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years, and left Rome for England, September 28th, 1643. Vir patientiæ singularis egregie se gessit is the character written of him in the Diary. He entered the English Province in 1648, while a missionary priest in England. In a Catalogue for 1655, he is mentioned as then serving in the College or District of S. Francis Xavier and the Welsh Mission. It appears that some months previously to his death he had fallen off his horse on returning from Mr. Salisbury's, a recent convert to the Catholic Faith, whither he had gone to administer the Sacraments to his family. Besides the ordinary fast every Friday, when he took a moderate collation at night, he used to abstain from all food until Sunday at noon. He never went from home for the purpose of recreation, and never played at cards, or similar games. He had practised fasting from his youth. He was the author of a MS. Report in Welsh, dated July 6th, 1668, describing the cure of Roger Whetstone, then about sixty years of age, from inveterate lameness, on August 20th, 1667, by drinking the water of St. Winifred's Well. This poor man came from Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire, and after being a Quaker and an Anabaptist, became a good Catholic. His son, about eleven years of age, was christened in the Catholic Church, after full instruction, unto whom the greatest personages (says a MS. at Stonyhurst College) were pleased to be patrons.

"Father Owen published some treatises, tacito nomine, 'On the grievousness of mortal sin, especially of heresy', London, 1668; also a Catechism in Welsh, London, 1668, and the Prayer Book called 'The Key of Heaven"."

It is to be regretted that the information here given respecting the last work, which appears to be identical with the object of our inquiry, is incomplete, inasmuch as the title is given in English, as if the Prayer Book were composed in that language. This is probably the case, and the

Welsh work a translation or paraphrase of the former, intended by the learned Father to be adapted to the special needs of his own countrymen. The former may have been printed in London, and the latter at Liége; while the destruction of the College in 1794 may account for the ignorance that has existed relative to this work and its author.

There is another work, which, from its title, was clearly written by a Catholic, and as it appears to have the name of neither place nor author on the title-page, was probably printed abroad. It appears in the Cambrian Bibliography as No. 2 of the year 1661, with this title: "Drych Cydwybod, sef modd cymmwys a ffrwythlawn i ddwyn pob math ar ddyn i gael gwybodaeth o'i bechodau, a megis ei gweled ger bron ei lygaid, gan ddangos iddo pa fodd i gwneiff ei Cyffes (sic) i'w Dad enaid, a'r modd i gael meddyginiaeth am danynt. 12 plyg." "A Mirror of Conscience, or a suitable and fruitful method of bringing every sort of person to a knowledge of his sins, and to see them as it were before his eyes, showing him how he shall make his Confession to his spiritual Father, and the way to get a cure for them. 12mo."

There was, to my knowledge, a copy of this work in the possession of a poor person in Caernarvonshire in 1848. Whether it is still in existence, I am unable at present to ascertain.




WHEN it was decided that the British Association for the Advancement of Science should hold its Fiftieth Annual Meeting in Wales, those members of the Association who are interested in the Principality trusted that the occasion. would be used for the discussion of many scientific questions of local interest. Upwards of thirty years had passed since the previous visit of this scientific body to Wales, and during that period a period which represents the lifetime of a generation—many branches of science had undergone unparalleled development. Take, for example, the science of Anthropology. When the Association met at Swansea in 1848, the term "anthropology", in its modern biological sense, was scarcely known to men of science. Such papers as might be written on anthropological subjects were, in those days, sent to the geographical section, where they were received by the "sub-section of ethnology". But ethnology, the study of races, is a much narrower and less appropriate term than anthropology, the study of Man in his entirety. Moreover, the relations of anthropology lie obviously in the direction of biology, the science of life, rather than in that of geography. The British Association has, therefore, since 1871, recognised anthropology as an important department of the great science of biology.

Having acted for seven years as Secretary to the Anthropological Department, I had undertaken to continue the duties of this office at Swansea. But as the time of meeting approached, the Council desired me to act as Vice-President

of the Section, with charge of the Anthropological Department. It thus became my duty to open the proceedings of the Department with an address. Naturally anxious to give local colour to these proceedings, I felt bound to deal with the question of Welsh anthropology—a question which bristles with such formidable difficulties that I approached it with diffidence, and handled it but lightly. Notwithstanding the crudeness and the defects of the address, the editors of Y Cymmrodor have been so courteous as to suggest its reproduction in these pages.

On looking at the essay, it became evident that in order to fit it for its new setting it would require some modification. I have, therefore, with the editors' permission, abridged it in one place and expanded it in another, so as to make it more appropriate to its present position. The early part has been altogether omitted, since it dealt with questions of purely local interest. The discourse was opened, in fact, by a reference to the difficulties which have been imported into the ethnology of Glamorganshire by the influx, of late years, of English and Irish immigrants, and formerly of Flemings, Norsemen, and yet earlier colonists. But if we could strip off all extraneous elements which have been introduced by the modern settler and the mediæval Fleming, possibly also by the Norman baron, and even the Roman soldier, we might eventually lay bare for anthropological study the deep-lying stratum of the population-the original Welsh element. What, then, are the ethnical relations of the typical man of South Wales?

Nine people out of every ten to whom this question might be addressed would unhesitatingly answer that the true Welsh are Celts or Kelts.1 And they would seek to justify

1 Whether this word should be written Celt or Kelt seems to be a matter of scientific indifference. Probably the balance of opinion among ethnologists is in the direction of the former rendering. Never

their answer by a confident appeal to the Welsh language. No philologist has any doubt about the position of this language as a member of the Keltic family. The Welsh and the Breton fall naturally together as living members of a group of languages, to which Professor Rhys applies the term Brythonic, a group which also includes such dead tongues as the old Cornish, the speech of the Strathclyde Britons, and possibly the language of the Picts and of the Gauls. On the other hand, the Gaelic of Scotland, the Irish, and the Manx, arrange themselves as naturally in another group, which Professor Rhys distinguishes as the Goidelic branch of the Keltic stock.1 But does it necessarily

theless it must be borne in mind that the word "celt" is so commonly used now-a-days by writers on prehistoric anthropology to designate an axe-head, or some such weapon, whether of metal or of stone, that it is obviously desirable to make the difference between the archæological word and the ethnological term as clear as possible. If ethnologists persist in writing "Celt", the two words differ only in the magnitude of an initial, and when spoken are absolutely indistinguishable. I shall therefore write, as a matter of expediency, " Kelt". It is curious to note how the word celt originally came to be used as the name of a weapon or instrument. The popular notion that it was because such weapons were used by the people called Celts is, I need hardly say, wholly baseless. The sole written warranty for using such a word appears to be a passage in the Vulgate version of Job, where the patriarch says (xix, 24) that he wishes his words to be graven on the rock with a chiselcelte. Hence it has been supposed that there was a Low Latin word, celtis or celtes, signifying a chisel, and connected with calo, to engrave. But Mr. Knight Watson has pointed out that the word celte, in the Latin MSS., is a blunder for certe. All the MSS. earlier than the twelfth century give the latter reading. The words of Job are therefore to be graven on the rock for surety-certe. It thus appears

that the word celt, as the name of a sharp-edged tool, has been founded on an entirely false reading. But even if all this be true, if we admit that there was originally no justification for the use of the term, it is much too late in the day to attempt to oust so deeply-rooted a word from the vocabulary of the archæologists.

1 Lectures on Welsh Philology. By John Rhys, M.A., 2nd edition, 1878, p. 15.

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