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his knowledge to use in a quarter where it is deeply needed he may show himself a judicious sanitary reformer, as far removed from the charlatan theorists who, at the present time, have been unfortunately too much accepted as representatives of that science, as from the stolid obstructives who protect every time-hallowed nuisance against a day of pestilence and death.
The infusion of a certain tincture of physical science into the Universities shows signs of progress in another direction, from which we hope much. This is what may be described as the border-ground between physics and metaphysics and psychology. There is between these a large space, as yet hardly travelled over. It is true that the world has seen many futile attempts to found systems of physics on a more or less unstable basis of metaphysical speculation. But the opposite course is at once the more valuable and the less traversed. It has long been our hope to see the production of works on mental science by physiologists, and on metaphysics by physicians, for we feel sure that such labours may establish the most valuable results. Indeed, where the attempt has been made, even in a partial manner, it has not been without signal suc
Sir B. Brodie's psychological inquiries are a typical instance worthy of imitation. On some of the questions involved there is deep interest of a legal and political character, such as the infinence of temperament, imagination, excitement, fanaticism, or disease, on moral and criminal responsibility. Education would receive a valuable contribution in an experimental inquiry upon the physiological problems involved in school discipline. In this department there is much dangerous error abroad, much injudicious treatment sanctioned, which only need a clear exposure and temperate sug. ; gestions for their reformation. On many other points--memory, instinct, sleep, and the physical basis of mathematical conceptions--we feel assured that there is much to be yet discovered, to which the surest road lies in a well-digested course of physiologi. cal inquiry, carried some steps higher into the regions of first principles than is usually deemed the duty of less transcendental physiologists. It is not unreasonable to expect that such works may emanate from the physical students of the Universities.
Evident as are the advantages which are accruing to Oxford and Cambridge from the addition of natural science to their studies, the consequent gain of the various professions which depend more or less closely upon physics, and specially that of medicine, is even more conspicuous. The main social cause of this was clearly stated in the former article above referred to. It was there enunciated as a fact that “the raising of the medical profession to its due rank depends mainly on the scientific education of the upper classes throughout the country." Subsequent events have only confirmed this view, and although the lapse of time has rendered some modification of the prospects then suggested very necessary, still much has been done, and more is in progress of accomplishment. It is true that the proposed reduction of collegiate expenses, and the establishment of “ Affiliated Halls,” has not been favourably entertained, neither have we as yet reached what was there looked forward to—"a golden age, when our attorneys, country surgeons, civil engineers, &c., should receive the benefits of the very highest form of education, conjoined with judicious discipline." But the Oxford Museum there spoken of as a vague possibility is now an existent reality. And it is a creation which for grandeur of conception and perfectness of execution is well worthy of the age and the University which have established it. We shall have to speak farther on of its artistic excellences, and of the remarkable manner in which the pliability of a Gothic style has been moulded to requirements entirely modern. Here we are most concerned with the wideness of its design and the completeness of its provisions.
" A few words," says Dr. Acland, “will explain the principles which determined the kind of accommodation. For the illustration of nature the student requires four things,-first, the work-room, where he may practically see and work for himself; secondly, the lectureroom, where he may see and be taught that which by himselt he can neither see nor learn ; and as an adjunct to these, a room for more private study for each ; thirdly, general space for the common display of any illustrative specimens capable of preservation, so placed in relation to the rest of the building as to be convenient for reference and comparison between all the different branches ; and lastly, a library, in which whatever bas been done or is now
doing in the science of this and other periods and countries may be conveniently ascertained,
“ The centre of the edifice which is to contain the collections consists of a quadrangle. This large area will be covered by a glass roof supported on cast-iron columns. The central court is surrounded by an open arcade of two stories. This arcade furnishes ready means of communication between the several departments and their collections in the area. The roof springs from above the upper arcade, so that the arcades on both floors are open to the covered court. The arcade on the ground floor is entered from the centre of each side of the court, and ready communication is made from it to every part of the collection.
“ Round the arcade is ranged upon three sides the main block of the building. The east is wisely left unencumbered by rooms, to afford ready means for future extension. Beyond, or outside the main block, to the north, because the coolest side, are an open yard for the anatomical and zoological departments, and beyond it dissecting rooms. On the south side are the rooms which require special arrangement for experiments or light, a yard for purposes connected with chemistry and experimental physics, and further still, out-buildings, containing workshops, furnace-rooms, weighing-rooms, and laboratories. Thus all noxious operations are removed from the principal pile, but joined with much convenience to the lecture-rooms, and communicating easily with the central court, common to all the departments.
“ The laboratory for the chemical students is the large detached building seen at the southwest anyle of the museum.
