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Disynбyryon, usually signifying "serseless", here="simple, innocent, unconscious".


Garthu. The dictionaries give no help in fixing the meaning of this word, which occurs again on p. 62. It is possibly connected with Ir. gartha, a shout, cry, noise". On this assumption it would mean here "beating the hands with a loud noise", and on 63, "crashing in its fall".

5. Ynwynnychu=whennychu, dialectic for chwennychu. Megys here signifies "namely", as also on f. 6.

Ysynt. Apparently a form compounded of ys and ynt. It does not seem to be noticed by Zeuss, who, however, gives and illustrates ysydynt (Gram. Celt.2, 553).

Vyбedigyon byw-edig (living) is not in the dictionaries.

Ymlid ac ymgyuethli6. One might conjecture ymlid to be a clerical error for ymliw (expostulate), but that ymlidio ac ymgyfethl are found together elsewhere, e.g., in the extract under ymgyfethl in Pugh3.

52. Arabu. Here again the dictionaries fail us, giving under arab and its derivatives only "witty, droll", etc. But the peculiar Breton form arabad in Le Gonidec seems to be connected with this, and to throw light upon it. There we read: "Je ne connais ce mot employé que dans cette phrase : arabad eo, il re faut pas, il est défendu, il n'est pas permis.”

O vyir6. Yi is, perhaps, on the whole, a more accurate representation of this diphthongal sound than the common ei.

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Wasnaythgar. This word now means serviceable", but here the adj. is used as a noun in the related sense of " servants".

6. Oliffer. A form derived either fr. olivarum (in Mons olivarum) or fr. adj. olivarius. The usual name is mynydd yr Olewydd (the Mount of Olive trees).

Yngadeu cadeu here="hosts". The Corn. cad, later cas, and Arm. kad (illustrated by Villemarqué only from his own Barzaz-Breiz) have only the meaning "battle", "conflict". To the Ir. cath O'Reilly gives this meaning and also " an Irish battalion of 3000 men a tribe, descendants".

62. Ynu6deu. Budeu, an unrecorded pl. form of bwyd; old Welsh and old Corn., buit; Ir., buadh, biadh; Arm., boéd or bouéd, with pl. boédou. The usual Welsh pl. is bwydydd.

Narann6yd. The meaning here approaches that illustrated in Pugh3 : Duw a ranodd, nef a gafodd (God did dispense, heaven he did obtain).

Ambellach (rarer). An unrecorded comparative form fr. ambell (some, few), which is probably rightly derived from am (which strictly means "about, around"; old Gaulish, ambi; Lat., ambi; Gk., àμpi; but is here only intensive as in amlwg, amgen, amryw, etc.) and pell (far); ambell would thus be equivalent to Campbell's "few and far between".

7. Ywethel, i.e, y chwedl, which still remains in the colloquial speech of Cardiganshire y wheddel: e.g., Y mae hynna yn hen wheddel (that is an old tale); Ni wyddwn i o'r wheddel (I knew nothing of the affair, the story). This idiomatic phrase is particularly used of something that happens unexpectedly-Ni wyddwn i o'r wheddel nes 'dôdd e wedi myn'd (before I had realised the fact, he was gone).

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7. Yhanabythant (will recognise, will know). Adnabod usually means to know a person", and is distinguished from gwybod (" to know a fact"), somewhat as Ger. kennen fr. wissen, or Fr. connaître fr. savoir. But in colloquial speech, as here, nabod or adnabod, is often used with a wider signification, e.g., nabod 'i gamsynied, " to know, recognise one's mistake".

Kethiweth, i.e., cethiwedd. The usual form is caethiwed, the final d not being aspirated.

72. Teir personyeid. This differs from the modern language in using a pl. subst. with the numeral; and in making person fem. like the Lat. persona. We now say tri pherson. The word person has now two plurals with distinct meanings, personau meaning "persons", while personiaid signifies "parsons". Diwadalr6yd=dywadalrwydd, fr. gwadal (staunch, firm), di- or dy- being intensive not negative.

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Buarth (strictly, a cow-yard"), here, "sheepfold"; the word corlan being used in this passage in the authorised version of the New Testament.

8. Llyfer, retaining the e of liber, now changed to llyfyr, llyfr. Cupit fr. cubitus, hodie, cufydd.

O iar="above"; in (7) o iar forth it=“from”.

Ved older bet (v. Zeuss2, 691).

82. Athnabythir, i.e., addnabyddir with the d of the prefix aspirated. Rygedua by transposition for rhedegfa, "running, course".

It may be only

a clerical error, as we have further on, rydecuae (92). Digylchwynnu. An unrecorded form equivalent to dygylchynu (to surround, encompass).

