszeit des Herodotischen Geschichtswerks (Berlin, 1878), and Bauer, Herodots Biographie (Vienna, 1878).

The charm of his seemingly simple, artfully artless, naïve, Ionic style has been celebrated by all critics, ancient and modern. Andrew Lang's entertaining parody in his Letters to Dead Authors, gives, by exaggeration, a good idea of it to the English reader. Macaulay's essay "On History" contains a picturesque rhetorical characterization.

HEROES, he'rōz (Lat. heros, from Gk. pws, connected with Lat. servare, Skt. sar, Av. har, to protect). In the older portions of the Homeric poems the heroes are warriors; in the Odyssey the word has extended its meaning, and denotes any distinguished character of the stories of the past. In the later time a third meaning prevails, and the 'heroes' are the semi-divine objects of worship. To such heroes the later noble families, or even whole communities, traced their origin, and it seems probable that the original use of the word was to denote the souls of the blessed ancestors.

Athens; his defeat at Marathon.

Herodotus, though an artistic, is not a critical historian. A critical history was possible in that age only to a Thucydides describing on the testimony of documents and eye-witnesses a contemporary war between Greeks. The Greeks of the generation of the Persian Wars were too busy making history to write it, and the tradition of the great struggle was already transfigured by legend and local patriotism when he took it up. Nor could he deal scientifically with the dim legends and inextricably crossed traditions of the East which he gathered on the frontiers of the Greek and barbarian worlds. Fortunately, he did not make the attempt. Ignorant of the languages, unable to decipher the records, if he had applied to the tales told him by dragomans, minor priests, commercial travelers, and Greek mercenaries either his own standards of credibility or ours, he would have deprived us not only of many a delightful story, but of much invaluable information. "It is my business to relate what is told me," he declares, "but I am under no obligation to believe it." He does not believe that the Phoenicians got the noonday sun on their right hand in circumnavigating Africabut he tells us the story. And, wasting no time on vain critical discussions or pretentious phi-hero' losophies of history, he contrives to tell us more fascinating stories and interesting facts to the page than any other writer in the world. view of this and his evident good faith, genial simplicity, and earnest piety, we may disregard the critics who impugn his honesty because his account of a crocodile would amuse a naturalist, and his description of Babylon would not satisfy


a Baedeker.

These 'heroes' were commonly regarded as sprung
from the union of a god and a mortal. Their
cult ritual was like that of the gods, but natu-
rally had closest resemblance to that of the
chthonic divinities. Their worship was wide-
spread, and it seems very clear that in the large
majority of cases those worshiped in historic
times as heroes were originally gods, who had
been superseded by the growth of the great per-
It was natural that eminent men,
sonal gods.
who had seemed to possess somewhat of the
divine essence, should receive reverence as super-
natural beings after death. Such are the
cases of Brasidas, Themistocles, and in later
times some of the founders of philosophical
From this it seems to
schools, as Epicurus.
have been easy to worship the living, as in the
case of Alexander and some of his successors, who
were honored as 'savior gods' (0ɛol ownρεs).
Thrace the conception of the heroized dead as
heavenly horsemen is common, but the word
has become the name of a mighty god, to
whom dedications are frequent. For the best
brief account of the growth and character of the
hero-worship in Greece, consult: Usener, Göt-
their discussion less satisfactory, Rohde, Psyche
ternamen (Bonn, 1896); more elaborate, but in
(2d ed., Freiburg, 1898); Deneken, in Roscher,
Lexikon der griechischen und römischen My-
thologie (Leipzig, 1886-90), with full collection
of authorities; and Furtwängler, Sammlung
Sabouroff, vol. i. (Berlin, 1883).

HEROIDES, hê-roi-děz. An early work of Ovid, a collection of twenty fictitious love-letters sent by noble women of the olden time to their estranged husbands or lovers. The theme in all is the same, but their romantic nature and dramatic setting have placed them among the most popular of Ovid's works. The last six