“On the upper floor are a large lecture-room for 600 persons, intended for occasional use, the entomological collections of Mr. Hope, and along the front, the library and reading-rooms, together 200 feet in length.”
The writer then proceeds to explain that it is proposed to transfer the collection of works on medicine from the Radcliffe building to the museum, and to appropriate that fine edifice to the purposes of a reading-room for the Bodleian Library, which is urgently required.
The detail in which we have given these arrangements implies our high opinion of their merits. Indeed, it is beyond all contradiction that the museum just in process of completion presents the most perfect specimen of such a structure that modern ingenuity has devised. In actual size it is unequalled in England; and when the unity of plan and disposition of parts is considered, we may safely challenge Europe to produce its peer. It will be deemed a strong statement that the mere building of such a structure is a boon to science, and a proportionate advance in the social standing of all who are engaged in scientific professions; and yet there is perhaps warrant for the assertion. Even if we could suppose it never to be worthily used, it stands a monument to the dignity of science-an evidence of the value which one of the oldest and noblest Universities in Europe set upon its pursuit-and a tangible proof of the reality of the labours which, proceeding silently in the laboratory and dissecting-room, bring forth results to move nations, and influence the destiny of races. It is the noblest memorial of those giants among men, to whom was given in their generation a deeper insight into the hidden things of nature, the worthiest mausoleum of those whose bodily presence
gone from among us, but whose discoveries live and work only the more widely and energetically as time rolls onward.
Viewing the whole subject, more specially in relation to our own study of medicine, there is much cause for satisfaction. For the recent changes at the Universities are one evidence out of many that it is beginning, as a profession, to occupy the minds not only of the authorities, but also of that class who, on finishing their educational career,
have to choose a path in life. It cannot be denied that such a tendency was to be expected, both from the increasing estimation of scientific pursuits and also from that cyclical progress which seems to be a characteristic of mind as of matter. A few years have comprised two sections of the last revolution—the first, in the overwhelming tide of students who, some fifteen years back, hastened to devote their energies to Theology, and its representative, the clerical profession; the second, dating perhaps some eight or ten years back, in the increased study of law and scientific politics, and in the crowd of men adorned with all scholastic successes, who have filled to overflowing the various Inns of Court. There remains but one of the highest professions untried, and we have little doubt that the next decennium will contribute its share to the cycle by swelling the ranks of the medical profession in a proportion far above the previous averages. Hitherto we are bound to confess that the increase, though appreciable, is not very striking; but it would probably have begun before now had not a diversion arisen; had not the moving masses been drawn out of their natural orbits by their heterogeneous attraction. This has been supplied by the sudden throwing open to competition of so much government patronage. We consider that the public offices, the army and the Indian service, are drawing away many who would, in an unchanged state of things, have chosen the medical profession. This view gains some corroboration from the fact that the engineering and other similar departments have given a value to physical knowledge, and to manipulative skill, which were formerly only represented among the highest professions by our own.
It is from considerations of this nature, and from a general sense of inexpediency, that we oppose ourselves to such plans as that proposed by Mr. Pearson, of Oriel, in the pamphlet whose title is prefixed to the present remarks. It was with some satisfaction that we heard it had been negatived by the authorities. The suggestion of any means of rendering more numerous the body of medical graduates at Oxford was so far undeniably good; but the contrivance which he advanced for attaining this end seemed open to much objection. Not only was the reduction of residence almost a confession of social inferiority in those who would present themselves, but the scheme had several other dangers, which Dr. Child well enumerates in his letter to the Rector of Exeter. Dr. Child shows that it would be difficult hereafter to exclude the other faculties of Divinity and Law from the advantages of a measure which, whatever it might appear anteriorly, must in time get to be regarded as a causeless indulgence. Or if this should not happen, a still greater danger would lie in the possibility of a separate camaraderie of medical students springing up, not similar in scholastic standing with their contemporaries in the other faculties, and so necessarily isolated from that equality, tempered by competition, which forms so valuable a part of co lege discipline. Far better than these well-meant attempts to lower the standard of University and professional education to the social level of those who are now excluded, is any method by which some may be attracted into our society, who, under existing circumstances, are inclined to look down upon it. Much will be done towards this end by the daily increasing number of rewards offered for proficiency in science, and inuch also by the incentives of ambition furnished in the scientific fellowships and professorial chairs; but by far the foremost is the Museum itself; for with a knowledge of the great works of nature comes to the best minds a reverence for them-a longing after a deeper insight, and in our own more special subject an awe-struck consciousness of the physical dangers among which we all thread our way; with a proportionate earnestness in ministering our part of relief and assistance to the countless forms of disease and corruption which are allowed so mysteriously to prey upon our corporeal organization.