9. Ymdoant. Perhaps a clerical error for ymdroant.

Gl6b6r=gwlybwr (a liquid) fr. gwlyb, gwlyp=Ir. fliuch. The present dialectic form is glybwr, the w after the initial g being rejected in the colloquial language, as in the cognate Corn. glibor, Arm. glébor.


Seil properly "foundations”; but here by meton. for "things founded, structures, buildings".

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Yssic is usually passive (" bruised, crushed, shattered"; e.g., corsen yssig, a bruised reed"), but here is used actively, "bruising, crushing". Crynuau dayar - the modern daear-grynfau. The writer has already used the phrase crynnant dayar (12).

92. Cyfucheteir, a verb formed from cyf-uch-ed=cyfuwch, the equal degree of uch-el. Neither cyfuched nor cyfuchetau is recorded in the dictionaries, though cyfuchio (to make of one height) is given.

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a lid,

Cla6r=Ir. clár (a table, board, etc.) It now commonly means covering" of any vessel, "cover" of a book, etc.; it is also used in phrases: ar

glawr, like ar gael, "known, extant": e.g., Dyw e' ddim ar glawr e byn hyn, it is no longer to be found; so i glawr: e.g., y mae e' wedi dôd i glawr eto, it has come to light again.

Na gallu, etc. ac heb allu. Na here is something like L. nec.

10. Teruyn commonly means "bound, limit"; but here has the same force as Corn. termyn, "time, season, appointed time": e.g., a ver dermyn, in a short time. V. Williams' Lex. Cornu-Brit. s. v. termyn. Ceudod, "cavity, hollow"; here, "bosom".

Eisbys (ie., eisoes, which now commonly="already”), “however, nevertheless".

B616 tyb, lit., cast an opinion; the metaphor is the same as in “conjecture".

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102. Pynkeu, pl. of pwngc, “subject, point, matter". Ynryoli; rheoli strictly="rule, sway, order". Goluhau i.q., goleuhau; so goluer (122)=goleufer. deheuach and dihurdeb (18)=diheurdeb.

Cf. dehuach (11)=

Parannu pariannu, which in Pugh is explained as meaning "to render causative", but without illustration.

Seith diwarnod. The numeral here takes the sing. as in modern Welsh, but subsequent examples have the plural-7 planede, 7 rinwethe, etc.; so teir personyeid (72).

Gwethieu (petitions); gweddi, Ir. guidhe, now means "prayer".

11. Difr6ytha6. Lit., "to render fruitless".

Seith gwithredoyd ydrugareth. In Athrawath Gristnogawl, p. 57, these are enumerated :- -"Saith weithred y drugaredd gorforawl. Rhoi bwyd i'r tlawd newnog. Rhoi diod ir tylodion sychedig. Dilladu'r noethion. Rhoi letty i'r pellennig. Ydrych cleifion. Gofwyaw cyrchrorion. Cladu'r meirw". In an old MS. in the writer's possession, they are versified as follows:

"Englyn i saith weithred trugaredd.

Dod fwyd a diod, par dy a dillad,

Diwalla'r carchardy,

Gwilia'r claf yn y gwely,

I'r marw par gael daear dy."

In the same way we find them versified in the Lay Folks' Catechism (Early

Eng. Text Soc.):

"The first is to fede tham that er hungry.

That othir, for to gif tham drynk that er thirsty.

The third, for to clethe tham that er clatheless.

The ferthe, is to herber them that er houselesse.

The fifte, for to visite them that ligges in sikenesse.

The sext, is to help tham that in prisin er.
The sevent, to bery dede men that has mister."

It appears the writer has not exhausted "the sevens", as the Welsh Catechism quoted gives also "Saith weithred y drugaredd ysprydawl", while the English one adds "the Seven Virtues" and the "Seven Vices".


Gobrбyir. Gwobrwyo usually means to reward, to recompense"; but here ="to give as a reward".

Yuod velly ac na bo velly. Lit."its being so, and that it shall not have

been so".

Quyna6c=mod. ofnog (timid), but meaning "terrible”.

112. Ekysku, etc., e=ai; eiste, i.e., ai iste.

Vrth pan del. A peculiar use of wrth, which does not seem to be noticed by Zeuss.

Kynhirieid is not given in the dictionaries, but seems to be a compd. of cyn and diriaid, which Davies renders "improbus, nequam". Now, however, diriaid is used vaguely of anything excessive, somewhat corresponding to the slang use of Eng. "awful". Y mae yna le diried, it is an "awful" place; yr oedd yno beth diried o bobol, there was an "awful" lot of people there.

Ym cluste, i.e., yn fy nghlustiau.