of the epistles are believed to be the work of though the sexes usually are alike in color, few imitators. birds show greater variety of plumage than the herons, for the breeding plumage is much finer than that of the remainder of the year, and the young are usually very different from the adults. Furthermore, a number of species are dichromatic; that is, some specimens show one type of coloration and other specimens another type, absolutely without regard to age, season, or sex. (See DICHROMATISM IN BIRDS.) In the herons, one of the color phases is generally pure white; the other phase is more or less colored, and is always remarkably different. (For the use of the plumage of certain herons as an ornament of costume and in millinery, which has led to their extinction in some regions, see AIGRET.) The body is small in proportion to the length of the neck and limbs; the neck is long, and, except in flight, is usually held curved. In flight the heron carries the neck, head, and long bill in a straight line before the body, and the long legs in like manner stretched out behind. Herons feed mostly on fish, frogs, and other aquatic animals, and may be seen, particularly very early in the morning and late in the evening, standing patiently motionless in some shallow water, at the margin of a lake or stream, or on the seashore, waiting till prey come within reach. In default of their ordinary food. however, herons sometimes prey on young birds, reptiles, and the smaller mammalia. They usu ally go forth singly in quest of prey, but are mostly gregarious in their nidification. nests are usually built in trees, of coarse sticks with little lining. The eggs are three or four, in color blue or bluish green, without spots. See Colored Plate of EGGS OF WATER AND GAME BIRDS.


HER'OIN. A derivative of morphine. It is a white, crystalline, neutral, slightly bitter powder. It is only slightly soluble in water, but freely so when a dilute acid is added. The use of the drug in medicine practically dates from 1898, and there is still a diversity of opinion as to its action and value. Its analgesic effect is inferior to that of morphine or codeine, but it may be used as a substitute when these are not well tolerated. It seems to be chiefly of value in allaying cough. For the relief of dyspnoea it is sometimes effectual, having given good results in cases due to asthma, cardiac dilatation, aneurism of the aorta, and uræmia. It has been claimed that heroin is to the respiratory system what digitalis is to the heart. The dose should always be small, and it should be used with the same caution as other derivatives of opium. A single dose of two and one-half grains has been followed by great exhaustion, trembling, diminished temperature, a thready pulse of 140, contraction of the pupil, and impaired vision. Recovery followed the administration of caffeine.

HÉROLD, â'ro', LOUIS JOSEPH FERDINAND (1791-1833). A French dramatic composer, born in Paris. Although his father was a musician, he discouraged his son's musical ambitions, and it was only after his father's death (1802) that the boy was able to follow his natural bent. In 1806 he entered the Paris Conservatory, winning first prize for pianoplaying in 1810, and the Prix de Rome in 1812 with his cantata Mlle. de la Vallière. After studying in Rome for three years he went to Naples, producing there, in 1815, his first opera, La gioventù di Enrico Quinto. His next three or four operas, given in Paris, were successful, but, owing to poor libretti, were followed by a series of failures which for a time discouraged the composer. In 1828 Hérold was elected a member of the Legion of Honor. His best works, Marie (1826), Zampa (1831), and Le pré aux clercs (1832), are compositions of genuine merit, and still hold the boards in France and Germany. Consult Jouvin, Hérold, sa vie et ses œuvres (Paris, 1868).

HERON (OF. hairon, heron, Fr. héron, Prov. aigron, heron, from OHG. heigir, heron, AS. higora; connected with AS. heagra, OS. hreiera, MHG. reiger, Ger. Reiher, heron, Skt. krakana, krakara, partridge, and Lat. crocire, Gk. κpíše krizein, to screech, Goth. hrops, cry, OHG. hruom. ruom, Ger. Ruhm, fame, AS. hroc, Eng. rook). A bird of the genus Ardea (and allied genera), of the family Ardeidæ and suborder Herodii. This family includes also bitterns and night-herons. In it the bill is long, compressed, and sharp; the tail short, the legs and the toes long and slender, the wings long. Those peculiar patches of soft, oily feathers called 'powder-down' tracts are always present-three pairs in the true herons, one on the breast, one on the rump, and one under the thighs. In the herons-in which genus are included the species commonly designated egrets (q.v.), which differ only in unimportant particulars of plumage the bill is slender but strong, forming a compressed and lengthened cone; the plumage is beautiful, but seldom exhibits very gay colors, white, brown, black, and slate-color, finely blended, being generally predominant. Al

Herons are widely distributed over the globe, but are especially abundant in the tropics and warm temperate zones. Some seventy-five species are known, of which about a dozen occur in the United States.

