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opinions of the most celebrated phy- ccount at all of the minute and capil. siologists on the circulation of the lary circulation in the lungs" We blood, and the author endeavours to cannot assent to the first part of this overturn many of the doctrines of his proposition, but we are ready to predecessors. He faithfully extracts admit that the author's description of their statements, offers his comments the capillaries in the lungs is, perhaps, thereon, details his inferences from one of the best hitherto offered. He similar experiments performed by thinks the circle performed by the himself, and very often arrives at blood may be divided into four opposite conclusions. As the greater arcs : of these, the heart is the first, part of this production consists in the arteries the second, the capillaries extracts from most of the modern the third, and veins the fourth. Не works on physiology, we need not cites the remarks of Galen on the insert quotations; and, therefore, we valvular structure of the heart; and shall content ourselves with the cita- then quotes the whole of the illustion of most of the author's original trious Harvey's description of the opinions.

circulation. We have next the opiniIn a well written preface, Dr. ons of Haller and Spallanzani; but Hall lays down admirable rules for not a word about those of Servetus. the guidance of physiologists in ex- Had Dr. Hall perused Dr. Sigmond's perimenting on animals; and among translation of Servetus's work, we other curious facts we find the fol- are satisfied he would not have passed lowing:

over the strong claims of that unfor“ The fact of the removal of the entire tunate individual to a correct view of brain and spinal marrow, in the frog, without the circulation. The opinions of the immediate extinction of life, conjoined John Hunter, and Dr. Barry, come with the similar operation upon the chick in the egg, on the third day of incubation, with

next in order, and these are succeeded out interfering either with its life or develop- by an inquiry “ of the extent of the ment, sufficiently establishes the independ- influence of the heart on the circula. ence of the circulation of the brain and spinal tion.” To this is added evidence of marrow, in a degree far beyond what is deducible from the experiments of Whytt or

the muscularity of the arteries. Our Spallanzani ; of Dr. Philip or M. Flourens.

author denies the power of irritability “ But the latter fact, together with that of in the true capillaries, and of course fætuses born perfectly grown without either is opposed to Dr. Philip. brain or spinal marrow, seems to show that He next examines “ the influence the functions of nutrition and of secretion are equally independent of the brain and spinal

of the acts of inspiration and expimarrow."

ration, upon the venous circulation," Dr. Hall argues powerfully that and in common with Laennec, does the true capillaries are dissimilar to ample justice to Dr. Barry's discominute arteries and veins. “ They very. He examines Dr. Philip's ardo not become smaller by subdivision, gument on the other side ; and connor larger by conjunction ; but they cludes, but I confess, I think it still are characterized by continual and remains to be determined, where the successive union and division or anas- influence of inspiration and of the tomoses, whilst they retain a nearly atmospheric pressure begins; or in uniform diameter." Our author other words, how far it extends from thinks it erroneous to speak of capil- the thorax itself.” lary arteries, or capillary veins. The The succeeding chapter is on the capillaries are a distinct set of vessels. “influence of the brain and spinal We are rather surprised at the fol- marrow upon the circulation, in lowing declaration, that there is not which we find an account of the ex. in any published work, any accurate periments of Spallanzani, Fontana, account of the minute and capillary Whytt, Legallois, Philip, Clift, vessels and circulation ; or any ac

Flourens, Brachet, &c.

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The experiments instituted by Whytt, now almost forgotten, are appropriately introduced, as they go to prove, that the contraction of the heart, after its removal from the body, is not so recent a discovery as many.writers seem to imagine. In one case the contraction of the heart continued, at the expiration of six hours after the decollation, and destruction of the spinal marrow, of: a frog. Various experiments of this kind, seem to prove that, from the moment of the abstraction of the brain and spinal marrow, the irritability of the heart begins to fail. The circulation is first enfeebled, then lost, in the most distant parts of the system, then in parts less and less remote.

Dr. Hall has repeated many of the experiments of Legallois, Philip, and Flourens and often dissents from the conclusions of these distinguished physiologists.

