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Dr. Smyth had already, in 1615, abandoned his punctuated and abbreviated orthography: for here we find the ls and ds doubled in ordinary modern fashion; and nothing peculiar about it, save the printing of the w with two separate v's. If so, we can but exclaim, Sic transit gloria mundi! But its verification is still a desideratum, on better authority than that of the not always accurate Rowlands, from a sight of the work itself. Nor can I feel that these remarks will have been without their use, if the fact of their having been made should bring to light the existence of a copy.
Two other works still remain to be noticed, respecting which, curious and interesting as they are, the space necessarily devoted to the foregoing compels me to be brief. The title of the former of these is correctly given by Rowlands, as far as it goes, as follows:-" Eglurhad Helaethlawn o'r Athrawiaeth Gristnogawl, a gyfansodhwyd y tro cyntaf yn Italaeg, trwy waith yr Ardderchoccaf a'r Hybarchaf Gardinal Rhobert Bellarmin, o Gymdeithas yr Jesv. Ag o'r Italaeg a gymreigwyd er budh Ysprydol i'r Cymru, drwy ddiwydrwydh a dyfal gymmorth y pendefig canmoladwy V.R." "A full and copious exposition of the Christian doctrine, which was composed first in Italian, being the work of the most eminent and most Reverend Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, of the Society of Jesus. And was done into Welsh, from the Italian, for the spiritual benefit of the Cymry, through the assiduity and zealous assistance of the praiseworthy nobleman, V.R." Then follows the monogram, found on the title-page of many of the publications of the Society, viz., the letters I.H.S., surmounted by a Latin cross with three crosslets, the three nails of the Crucifixion below, all within a square of four lines, surrounded by a dotted border. After which are the words, "Permissu Superiorum”, and the date in Roman numerals, M.D.CXVIII. On the top of the title-page, in MS., are the abbreviated words, "Bibl. Coll.,
Anglorum, S. J. Andomari”, in the copy in the King's Library at Brussels, where I first met with the work about eight years ago, showing that it once belonged to the library of the Jesuits' College at St. Omer. It is only a few months ago that I found a perfect copy of the work in the library of the British Museum. It is in 16mo, and consists of 348 pages, but is wrongly described in the catalogue as printed at Louvain in 1618. It ends thus: "Moliant i'r Jesu, ag i'w Fam Fendigedig Mair bur-forwyn; ar Gyfarchiad yr hon, y gorphenned hyn o gyfieithiad o'r Italaeg. 25 Martii, 1618. Finis." "Praise be to Jesus, and to His Blessed Mother, the pure Virgin Mary: with the Salutation to whom this translation was finished from the Italian, on the 25th March 1618. The end." It concludes with a table of errata of three pages. The whole, excepting the foregoing, is printed in italic, each page within double lines, of about an inch apart. The letters and dd are not doubled in this work, but are printed, like the Scotch Gaelic, with lh, and dh. The work exists also in Latin, with the title "Card. Roberti Bellarmini, S. J. Uberior Explicatio doctrinæ Christianæ.” The Welsh translation was made in the Cardinal's life-time, for he died in 1620. A learned member of the Society, to whom we are greatly indebted for his share in the recent publication of the Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, in six vols., has kindly furnished me with the following information respecting the author. He states that "Father John Salisbury translated Card. Bellarmine's larger Catechism into Welsh in 1618. He was a native of Merionethshire, born 1575, educated abroad, and, having been ordained priest, was sent upon the English Mission. After labouring in it for a long time, and successfully, he entered the Society of Jesus in 1605, and was professed of the four solemn vows in London in 1618. Upon the death of Father Robert
Jones, the Superior of the North and South District, S. J., in 1615, F. John Salisbury succeeded him in that office, residing at Raglan Castle, where he was Chaplain to the Lady Florence Somerset, a convert of F. Robert Jones, F. John Salisbury was the founder of the college or district of the English province S. J. called the College of S. Francis Xavier, and the North and South Wales Mission in 1622, and he died Superior of it in 1625. His translation of Card. Bellarmine's larger Catechism into Welsh was printed at the press of the English province, at their College of St. Omer, in 1618, tacito nomine. He also composed some other smaller works of piety." The statement that he was a native of Merionethshire seems to point to his being one of the Rug branch of the Salisburys of Bachymbyd and Lleweni. The only one I have been able to find of the name belonging to that family is John, second son of William Salisbury of Rug, who died in 1677, and whose elder brother Owain Salisbury, is said to have married an English lady, and joined the Catholic Church (Arch. Cambr. for 1878, p. 289). The statement that he died without issue is, pro tanto, in favour of his identity with Father John Salisbury, who, it is natural to suppose, may have been instrumental in his brother's conversion.