The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is about four feet in length from the point of the bill to the end of the tail, and nearly six feet across the wings. It is of a delicate gray color on the upper parts, except the quill-feathers, which are black, and the tail, which is deep slatecolor. This common heron generally builds its nest in a high tree, and many nests are sometimes to be seen in a single tree. In northern parts of the continent the heron is known only as a summer bird of passage, but it remains in the Southern United States all the year. Its geographical range extends over most parts of the New World north of the equator. Herons were formerly in great esteem for the table, although now disregarded. The common heron (Ardea cinera) of Europe is very similar to the great blue heron, but has the tibia white instead of chestnut. It is famous as the game which was most eagerly sought in falconry. Other wellknown American herons are the little green heron (Ardea virescens), which is only about a foot and a half long, the prevailing colors dark green and brown, abundant throughout the United States and a little beyond, both north and south; the night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax, var. nævius), a mere variety of the European nightheron, found throughout the United States and Canada. (See NIGHT-HERON.) The white heron (Ardea egretta) and the snowy heron (Ardea candidissima) are southern species, always pure

He discovered the nerves and made important observations in connection with the eye. Several names which he gave to different parts of the body are still in use, one such, tocular Herophili, recording his own name. He is said to have

white, the former about 60 per cent. larger than the latter; and the reddish egret (Ardea rufa), the little blue heron (Ardea cœrulea), and the great white heron (Ardea occidentalis), all of which are dichromatic; the last is the largest American heron, and is about 42 feet long and 8 feet in extent. The largest known species is the giant heron of Africa (Ardea Goliath), which slightly exceeds these figures. Among other herons of the Old World may be mentioned the following: The purple heron (Ardea purpurea), which is of large size, purplish-blue plumage, and wide distribution (see the Colored Plate of WADERS); the great white heron, or great egret (Ardea alba), is most common in Turkey and eastward. It is an extremely beautiful bird, with perfectly white plumage, much of it loose and flowing. The little egret (Ardea garzetta) has also white flowing plumage. Consult: Newton, Dictionary of Birds (London and New York, 1896); Sclater and Hudson, Argentine Ornithology (London, 1888); and American ornithologies.


HERON, MATILDA (1830-77). An American actress. She was born near Londonderry, in Ireland, and was brought to the United States by her parents in childhood. She first appeared in Philadelphia in 1851 as Bianca in Fazio. Her chief parts were Camille in La Dame aur Camélias, and Ulah in De Soto. She played in all the principal American cities and visited London in 1861. She was married to Robert Stoepel, a musician, in 1857, but was divorced in 1869. In the latter part of her life she taught elocution in New York City.

HERON'DAS, or HERO'DAS (Lat., from Gk. 'Hpúvdas, or 'Hpúdas). A Greek poet of the third century B.C., born, probably, in the island of Cos. Of his mimes or mimiambi, as they are sometimes called, nothing was known before 1890 except a few fragments. In that year, however, an Egyptian papyrus was found which contains seven comparatively complete poems and parts of two others. These are all written in the metre called the choliambus, or lame iambic trimeter. Unlike the works of the earlier iambographers, such as Archilochus and Hipponax, the poems of Herondas are not personal in their satire. They may be described as genre pieces descriptive of certain phases of life in the early Alex andrian time, and as such they are extremely interesting. The realism of these pictures is very striking. In them the Alexandrian age lives again in all its hurry and flurry, all its outward brilliancy and spiritual poverty. First publication by Kenyon, Classical Texts from Papyri in the British Museum (London, 1891). The latest edition is that of Crusius, Untersuchungen zu den Mimiamben des Herondas (Leipzig, 1892; 4th ed., 1904).

HEROPH'ILUS (Lat., from Gk. 'Hpópios (c.300 B.C.). A famous surgeon of antiquity, born at Chalcedon in Bithynia. He studied medicine under Praxagoras, one of the followers of Hippocrates, and afterwards went to Alexandria in Egypt, where he became famous, and was one of the founders of the medical school in that city. His followers later spread to Pergamum, Laodicea, and elsewhere. Herophilus's greatest services were performed in the field of anatomy.

practiced vivisection upon condemned criminals. His writings were numerous, but we have only fragments thereof.

HERO'S FOUNTAIN (named from its inventor, Hero of Alexandria). A pneumatic apparatus, in which a vertical jet of water is produced by the pressure of condensed air. A simple form of the apparatus constructed of glass tubes is shown in the annexed figure. The column of water in the left-hand tube compresses the air in the lower vessel; this causes an increase of pressure on the surface of the water in the upper cistern, and causes it to gush out at the jet.

HEROS TRATUS (Lat., from Gk. 'Hρóστpatos). who, from a desire for future fame, An Ephesian, set fire, in B.C. 356, on the very night on which Alexander the Great was born, to the magnificent Temple of Diana at Ephesus; only the walls and a few columns were left standing. Herostratus expiated the deed by a painful death, and the Ephesians passed a decree that his name should never be mentioned. It was revealed by Theopompus.