There remains one branch of the subject which is by no means the least important. It is represented by the letters of Mr. Ruskin, published with the Lecture of Dr. Acland. It may be generally stated, as the importance of a proper estimate of the dignity of our profession, of its close and intimate relations on the one hand with abstract science, and on the other with the refinements of art. This is a principle which lies at the foundation of all progress in our social and political standing. For it is beyond contradiction that one main reason of our present want of influence lies in the inadequate conception which many practitioners form of their duties and obligations. They view medicine too much as an art, too little as a science; perhaps, also, they allow them. selves to regard it as a reputable means of making money, and to forget that this necessary adjunct is its very lowest and most tradesmanlike side. Ου γαρ βάναυσον την régumu &urnodunu is the motto we would wish all members of a liberal profession to adopt; and though we might be debarred at times from sources of immediate personal gain, there would infallibly be a large balance of advantage in the end. There is probably no indirect influence which will more tend to bring abont this healthier tone of feeling than the humanizing power of art. For though the old sneer at medicine, lately repeated,* that it is atheistical and materialist in its tendencies, is far from universally true; still it has some foundation, for such a result bas at times followed from it, but only, we think, when studied by minds originally blunt to delicacy and refinement, proceeding on a technical and unworthy appreciation of the objects of their pursuit. In Mr. Ruskin's view of the case, the contrast is put very strongly before us ; we see the light in which the cultivated artistic mind is disposed to view the subject; and while we acquiesce fully in his facts, we can hardly fail to regret that such words should not rather owe their origin to a member of our own society. He says:
* We regret that a publication like the Saturday Review,' which has hitherto maintained so judicious a tone on these subjects, should indulge in such unfairness as occurs in an article headed The Republic of Plato (April 30th, 1859. Making every allowance for the hard pecessity of introducing a dull topic with sufficient smartness, and for the pungent odour of the rushes of the Cam which pervades the composition, it is difficult to think that the writer seriously believes his own argument; impossible to suppose him prepared to accept its logical consequences.
“I reverence physical science, more as the source of utmost human practical power, and the means by which the far distant races of the world, who now sit in darkness and the shadow of death, are to be reached and regenerated. At home or far away, the call is equally instant: here, for want of more extended plıysical science, there is plague in our streets, famine in our fields; the pest strikes rout and fruit over a hemisphere of the earth, we know not why; the voices of our children fade away into silence of venomous death, we know not why; the population of this most civilized country resists every effort to lead it into pnrity of habit and babitation, to give it genuineness of nourishinent and wholesomeness of air, as a new interference with its liberty, and insists vociferously on its right to helpless death. All this is terrible; but it is more terrible yet that dim, phosphorescent, frightful superstitions still hold their own over two-thirds of the inhabited globe; and that all the phenomena of nature which were intended by the Creator to enforce his eternal laws of love and judgments, and which, rightly understood, enforce them more strongly by their patient beneficence and their salutary destructiveness, than the miraculous dew on Gideon's fleece, or the restrained lightnings of Horeb; that all these legends of God's daily dealing with his crea. tures remain unread, or are read backwards into blind hundred-armed horror of idle cosmogony. How strange it seems that physical science should ever have been thought adverse to religion. The pride of physical science is indeed adverse, like every other pride, both to religion and to truth ; but sincerity of science, so far from being hostile, is the pathmaker among the mountains for the feet of those who publish peace.”
One of the most painful manifestations of the false position taken up by many members of our body, is strongly contrasted with the liberal and comprehensive spirit of the preceding quotation. We mean the sort of antagonism which, especially in country districts, springs up between the medical man and the visiting clergy. Much of this is undoubtedly due to the injudicious meddling of the latter with the special subjects of medicine, on which the wiser course were faith or silence. But as much, or more, is due to the irritable sense of annoyance, far too common among our brethren, at any influence in the sick-room, independent of their own. Such opposition, where it does exist, is the greatest misfortune for all concerned ; most directly to the poorer classes, who habitually look up to the doctor and clergyman as the two great luminaries of the place, and who feel in a thousand ways the misery of a divided allegiance. It has already come in our way to show a probable source of amendment on the one side, by a greater diffusion of the general principles of natural science among educated men; and the best hope of an improvement, not less needed on our own side, seems to lie in the re-association of the poetic sentiment, if we may dare to say so, with the sterner matter of professional avocations. It is a pity that the two have ever been so divorced, and the separation is only of these later times; from the days of Hippocrates to those of the Rosicrucians, till the age of Van Helmont, or even of Sir Thomas Browne, medicine was indissolubly joined with a religious and æsthetical element ; which, if it was at times degraded into superstition and pageant by vulgar minds, formed, nevertheless, its highest attraction to a superior order of intelligence. Dangerous it truly is, to trust such a guide in the reasonings and in the observation of our art; but the history of our predecessors shows that the closest logical analysis, and the most
*" Nos médecins sont une classe d'hommes extrêmement éclairée, et, selon moi, la première de la France sans com parison. Aucune autre ne sait autant, ni autant de choses certaines. Aucune n'est si bien treinpée d'esprit et de caractère. Mais enfin leur rude éducation masculine d'écoles et d'hôpitaux; leur dure initiation chirurgicale, une des gloires de ce pays; toutes ces qualités ici entraînent un grave défaut. Elles aboutissent en eux à l'extinction de la fine sensibilité qui seule pourrait percevoir, qui prévolt, dévine les choses."-J. Michelet: L'Amour, p. 223.
