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¶ Ychwitheu setwyr aghewiryon vuoch 6rth ymado ar meir6 treul6 y daa 6rth gardode a gwasnaythe dyбa61 ychwitheu trбy dáуllodraуth nydroi yn reid ac yn wassaneth ychwyhunein. ¶Achyda hynny anrugaroc vuoch ynkyffredin 6rth leuein ynewynoc ynerchi bбyd yr karyad arnaf. 6rth y sychedic yn erchi dia6d. 6rth ynoyth yn erchi peth yguthya6 ygywilyth ac agharedigyon vuoch 6rth ych kydwayd ny cleuydeu ay carchareu heb y hedrych yr y [18] dithanu ny gouudyon. hyd y bu well gennoch bob amser ymroi y weithredoyth drбg trбy ryuic y kythreuleid racko hyd angeu noc ymroi ymkyfreitheu yr dysk a rebuth yбch y ouynokau y diwarnod hethi6. ac yr disk6 a rebuth ychwi y benydyo ac yttiuaru ac yr iaбnhau ykamweth hyn kyn ageu.

¶ Bellach gwedy pan darfo ymgeuethli6 apha6b ny rath megys y dywesрбyd vchot ny byth yr vn a allo rodi gwad dros yran na dihurdeb. ¶Yna ydбeid ybraбdár my6n kydernid ylid ygeire hyn [182] e6chwi velltigedigyon genethlaed yr taan poenedic paraus yrhán a baratoed yrkythreul pennaf ay ygylyon yr dechre byd. ¶Ar diweth ygeire hyn yclywir ycolledigyon. myбn crynuan yn rodi garmeu aruthredigyon o nerth ypenneu dan olláng dagre ynammyl hyd ygruthie athan ochuanu yr amser yganned heb orf6wys. ¶yna heb oir gwedy rodi yuarn y ymgyffroant y kythreuleid heb бybot y rif ac yymgymyscant ar colledigyon truein dan ytynnu ayllusko ynammarchus ved ar oguách [19] ylle y poenir ac

in your dealings by means of oath, weight, and measure. And you were false executors, departing from the will of the dead that their wealth should be spent in charities and divine services, you deceitfully turning it to your own need and service. And, beside that, you were generally unmerciful to the cry of the hungry when asking food for love to me, to the thirsty when asking drink, to the naked when asking something to hide his shame; and you were unkind to your blood-relations in their sicknesses and imprisonments, not visiting them to comfort them in their sorrows; so that you always preferred to give yourselves up to evil deeds, through the presumption of the devils yonder, even until death, rather than submit yourselves to My laws (set) for instruction and warning to you to fear this day, and for instruction and warning to you to do penance and repent, and to rectify this iniquity before death."

Now, when He shall have ended expostulating with all in their degree, as was said above, there will be no one that shall be able to give denial or excuse on his part. Then the Judge, in the might of His wrath, will utter these words: "Go ye, accursed race, to the perpetual penal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels from the beginning of the world." When these words are ended, the lost will be heard tremblingly to utter dreadful cries in a loud voice,1 shedding frequent tears down their cheeks, and ceaselessly bewailing the time they were born. Then, without delay, when the judgment has been given, the devils in unknown numbers will rouse themselves, and will mingle with the wretched lost ones, drawing and haling them in dishonour over the place where they will be tormented, and thence

1 Lit., with the strength of their heads. The expression is common in the South: it is often said of one that he cries or shouts nerth 'i ben, nerth asgwrn 'i ben, or nerth 'i geg (the strength of his head, of his throat). The preposition is generally omitted, the noun being used absolutely.



othyno ytauylu awnahant yn wimm6th ac yndiarbed ydyuynder vffern or lle ny byth eil brynu nac eil ymhoylyd nac amgen obeith no thrigo yno dan reol ykythreuleid myán taan tywyllách a brynti. Sine fine.


F. 1. Cyfrбythyt=cyfarwyddyd: not the compd. of cyf and rhwydd, meaning "expedition”, “facility”.

Diskynnant: discyn (to descend, to fall) here seems to mean " happen"; cf. dygwydd (happen), fr. cwyddo (to fall); the Lat. accidere, with the same rad. meaning; Eng. befall; Ger. fall, fallen, zufall, &c.

Kynnáll is rendered by Davies "sudum et translatitiè opportunitas”.
Ciudode: ciwdod (L. civitat.) usually means a tribe, a clan".

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Myбn gwasnaythe, etc. The modern rule that mewn can only be used with nouns which are not “distributed”, and that yn must be used when the noun has the definite article expressed or implied, is not observed in the older language. The present example may mean, "In the services of the Church", or, strictly, "In (certain) services", etc. So the following may be translated either way myбn ynuydrбyth ygythreulayth (52); m. kydernid ylit (6); m. fyrfder y ia6n fyth (72). But m. kalonneu ydynnyon (62) can only be ren dered "In the hearts of the men", and would now require yn.

12. Tragrymder, extreme force (fr. tra, over, very, extreme"; grym, "force"; and-der, termination of abstract nouns) is not found in the dictionaries.

Sythter strictly means "stiffness"; cf. gwarsyth, "stiff-necked".

Aruthredigyon: aruthredig here is active, "amazing”, astounding", though in accordance with mod. usage it would mean “amazed, astounded”— -edig forming generally a kind of passive participle. But the two meanings run into one another: thus caredig now means “loving, kind”, more commonly than "loved, beloved", its strict meaning. Cf. Uithredigyon (trickling) in 42: by6edigyon (5)=“loving”. But cloedigyon (3) and drylledigyon (9) are passive.