HERPES (Lat., from Gk. prns, herpes, from prev, herpein, Lat. serpere, Skt. sarp, to creep). A cutaneous eruption, characterized by spreading or creeping from place to place. The term was formerly applied to several different diseases, including eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and seborrhoea, as well as zona, to which it properly belongs. Zona, or herpes zoster, is a cutaneous disease of trophic origin, occurring as a sequence of various lesions of the nervous system; it is a dermatosis of nervous origin-a fact established by pathologists. The disease is of an acute, inflammatory nature, characterized by a set of vesicles as large as a split pea, occurring in clusters and following the course of a peripheral nerve. The course of the affection is from ten to fourteen days in each locality to which it spreads, each irregular cluster of vesicles going through the process of increase, maturation, and decline, each vesicle drying into a scab. The inflamed areas are exquisitely terder to the touch, sometimes itching at the same time. Soothing and cooling applications should be made, avoiding ointments whose base is grease. Galvanism is of benefit. Appropriate internal treatment for the nerve condition must be employed. Herpes zoster is popularly called 'shingles.'

HER PETOL'OGY (from Gk. épreтbv, herpeton, reptile, from prew, herpein, to creep + Xoyla, logia, account, from Aéyew, legein, to say). That branch of natural history which treats of reptiles and formerly included the amphibia. Now, however, the term is restricted to the Reptilia proper, which includes lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, alligators, and various extinct aquatic and terrestrial reptiles. The first

attempt at a systematic arrangement of reptiles was made by Ray (1693), but he did not clearly comprehend their relationships, nor did he give the group a name. Linnæus (1735-68) classed tortoises, lizards, and serpents as amphibia, and recognized two sub-groups, (1) those with and (2) those without feet. He included in this class those forms which we to-day call amphibia, and later he added branchiostegous fishes. Of course, such an arbitrary classification, without any morphological foundation, was soon replaced by others. Linnæus recognized 213 species and 10 genera. Cuvier (1817-29) practically adopted the classification of Brongniart (1799), in which four orders were recognized: (1) Chelonia; (2) Sauria (lizards and crocodiles); (3) Ophidia (serpents and provisionally the cæcilians); and (4) Batrachia, the latter corresponding to our present Amphibia minus the cæcilians. The splendid additions to our knowledge of their anatomical structure, made by such men as Johannes Müller in Germany, Owen and Huxley in England, and Cope in America, and an increased knowledge of the embryological development of some puzzling forms, has greatly added to the accuracy of our classification both of the Reptilia and the Amphibia. The light which has been shed on the relationship of the groups by paleontological researches of the past century particularly has also been of inestimable value in the establishment of our present classification, for which see REPTILE.

HER/PETON (Gk. épreтóv, reptile). An extremely rare snake of Southeastern Asia. It belongs to a family (Homalopsida) of colubrine viviparous water-snakes, which prey upon fish and crustaceans, and often moor themselves by curling the prehensile tail about some waterside branch or root. This species (Herpeton tentaculatum) is peculiar in having two forwardpointing appendages covered with scales on the snout, supposed to be organs of touch. Compare


HERRERA, ar-ra'rà, FERNANDO DE (153497). A Spanish poet, born at Seville, the head of the so-called Seville school of lyric poetry in the sixteenth century. When advanced in life he took orders. He was master of the Greek, Roman, and Italian literatures, and was a man of prodigious learning. As a poet he ranked so high in the opinion of his contemporaries that they bestowed upon him the appellation of the 'divine.' Like his acknowledged master, Garcilaso de la Vega, he sings chiefly in the foreign Italian strains, and is particularly successful in the canción and the soneto. His masterpiece is the canción (or ode) Por la vitoria de Lepanto. Many of his erotic poems are remarkable for tender feeling, and his odes frequently display a lofty enthusiasm; but the expression is sometimes cast in too classical a mold, and consequently wears a certain air of artificiality. Herrera himself prepared for publication a volume of his verse, Algunas obras (Seville, 1582), to which additions were made in an edition by Pacheco (1619). The poems are to be found also in Ramón Fernandez. Poesías castellanas (1808), and in the Biblioteca de autores españoles, xxxii. (Madrid, 1872); selections in Ford, A Spanish Anthology (New York, 1901). His chief his torical work is the Relación de la guerra de Chipre y batalla de Lepanto (1572), and he

translated from the Latin of Stapleton a life of Sir Thomas More. In 1580 he published an annotated edition of the poems of Garcilaso. Consult: Fernando de Herrera, Controversia sobre anotaciones á las obras de Garcilaso de la Vega: Poesías inéditas (Seville, 1870); Morel-Fatio, L'hymne sur Lépante (Paris, 1893); Lasso de la Vega, Historia de la escuela poética sevillana (Madrid, 1876); Bourciez, in the Annales de la Faculté des lettres de Bordeaux (Bordeaux, 1891).