The limits by which we are necessarily circumscribed, oblige us to desist from further analysis, and we must content ourselves with introducing the author's recapitulation of the prominent points of this able 'essay:

We congratulate Dr. Hall on the ability and zeal with which he has prosecuted his inquiries; and we are satisfied, that this work will greatly add to his well earned reputation. It proves him to be an able physiologist, and affords additional evidence in attestation of the accuracy of most of his original views, as a voluminous writer on this practice of medicine. - The following, is Dr. Hall's récapitulation :

blood along the arteries, and its retarded flow along the capillaries and veins ;

4. The singular differences in the form and distribution of these vessels in the systemic and pulmonary systems; especially,

5. The more abrupt divisions of the arteries, the more crowded number of the capillaries, and the abrupt formation of the veins, in the latter;

“6. The extensive power of the heart in the circulation, the irritability of the arteries, the want of evidence of irritability in the true capillaries, and the effect of the respiratory and other muscular motions upon the course of the blood along the veins;

“ 7. The doubt whether the true capillaries be real vessels or mere canals ;

“ 8. The temporary independence of the action of the heart and of the minute and capillary circulation, of the brain and the medulla oblongata and spinalis ;

“ 9. The power of the heart to continue the circulation in the minute and capillary vessels, after its entire removal from the body, in opposition to the opinion of Legallois ;

10. The independence of the circulation of respiration and of that part of the medulla on which respiration depends, in opposition to the opinion of M. Flourens;

“ 11. The independence of the capillary circulation of a part, upon that part of the spinal marrow from which it derives its nerves, in opposition to the opinion of Legallois and the original opinion of M. Flourens;

“ 12. The extraordinary difference of removing the brain and medullæ, at once, and in successive portions at distinct intervals ;

“ 13. The erroneous mode of explanation of this fact, given by Legallois ; another suggested ;

“ 14. The temporary independence of the circulation in the minute and capillary vessels, of the entire nervous masses, brain, medullæ, and ganglia;

“ 15. The effect of opium and alcohol upon the batrachia ;

“ 16. The effect of alcohol applied to the brain and spinal marrow, upon the action of the heart and the circulation;

17. The effect of crushing the brain and spinal marrow ; compared with

“ 18. The effect of crushing other organs or parts, upon the circulation ;

“19. The general sympathy of these different organs proved by these experiments; and

“ 20. The want of any physiological deduction as to the natural functions of the parts themselves individually;

“ 21. The effects of irritants applied to the web, upon the vessels which pass between its membranes ;

“ 22. The impossibility of forming any deduction from this experiment, upon the

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“ The points to which the attention of the scientific physician is particularly called in the preceding essay, are :

“1. The distinction between the ultimate minute arteries, the true capillaries, and the first roots and minute trunks of the veins ; to "2. The successive divisions of the minute arteries, the continual conjunctions and redivisions of the capillaries, and the successive 'conjunctions and occasional anastomoses of the veins ;

“ 3. The characteristic rapid flow of the


nature and function of the true capilla- appear to me to be unfounded; for ex

ample“ 23. The singular phenomenon of a “14. (1.) The opinion of Legallois, that caudal heart or ventricle in the cel :

to destroy a portion of the spinal marrow 24 The test of muscular structure af- annihilates the circulation in the parts which forded by water of temperatures moderately derive their nerves from it; and higher than that of the blood.”

