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when an n follows, but the n is not itself changed into "". Thus, ilnaturaddu is spoken "ilnaturaddu", not "illaturaddu".

The sound of sibilant, which I will represent by a Greek λ, cannot be better defined linguistically than as a Welsh l palatalized or "mouillée". Welsh itself does not possess such a modification of its peculiar ll, which belongs specially to Sassarese. Such a connection at least appears to me to be that which exists between the Welsh ll sound (voiceless dental / of Sassarese, or "I") and this sibilant l or λ, though less decisively so than that which is apparent between the lin Filli and the gl in figli. This sound, more sibilant than that of "i", though it originate also from r, or from s, is noticed when the labials p, b, m, or the semi-labials ƒ, v, immediately follow. Be it noted, however, that in this case the said consonants are not themselves transformed, as we saw happen with x, with y, with 1, and with, into the sound that precedes them, but are properly pronounced after that sound. The words "palpà" palpare, "colpu" corpo, "ilpina" spina, "sulfaru" solfo, "fulfaru" crusca, "ilfattu” sfatto, "alburu" albero, “balba" barba, “ilbirru” birro, “malvasia", "zelvu" cervo, "ilviaddu" sviato, "calmà" calmare, "velmu" verme, "ilmuzzaddu" smozzato, are all pronounced with λ: papà coλpu, iλpina, suλfaru, fuλfaru, infattu, aλburu, baλba, iλbirru, maλvasia, zeλvu, iλviaddu, caλmà, veλmu, iλmuzzaddu.

When the preceding word ends with 7, the initial consonant of that which follows determines the sound to be given to such final l. So the words "pal basgià" per baciare, "pal cadì" per cadere, “pal ceggu" per cieco, "pal chiltu" per questo, "pal ciamà" per chiamare, "pal dà" per dare, “pal fà” per fare, "pal gudì” per godere, "pal gittà" per gettare, "pal ghettu" per ghetto, "pal giaddu” per gallo, "pal magnà” per mangiare, “pal pudè” per potere, "pal quattoldizi” per quat

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tordici, "pal te" per te, “pal vidè” per vedere, “pal zilcà" per cercare, "pal zurradda" per giornata, are pronounced, some with Italian, some with x (voiceless guttural), some with y (voiced guttural), some with "i" (voiceless dental 7), some with "I" (voiced dental 7), and finally, some with λ (sibilant 7), as phonetically expressed here: paλbasgià, paxxadì, palceggu, paxxillu, palciamà, pallà, puλfà, payyudi, palgittà, payyettu, palgiaddu, paλmagnà, puλpudé, paxxuattoldizi, pallé, paλvidé, palzixxà, palzurradda.

It would seem to me, after mature reflection on these various forms of the Sassarese 1, that the sound of the voiced sibilant / should also be admitted, as I have included the two dental and the two guttural sounds, of which one is voiceless and the other voiced.

A somewhat delicate and attentive ear may by chance notice a slight difference between the sound of before the voiceless consonants p and f, in the words palpà, colpu, ilpina, sulfaru, fulfaru, ilfattu, and that which the same letter takes when followed by a voiced consonant, as in alburu, balba, ilbirru, malvasia, zelvu, ilviaddu, calmà, velmu, ilmuzzaddu. Another very slight difference the Rev. Canon Spano points out between the sound of l derived from s and that of I originating from r, or corresponding to l in Italian, it being more prolonged in the former case than in the latter. These last distinctions must not be denied, but as they are not such as are generally perceived even by a fairly acute ear, I do not think I ought to admit either a phonetic representation or an increase in the number of the thirty-seven sounds. Enough that I have noticed them, confining myself to the sole remark that if such minute differences of sound are to be treated as of importance, the Sassarese 7 would be capable of expressing, not six, but thirteen more or less different sounds, and that these might be methodically arranged thus

SOUNDS CORRESPONDING TO AND r. SOUNDS CORRESPONDING TO S.

1. Italian; solu, laddru, milli.
2. I voiceless guttural; solcu, alcu.
3. I voiced guttural; alga, lalgu.
4. I voiceless dental; altu, palti.
5. I voiced dental; caldu, laldu.
6. I voiceless sibilant; palpà, fulfaru.
7. I voiced sibilant; alburu, zelvu, velmu.

8. molca.
9. ilgabbaddu.
10. baltoni.

11. ildintiggaddu.
12. ilpina, ilfattu.

13. ilbirru, ilviaddu, ilmuzzaddu.

Be it noted that neither the Tempiese dialect, nor the Cagliaritan, nor even the Logudorese, in its literary form at least, is capable of any but the first of all these l's; and that in them the character 1, whenever it occurs, is invariably so pronounced.