I have now come to the last work on my list, and one which, perhaps, may be felt to have a peculiar interest for us, inasmuch as a perfect—if I mistake not, the only perfect copy known was in the possession of the late lamented founder of the resuscitated Cymmrodorion Society, the Rev. Robert Jones, of Rotherhithe. The title, as given by Rowlands, is "Allwydd neu Agoriad Paradwys i'r Cymrv. Hynny yw Gweddiau, Devotionau, Cynghorion, ac Athrawiaethau tra duwiol ac angenrheidiol i bob Christion yn mynnu agoryd y Porth a myned i mewn i'r Nef. Wedi eu cynnull o amryw lyfrau duwiol, a'i cyfieithu yn Gymraeg: neu wedi eu
cyfansoddi, gan J. H. Yn Lvyck. Imprintiwyd yn y Flwyddyn MDCLXX. [12 plyg bychan.]" "A Key, or Opening of Paradise to the Cymry. That is, prayers, devotions, counsels, and instructions, very godly and necessary for every Christian desiring to open the gate and enter into Heaven. Gathered out of several godly books, and translated into Welsh, or composed by J. H. at Lvyck. Printed in the year 1670. [Small 12mo.]" The character of the work is thus described by Rowlands: "This is a Book of Devotions, or Popish Missal, in parallel Welsh and Latin, in 478 pp. 12mo., and written in clear and good language. The top lines and first words are in red letters. It is probable that the compiler was a South Wales man, for he addresses it, 'To my Brothers and Sisters, and other Faithful Relatives in Gwent and Brecheinoc'. And from the initials of his name, J. H., it is likely that he was one of the Havards, of Defynog, as there have been families of that surname there for ages, and, moreover, adhering to the Popish religion, and one of them has ever been in the priesthood. His salutation of his relatives in 'Gwent and Brecheinoc' is a corroborative proof of this. The place called 'Lvyck', where the book is said to have been printed, is said by the Rev. D. S. Evans to be 'Liége', in the present kingdom of Belgium", with more to the same purpose. And in a letter from Mr. Evans, quoted in a note, it is added, "There is no disputing that this book was printed in the town called in Flemish (Isdiraeg) 'Luik' or 'Luyk', in German Lüttich, and in French 'Liége'." But, alas for conjecture, which, however learned, reasonable, or inherently or extrinsically probable, till fact comes forth to prove or disprove it, is finally still but conjecture. Rowlands, in the first place, has missed the mark in calling the book a Catholic Missal. It is rather a volume of miscellaneous and general instructions and devotions for the use of the laity at church
and elsewhere. At the end is a little treatise, partly in English and partly in Welsh, intended to teach the Welsh that, if they pronounce Latin like their own language, they will certainly pronounce it aright; and that Englishmen will do well to take a lesson from the Welsh if they wish to pronounce Latin so as to be understood on the Continent. The book commences with a calendar, and is followed by a chapter entitled "Athrawaeth Cristionogawl", not, however, as one might be led to conjecture, the identical "Athrawaeth”, reprinted, of Dr. Maurice Clynog.
And again, both Mr. Rowlands and his editor, Mr. Silvan Evans, though rightly identifying Lvyck with Liége, have missed the mark together in ascribing, on grounds however apparently well-founded, the composition of this work to a Havard. Having been informed by Arthur W. K. Miller, Esq., of the British Museum, to whom I feel gratefully indebted for much valuable assistance in the prosecution of this enquiry, that it appears from Cotton's Topographical Gazetteer that "At Liége, a college of English Jesuits was founded, in 1616, by George Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury, which was destroyed in 1794", I applied yet again to the same kind informant as before respecting the translation of Bellarmine's Catechism, from whom I have been gratified to obtain the solution of this long-hidden mystery. The Key (Allwydd) was published in London in 1670, but must have been "imprinted" at Liége. The author was Father John Hugh Owen, who usually passed by the name of John Hughes. He was born in Anglesey in 1615, and died at Holywell, December 28th, 1686. The Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus contain the following notice of this pious and learned Welshman: "The diary of the English College, Rome, says that he was admitted, under the name of John Hughes, an alumnus of that college, December 25th, 1636, æt. twenty-one