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12. Crбybren. An unregistered form which evidently means "cloud". On the next page (122) the pl. crwybyr occurs. The dictionaries give crwybr with the meanings scum, a honeycomb". In parts of S. Wales it has another meaning-"hoar-frost". The common word is Uwyd-rew (lit., greyfrost); but crwybyr is used of the heavier deposit experienced in mountainous districts, when the vapour forms in long, feathery crystals on trees, plants, etc. The N. W. word is barug. Dr. Davies has "Crwybr, Favus, faex mellis. Alijs cwybr". With the latter coincides the Arm. koabr, kouabr (nuage), koabren, kouabren (un seul nuage), pl. koabrenou. V. Le Gonidec,

S. V.

Glemdbyll. This seems to be the form in the MS., but it is somewhat indistinct. The word is unknown to the present writer.

122. Trama6rder=exceeding greatness. An unrecorded form, but the equivalent tramawredd is given in the dictionaries.

Hirreid. Unrecorded. Apparently a longer form from hir.

Llin (a race, line), L. linea, Corn. linieth, lynneth.

13. Bugelyth, pl. of bugail, hodie bugeiliaid.

Lleas, Lethum, caedes (Dr. D.) Later dictionaries copy him without illustration.

132. Vthuthau, i.q., ufuddhau. Possibly this is not to be regarded as a transcriber's blunder: dd and for v are often interchanged. Thus hwyfell (a female salmon) is also written hwyddell; so Caerdydd and Caerdyf (Cardiff). Ran duthed: tudded covering, vesture.

14. Y gweinon cleiuon: pl. in both elements of the compound (not given in dictionaries) gwannglaf, which occurs in Buchedd Beuno Sant in this same MS. vol. Af i edrych fyn Tat y sydd yn wannglaf (Cambro-Brit. Saints, p. 14).

Kyd-doluryo, i.e, cyd-ddoluryo. Not in the dictionaries.

Dothef. A shorter form (unrecorded) of dyoddef.

14. Ymaythu ami. Ymaythu is not in the dictionaries, but it seems to be the infinitive of a verb related to ymaith, which is now used only as an adverb away, hence. Ymaith itself was also probably originally an infinitive. It is the Ir. imeacht ("s.f. walking, going".-O'Reilly), just as ymdaith is the Ir. imtheacht ("s.f. progress, departure", etc.-O'R.), and taith the Ir. teacht (do theacht, to come). Ymaythu ami, then, would be nearly the same as ymadael a mi.

Dros aunaythoch. Dros="in return for", a meaning not instanced by Zeuss. So on the next page (15), diolch ytha6 dros yua6r rod, etc.; and (152) dros vyygheredicrбyd.

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15. Ymhoylyd (to turn one's self) is the colloquial form of ymchwelyd or ymchoelyd. But though a reflexive, this verb is commonly used as a simple transitive verb (see exx. in Pugh3). Ymhoylyd, 'mhoylu, are commonly used in Dimetian for turning over": e.g., 'mhoylu teisen, to turn over a cake; 'mhoylu gwair, llafur, to turn over hay, corn, in harvesting. In Carmarthenshire it is also used of "ploughing": "Mhoylwr go lew w' i o grwt" ("I am a pretty good ploughman for a lad"), the writer once heard a Carmarthenshire youth modestly remark. 6rth yderuynnu (in putting him to death). not noticed in the dictionaries.

This use of terfynu (to end) is

Aatkyuorant. Atcyforio or adgyforio is an unregistered compound of ad (again, re-) and cyforio (to fill to the brim, to make to overflow). Cy-for seems to be from cy and mor, i.e., marg. the root of L. margo, etc. (Fick,3 iv. 187), and so would mean even with the brim".

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Aymdinuant, if correct, is a form which the writer does not understand. Agheredigyon. Angharedig means, passively, "unloved"; and, actively, 66 unloving, unkind”.

152. Ychwithe bod ynwell genn6ch. A somewhat unusual construction, apparently an imitation of the Lat. Historic Infinitive so-called.

Gwaharthon, pl. of gwahardd (prohibition) of which Pugh3 gives only the pl. gwaharddoedd.

Ymroyssoch ych bod yn arglбythi. The use of the possessive pron. here before bod has some slight analogy to the peculiar Irish construction which uses the poss. pron. with the predicative noun in such sentences as, "He is a good man"-Ir. Tá se 'nn a dhuine mhaith (lit. he is in his good man).

16. Iaбnhau. An unregistered form=iawni or iawnu, to render right. Gwerthe, i.e., gwerthau, a pl. of gwerth, of which the dictionaries give no example.

Ll6e, i.e. llwau, pl. of llw; usual pl. Uwon.

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