stringent accuracy in experiment, are not incompatible with a sanctifying reverence, and a fervour akin to enthusiasm for the wonderful objects of inquiry. We may call to mind the fine painting of Andreas Vesalius, * as he stands with darkened windows beside the corpse from which life has not long departed, and pauses before breaking rudely even into the ruins of the temple of life ; in the eyes, turned with earnest gaze towards the crucifix, we read that bighest flight of man's intellect, which, while it scrutinises with critical niceness the traces of function and contrivance, can still look through these to the beauty, the innate fitness and harmony, which,t like notes of thrilling music, pervade all created things.
If, as the preceding example seems to show, the union of such different qualities in one mind is not impossible, it is surely our duty to desire and inculcate it. With this view, we decline to join in the disapprobation so strongly expressed by a few persons at the decorative element in the Oxford Museum. Ornament can only be held objectionable when it interferes with matters of more necessary import. At present such fear is not to be entertained ; while we can point to solid and substantial works like the two excellent chemical manuals, of which mention has been made, issuing from the Oxford school, there is no danger of a deficiency in real earnest productive labour, equal to what the meanest and most microscopic conception of the scientific man's mission can give birth to. And we hold that all delicacies of workmanship serve a useful purpose; by entwining an element of beauty about the sternness of the facts, they endear these the more strongly to the inquirer, and, like the sculptured capitals of the museum pillars, crown the rugged representative of science with a repeated remembrance of the fair forms in which science is enshrined. I
If it be wise at all times to enlist in our service the refining power of artistic sentiment, it is most particularly desirable during the course of the educational process; for the mind of a student is especially open to these secondary influences; he is young and ardent in his new pursuit
, his conceptions of his dignity and usefulness are as yet unsettled, every day is adding new facts and fresh ideas to his stores, which will bereafter more or less bear the tincture and colour of the place and time in which they were first gathered. Which of us does not now and then go back in memory to a period long passed by, on opening some old book, some dusty collection of minerals, or of withered botanical specimens, once objects of deep interest and study! All the feelings of that time have faded away and been forgotten, we seem to ourselves other men since then, and yet we are aware that throughout the whole intervening space our conception of that branch of study has been moulded on the associations with which it was then intimately blended. It is perhaps with profound intuition of a half-evolved truth that the present age is making association play so great a part in the educational method; for while we cannot as yet define the exact relation of this power to memory, their resemblance and kindred is indisputable. Much of the success of our great public schools seems due to its operation ; and the Universities have always prided themselves on their power, not only of imparting knowledge, but also of moulding individual character to a greater polish and increased fitness for social life, by the force of similar agencies. Few men long resist the combined influence of the genius loci so strongly embodied in the institutions and buildings themselves, the refined habits, the powerful and regulated public opinion, and the silent force of the religious element, closely bound up with the collegiate system itself.
We rejoice to see the domain of these forces extended over the students of physical science, and specially over those destined for our profession of medicine. No antidote could be found so efficacious against the vicious lessening of the moral horizon, and the disorganizing laxity of habit, besetting sins of that class, which are perhaps in part due to the nature of the educational course itself. Until recently it might be said that these advantages applied orly to a limited number, from which the majority of our
* And. Vesalius was one of the first to use post-mortem examination as a verification of diagnosis; in 1564 he was condemned for this by the Inquisition. And yet the religious element of his mind can now be traced in his works. t Ex Tag OKTW vớowv, piav áopoviav urolosiv. Cf. Plato, Repub. X., Mythus of Er.
Each pillar in the great quadrangle is formed of a different rock or marble, in classified order. The surmounting capitals are carved into representations of plants, in correspondivg botanical series. No absolutely conventional foliage is introduced, each specimen being worked from nature.