“ 15. (2.) That of M. Flourens, that the “ The history of opinion on the subjects of circulation depends upon that part of the this essay, is as follows:

medulla on which respiration depends," * 1. There is no accurate account of the anatomy of the minute and capillary vessels ;

The author announces an analythe sketch of the pulmonary vessels given by sis and comparison of the works of Malpeghi, is, however, a literary curiosity, Legallois, Philip, Bell, Flourens, &c. and highly interesting, considering its early

on the nervous system; and is likedate ; « 2. The circulation of the blood was first

wise engaged in a series of experiamply proved from anatomy and experiment

ments, on the function of respiration." by Harvey ;

We wish him every success in his il“ 3. Harvey, Haller, and Spallanzani, alike lustrations of this important function erred in denying a muscular power to the in the animal economy. arteries;

“ 4. Bichat doubly erred, 1. by denying the muscular power to tie arteries, and 2. by ascribing a power to the capillaries of which Viestminster Medical Society. there is hitherto no proof;

" 5. Hunter seems first to have had clear views of the muscular power of the arteries ;

February 25th, 1832. “ 6. The proof of the irritability of the

MR. CHINNOCk in the Chair. arteries was still deficient, until the discovery of an artery which actually pulsates, independently of the heart, in some of the The minutes of the last meeting batrachia ;

having been read and confirmed, 7. The influence of atmospheric pressure M. Halma Grand was elected an in aiding the circulation in the veins, was clearly suggested by Huxham, but actually

honorary member, and Messrs. Grifproved by experiment, by Dr. Barry;

fiths, Asdart, Leese, jun. and Hodges, “8. The opinion of Haller, in regard to ordinary members of the society. the irritability of the muscular fibre, is still,

Dr. Fergusson then adverted to under certain limitations, the true one ; the conduct of Dr. Wilson Philip, in

“ 9. The voluntary and involuntary muscles alike retain their irritability for a time,

still advertising his pamphlet on after their communication with the nervous

cholera as drawn up at the request system is cut off; both gradually lose it; of the Westminster Medical Society,' “ 10. The experiment of removing the

and thought that some measures brain and spinal marrow, and of watching

should be taken to prevent the sothe effect on the heart and capillary circulation, belongs to a former day, and especially ciety's name being made use of to Whytt and Spallanzani ;

without authority. “ 11. The repetitions of this experiment The President called him to order, by Legallois, Dr. Philip, M. Flourens, and

and observed that as the subject had M. Brachet are, in my opinion, less satisfactory than the original experiments of

been considered and disposed of, it Whytt and Spallanzani, having occupied less would be necessary for all future time, and consequently afforded less scope remarks to be addressed to the comfor observation ;

mittee. “ 12. Nothing appears to have been added

Dr. Gilckrest then stated that it to the original experiments, except the important fact of the difference between remov

was said in a respectable journal, ing the brain and spinal marrow at once, that he had passed an eulogium on and by portions at distant intervals, a fact the Central Board of Health, which discovered by Legallois;

he denied having done. He then “ 13. On the other hand, some of the opinions of the more modern experimenters

said that he had observed that VOL. I.


printed papers, on the progress of Dr. J. Johnson inquired how he as cholera, had been distributed to the certained that? members, and he was desirous of Mr. Hooper answered by the knowing whether this was usual- smell, and likewise from the assertion whether it was proper ?

of the woman herself.

He then proDr. Stewart then stated that he ceeded to detail the post mortem was desirous of setting himself right appearances, and added that his chief with the profession, in regard to a motive in rising was to state that petition concerning the cholera which there had been some new cases in he had signed. It had gone forth to the Borough, and that there were the world, through the medium of the modified cases continually occurring. public press, that this petition alluded The President then called upon to the question of contagion, whereas Dr. Epps to open the discussion. it merely asked for a new inquiry on Dr. Epps said that he believed the the nature of the cholera said to be at

question to be considered that evening present in London. The President was, whether the symptoms of the then said that he hoped the members prevailing epidemic were similar to would condense their observations as those of the Asiatic cholera ; and much as possible ; and that each whether the cholera in London was a should only rise once, so as to give new disease or not? (Hear, hear). all an opportunity of expressing their As it was said that the symptoms sentiments; and remarked that on a were similar to those of the disease late occasion there had been any thing in India, he had had a paper printed, but the dignified conduct they ought and sent round among the members to have exhibited. According to the to save time. The first column conlaws of the society, the first half-hour tained the Indian symptoms, extracted was allotted to the introduction of from a paper written by Dr. Foote, interesting cases, which any gentle- of the 17th Regt. ; the next is the man might deem proper to bring remarkable case of John James ; the before the society ; after which he next three occurred this present should call upon Dr. Epps to open month ; while the last three took the discussion.