This is an

Troy gymmysc mar6walaythe, lit., "with mingled deaths". instance of what in classical grammars is called hypallage, the meaning being "signs in the moon, combined, accompanied with deaths", etc. It is similarly used in 32, yrynreuethodeu hyn achymmyse gwangred (lit., these wonders and commingled weak-faith)=“These wonders combined with weak faith”. Crynnant, a form not in the dictionaries.

they will quickly and unsparingly hurl them to the depth of hell, whence there will be no redemption, nor return, nor other hope than to remain there, under the rule of the devils, in fire, darkness, and filth. Sine fine.

2. Llifdyuyreth, the uncontracted pl. of dwfwr; so in 82 dyuyreth and dyuereth; Zeuss notices dyfred (Gram. Celt.2, p. 291).


Bra6 brawd (judgment), Ir. brath, etc. In this word the writer regularly drops the final d.

H6ylaб ny teruyneu seems to mean "run-their-course to their termination". If so, yn here has the meaning of Lat. in with accus, "into", which in the modern language is i; so o le yn lle (92)=“from place to place”. This force of yn survives in the Biblical phrases yn tan (a deflir yn tan, "shall be cast into the fire", Matth. iii, 10), yn oes oesoedd (unto the age of ages), in sæcula sæculorum. The same, perhaps, is its original force in the common expressions torri yn yflon, "to break into fragments" (so torri yn ddarnau, yn ddrylliau); llosgi yn lludw, "to burn to ashes", etc.

Y ymdagossant. The writer seems to have had no objection to hiatus, as this phrase, several times repeated, shows. Witness also yochuahant (42), y ymhoylant (7), y ymlathant (9), y ymglymma6d (102), y ymgyffroant, y ymgymmyscant (182).

22. Kyluethdodeu (arts), hodie, celfyddydau; not found in the dictionaries.

Awetto geni crist. This construction is that called in classical grammars the accus. with the infinitive. It is not natural to modern Welsh, being practically confined to bod and its compounds darfod, dyfod, etc. In the case of other verbs the subject takes a preposition,-o if it follows the verb, i if it precedes; or the verb must be resolved into bod, with one of the participles of the verb itself: e.g., Nyni a wyddom lefaru o Dduw wrth Moses (we know that God spake unto M.-John ix, 39); or, i Dduw lefaru wrth M.; or, less elegantly, fod Duw wedi llefaru wrth Moses. Rarely the accus. with infin. is found with other verbs than bod, e.g., in 1 Thess. iv, 14, Os ydym yn credu farw Iesu (if we believe that Jesus died). Other examples in the present article are trбy geissaб pob vn ragori (1); cyn ori ygwayd (4); and gwedy mynet y geir (7).

22. Yn y messur, lit. means "in the measure", but is here used of manner rather than of degree being equivalent to "as"; so also ny messur y dywespбyd vchod (7).

Wnayth llaber o ouudyon ar yr escob, etc. instead of ar.

Mod. Welsh would require i

3. Yr ardaloyth y tramбya6th crist is elliptical, and in the mod. language would be written yr ard. y tr. cr. trwyddynt, or yr ard. trwy y rhai y tram. cr. Anfythedolyon genethlaeid (unbelieving nations). Two forms not given in the dictionaries.

Hyd ar yr amser. Hyd would now be used without ar.

Ydoe is still the common form for y deuai.
Kyn6rthau. Not given in the dictionaries.

32. Dyбolyayth. Another unregistered form.

Yngybelled. Yn would not now be used with cybelled.

Aruthter (fr. arutharuthr) i.q., authredd. An unregistered form. Cyuerbyn (opposition). The use of the word as a noun is not noted in the dictionaries.

Anreuethodeu (great wonders; an being here intensive). In the third edition of Dr. Pugh's Dictionary this word is rendered simply by "a being not a wonder. Anrhyfeddodau Alecsander-the Not-wonders of Alexander".

4. Ochleddyfeu (with swords), so o yspryd y ene (6). Cf. also nyd athnabythir o neb onyd orgwir dy6 (82). O is commonly used in the Glamorgan dialect to denote the instrument. Cf. the Gk. .

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Heblyth hewl, and hewlydd, in the colloquial Dimetian, are the regular representatives of the literary heol and heolydd.

Messythmeusydd, pl. of maes (field).

Ymbarch ac vynt. Pugh (third edition) gives ymbarchu=respect one's self, but does not specify the present use of the Reflexive to denote mutuality. Verthyryon. The writer generally leaves out the i in the pl. endings (e.g., dolureu for doluriau), but in this word inserts it in opposition to the modern usage.

Ori (=oeri). So the S. Wallian form of oer is ôr.

Ouynnokahant (fr. ofynocau), of which the dictionaries give only the contracted form of ofnocau.

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42. Tarrenni means here, as the context pretty clearly shows, cliffs, precipices". The dictionaries assign to taren the various meanings—“a spot; a tump, knoll; a brake". It appears in the place-name Pendarren or Pen y Darren, and is the same as the Ir. tairean, "a descent". Another form of the word is teyn, not recorded by the lexicographers, but found in the equivalent place-name Penderyn, and paralleled again by the Ir. teirin, a descent".

Ochuahant. Ochfäu, "to cry och”, Gk. oiμúčew, is not in the dictionaries. K6yth6ch. Cwyddo (to fall), Bret. koueza, is now used only in its compounds dy gwydd (happen, befall), go-gwydd (incline), etc.

Diuyrru in this sense is not recorded in the dictionaries, though difyrru (to divert) and dyfyrru (to shorten) are given.

Ryueleu. The usual pl. is rhyfeloedd.

Meiboneu. Probably the pl. of mabon, which the dictionaries render by "a youth, a young hero"; here the epithet "disynбyryon" fixes the meaning as young children, infants".

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