HERRERA, FRANCISCO DE (1576-1656), called El Viejo (the elder). A Spanish painter of the school of Seville. He was the first to emancipate himself from the Italian manner then dominant

in Spain, and to assume the vigorous naturalistic style afterwards adopted by Velazquez (q.v.). He may therefore be regarded as the founder of the new national school of Spain. Herrera was born at Seville in 1576, and studied painting with Luis Fernandez, who painted in the Italian manner. He soon emancipated himself from this master, and founded a school of his own; but his unbearable temper drove away his pupils, among whom was Velazquez, and even his own sons. A carver in bronze, Herrera was accused of counterfeiting money, and in order to avoid arrest he took sanctuary in the Jesuit College at Seville. While there he painted the "Triumph of Saint Hermengild," now in the Museum of Seville -a picture of such merit that when it was seen by Philip IV. on his visit to the city he pardoned the artist. After his release Herrera became more unbearable than ever. His wife left him;

his elder son, called El Rubio, died of consumption; and his younger, Herrera el Mozo, robbing his father of his money, fled to Italy. In 1650 the father went to Madrid, where he died in 1656.

His subjects are generally sombre and tragic, and are mostly of a religious nature, although he sometimes painted genre. They contain all the qualities of a great artist; a design grandiose but correct and true to nature, especially in the nudes; a harmonious color, laid on in great masses. He painted both in oils and al fresco, but most of his fresco-work has disappeared. His principal works are at Seville. Among them are the "Last Judgment," in the Church of San Bernardo; four great pictures in the archiepiscopal palace, representing the "Fall of Manna," "Moses Smiting Water from the Rocks," the "Marriage at Cana," and the "Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes;" "Saint Peter," in the Cathedral; and "Saint Basil," in the Museum; "Saint Augustus and Saint Jerome," in the Montpensier Collection, Seville. The Louvre has two excellent examples, "Saint Basil Dictating His Doctrine," and the "Israelites Gathering Manna in the Desert;" the Museum of Dresden, a "Saint Matthew." The frescoes with which he ornamented the façade of the convent of La Merced, at Seville, have perished, as have also those at Madrid. Luckily the artist himself etched a number of the latter, showing great skill in this branch of art, as is further evident from his print, "Saint Peter."

His son, FRANCISCO HERRERA (1622-85), called El Mozo (the younger), after he had fled to Italy, painted pictures of various subjects, especially of fish, the latter with such success that he was called "Il Spagnuolo degli Pesci." In 1656, after his father's death, he returned to Seville. In 1660 he was one of the founders of the academy there, but on account of his jealousy of Murillo (q.v.),

and its parasites. His reputation is one of the treasures of Yale College.

who was made president, while Herrera was vicepresident, he went to Madrid in 1661. He became Court painter to Philip IV., and master of the royal works under Charles II. In this office he figured as an architect, assisting in the renovation of the Cathedral of Saragossa. His work as a painter was brilliant, but manneristic. His works include the "Four Doctors of the Church Adoring the Host," Museum of Seville; the "Immaculate

Conception," and "Saint Hermengild," now in the Prado Museum; and the frescoes of the Chapel of Our Lady of Atocha, "The Ascension of Mary," his chief work. Consult: Bermudes, Diccionario de los mas illustros profesores (Madrid, 1800); Stirling Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain

(London, 1848).

HERRERA, JOSÉ JOAQUIN DE (1792-1854). A Mexican general, born at Jalapa. He rebelled with Iturbide (1821), but opposed him when he was made Emperor. Herrera was Minister of War; President of the Supreme Court; was President for three months and a half in 1845; was Santa Anna's lieutenant in the war with the United States of America; and was President again (1848-51).

HERRESHOFF, her'rès-hof, JOHN B. (1841 -). An American naval architect, born in Bristol, R. I., and a brother of Nathaniel Herreshoff. He is a descendant of John Brown who headed

the attack on the Gaspée, and early showed both inventive ability and love of the sea. Although he became blind at fifteen, he built up and managed the business of the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, which succeeded Edward Burgess as designer of the defenders of the America cup, and many stories are told of his wonderful grasp of detail and of his perfect freedom of movement in shop and on board ship.