In Tempiese, indeed, the conversion of r (never that of s) into / takes place before gutturals, dentals, and labials, as in the words "balca" barca, "molti" morte, " colpu" corpo, etc.; but such words are spoken as written, with Italian, and not as bayya, molli, coλpu.

20. m.-Italian pronunciation.

21. n-Italian pronunciation; ie., as dental n, when it is not followed by b or p, or by hard g or c; as m, when b or p follows; and as guttural n ("n" of the linguists) when a hard c or g succeeds. Thus pane, pan bianco, vengo, are pronounced 'pane", "pambianco", "vengo".

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22. o.-Italian pronunciation; i.e., sometimes open, sometimes closed. In this particular Sassarese follows rather the Logudorese practice, while Tempiese agrees more with the Italian. (See Spano's Grammar, vol. i, p. 7). Thus amòri in Sassarese, and amóri in Tempiese.

O is very often converted into u by the agency of inflexion or other etymological change, when it has lost the tonic accent; as is observed in Tempiese, and other southern dialects. Thus, while we write and say "mòri" muore,

pòni", pone, "dròmmi", dorme, we have to speak and write: "muri" morire, "punarà" porrà, " drummi" dormire.

23. p.-This letter, though it is always written as p, represents two sounds, that of p, and that of b. The initial change of p into b takes place in Sassarese as in the Celtic tongues, but only when the weak pronunciation should obtain, as has been observed already under letter c. Thus, "pobbulu" popolo, "lu pobbulu" il popolo :-the former is pronounced pobbulu, the latter lu bobbulu, exactly as happens in Welsh in this very same word "pobl" people, “y bobl" the people.

P is often transformed into double b, both in writing and speaking, as the same word pobbulu shows us.

24. q.-Has the same force as in Italian, save in those cases in which the sound of hard c is susceptible of change, after the Celtic fashion, into that of hard g; or by the assimilative influence of 1, into that of x.

Thus, in "quattoldizi” quattordici, it has the Italian pronunciation; in li quattoldizi, li guattoldizi is heard, and in pal quattoldizi the pronunciation is as paxxuattoldizi.

25. r. This letter is given with the sound of rr when the strong pronunciation is required, and as single r when the weak. "Rezza" rete, "la rezza" la rete. In Welsh, the aspirated rh is converted into r, in an analogous manner : "rhwyd❞ net, "dy rwyd" thy net. R, moreover, as we have seen under letter l, is very often converted into l, x, y, “i”, "1", or A, according to the letter that follows. It will be well to add, that in speaking as well as in writing, it frequently undergoes still other changes. Rn is generally rendered by rr, as in "carri” carne, “inferru" inferno, “ zurradda", giornata (4). R preceding p, though, as a rule, transformed into sibilant 7 (λ), becomes in "ilcappi" scarpe, a p, by assimilation. Followed by s, it is itself transformed by the same assimilative process into an s also (5), as in "pessu" perduto, perso; and whenever it is found in Italian, with an I succeeding, their union, seemingly little in accord with

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Sassarese notions, is ruthlessly severed. “Tarulu" tarlo, "perula” perla, etc.

26. S.—Is pronounced with a strong voiceless sound in all cases in which other consonants receive a strong pronunciation, and with a weak voiced sound in contrary cases. Thus, between two vowels, or at the beginning of a word preceded by another that demands the initial mutation from voiceless to voiced (in “casa”, “cosa”,“lu santu” il santo, for instance), the Sassarese s will be voiced, as in the word sposa in Italian; and not as it is given in the first three examples in correct Tuscan speech, viz., voiceless. In the isolated word, santu, on the other hand, or in a santu, e santu, cun santu, the s is voiceless in Sassarese also. S reduplicated, further, bears not merely the ordinary voiceless sound, but one still more forcible, as in the Italian cassa ; -“fossu” fosso, “cussi” così. The Armorican alone among the Celtic languages (perhaps the Cornish also), offers us this initial mutation of the voiceless into the voiced s by the influence of the word preceding. Thus, giving to the 2 the sound, which that character bears in Armorican, of the Italian voiced s, “sac'h" sack is written and pronounced“ zac'h" in "da zac'h" thy sack, exactly as, in Sassarese, the strong s of the word saccu is converted into the voiced form in lu to'saccu ; lu do'zaccu, with the French or Armorican %, being the pronunciation required.

S, as has been seen already under letter 1, may give place to the sounds x, y, “”, “?”, and 1, always represented in writing by l. Be it added here that this letter is regularly converted into l Italian before another l, as in “illoggià” sloggiare, which is written and pronounced with two l's. It is converted also into 7 before another r, as in irradizinà” sradicare (6), and is written so as well as pronounced. In the word “eddis” eglino or elleno, a synonym of eddi, the s, when it comes at the end of a period or phrase, presents to the ear,

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VOL. IV.

C

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