HERRESHOFF, NATHANIEL GREENE (1848 -). An American naval architect, born at Bristol, R. I. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and made a special technical study of engineering in the Corliss Works at Providence, R. I., where he assisted in the construction of the large engine which furnished motive power for all machinery at the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. He became superintendent of the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, boat-builders, at Bristol, R. I., and designed numerous torpedo-boats and yachts. Among the high-speed torpedo-boats designed by him for the United States Government were the Lightning and the Cushing. His reputation in connection with racing yachts dates mainly from the triumphs of the Gloriana in 1891. The success of the four craft built for contests in defense of the

famous America's cup, the Vigilant, Defender, Columbia, and Reliance, placed him among the foremost of his profession. He introduced many innovations in the architecture of racing yachts, and invented a coil boiler for use on steam vessels built by the Herreshoff Company.

HERRICK, EDWARD CLAUDIUS (1811-62). An American meteorologist, born in New Haven, Conn. He was librarian at Yale College from 1843 to 1858, and treasurer from 1852 until his death. He made noteworthy contributions to the knowledge of meteorology, meteoric showers, the Aurora Borealis, and the zodiacal light. He was likewise an entomologist of distinction, and devoted nine years to the study of the Hessian fly

HERRICK, ROBERT (1591-1674). An EngCambridge, and in 1629 was presented to the lish poet, born in London. He was educated at Vicarage of Dean Prior, Devonshire. Ejected from his parish by the Long Parliament in 1647, he repaired to London. In 1648 appeared a collection of his poems, in two parts, bound together, bearing the titles Hesperides and Noble Numbers. Some of these poems, however, had been finding their way into print ever since 1635.

On the restoration of Charles II. he was reinstated in

his old living, where he died. His poems, which

are mostly lyrical, are graceful and melodious, and show much fine fancy. They vary in subject from amatory verses, pagan in tone, to pieces of deep religious feeling. Such songs as "Cherry Ripe" and "Gather Ye Rosebuds While Ye May," are universally known. They and scores of others are exquisite in sentiment and admirable in form. Though duly appreciated in his own time, Herrick was neglected for more than a hundred years after his death. Rediscovered in the nineteenth century, he has steadily grown in favor. There are

editions of his poems by Hazlitt (London, 1869), Grosart (ib., 1876), Palgrave (selections, ib., 1877), Pollard, with critical essay by Swinburne (ib., 1891), and an essay by Gosse in Seventeenth Century Studies (ib., 1883).

HERRIG, hĕrʼrik, HANS (1845-92). A German poet and dramatist, born in Brunswick. He studied law at Berlin and Göttingen, and at first was employed in the Berlin city court, but after 1872 devoted himself entirely to literature, was editor of the Deutsches Tageblatt from 1881 to 1888, and wrote many plays that attained wide popularity. His Festspiel, written for the Luther Jubilee in 1883, was especially successful. His dramas, which are more distinguished for elegance and force of diction than for positive dramatic skill, comprise: Alexander der Grosse (1872); Kaiser Friedrich der Rotbart (1873); Jerusalem (1874); Der Kurprinz (1876); Konradin (1881); Harald der Wiking (1881), which was set to music by Andreas Hallén; Drei Operndichtungen (1881); Nero (1883); Columbus (1887); and Christnacht (1887). His other writings are: Die Schweine (1876); Mären und Geschichten (1879); Der dicke König (1885); Die Meininger, ihre Gastspiele und deren Bedeutung für das deutsche Theater (1879); Luxustheater und Volksbühne (1886); Ueber christliche Volksschauspiele (1891); and Das Kaiserbuch (1891).

HERRING (AS. hæring, OHG. harine, Ger. Hering, herring, from AS. here, OHG. hari, heri, Ger. Heer, army; in allusion to the shoals in which the fish moves). A fish of the family Clupeidae, belonging to the genus Clupea, very closely related to the shads and sardines. Herring are soft-rayed fishes, with a compressed body and rather large cycloid scales. The head is naked, and the caudal fin is forked. They occur in all the northern seas, and make periodic migrations from the deeper waters to the shore for the purposes of spawning. In the more northern regions this occurs during the spring and early summer; in the more southern regions, in July to December. The average yield of eggs is about 30.000 to the fish, with a maximum of about 55,000. They are laid in shallow waters and are

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