place at Rotherhithe, during the Mr. Hooper said that as the first month of August. half-hour was allotted for interesting The Doctor said that if we are cases, he would lay before the society justified in concluding from similarity some cases of cholera, which had of symptoms, identity of disease, then fallen under his observation within this is the Indian cholera ; but he the last two or three days; more thought that we are not justified in especially as it had been said that inferring any such thing; and the there were no new cases in the Bo- Central Board of Health had acknowrough. There had been three new ledged that similarity of symptoms is cases between Sunday and Tuesday. no proof of the existence of cholera, He remarked that, under proper in the case of Florence Sullivan, and treatment, patients would be appa- it should seem that the post mortem rently relieved, and yet sink as rapidly appearances are alone to be depended as they had rallied.

He should beg Dr. Epps then drew a parallel leave to correct Dr. James Johnson between the pathological appearances for a mistake which he had fallen found on examining John James and into with regard to one of these Mrs. Roberts, and was of opinion

Dr. J. had been informed by that they greatly resembled the morthe nurse that the patient had made bid appearances which had been dewater, but the fact was, that the scribed by the Indian practioners. A liquid passed came from the bowels.

great stress had been laid on the




pression of urine, but he thought that operating with the great destitution it would require great delicacy of among the poor, greater than it had discernment to prove this suppression been for the last thirty years, the in cases of females, especially when want of clothing and bedding, the the spasms were very urgent. It exposure to the heat of the day, and appeared that Mrs. Roberts had subsequently to the cold of the night, pawned her flannel petticoat the day with bad and insufficient food, are before she was attacked, in order to more than enough to account for disget gin; and yet her liver was said ease--(Heur, hear.) Dr. Epps furto be healthy. He believed that spi. ther stated that the common food of rituous liquors had always a peculiar the poor at present, was greens and effect on the liver, and yet this case bad salt fish. He thought the fear of was adduced as a case of cholera, cholera more generally prevailed From these facts he thought we were among the higher than the lower not justified in inferring identity from classes, and again adduced the examsimilarity, at least, not without fur- ple of the Irish waking their choloric ther evidence. He then proceeded dead : he considered that they met to examine the question of contagion, rather to drink whiskey and other and said, that as yet there had been spirits, than for any respect for the no proofs of contagion in London, dead.-(Cries of no, no, order.), The though great numbers were continu- Doctor concluded, by saying, that ally visiting the sick in their apart- there was not sufficient evidence to ments. He visited a house yesterday, enable us to advocate the opinion that where there were a man and child this disease was the Indian cholera, lying dead of the disease, and sixty and that, therefore, no set of beings Irish women

were waking them, were justified in passing a Bill which some of them lying on the corpses. would injure commerce so materially He thought that there was a great

---(Loud and continued applause.) severity in the present cholera, from Dr. Webster thought it would be its rapid fatality, patients being seized more advantageous to discuss whether in the morning, and dead at night; the cholera be a new direase or not, many of them being seized at four in than whether it be identical with the the morning, the hour when the In- Indian malady; whether it be indeed dian cholera generally seized its vic- a nova pestis, of so virulent a nature tims; from the rapid prostration of that, as had been well expressed in strength, it not being by any means that society, a wall of brass could not so rapid in the common cholera, and kcep it out. If it be only an old disalso froin the great peculiarity of the ease under a new form, it would not voice, which was so unusual, that no be the experience of the army, navy, language could describe it. He did and Indian practitioners which would not mean to explain this severity of be needed, but of those London phy. the discase, by supposing a trans- sicians and surgeons who are well plantation of the Indian cholera, but acquainted with the constitutions and thought that it was to be ascribed to diseases of the poor. The question the peculiar circumstances under should not be whether this disease is which the disease was developed, the same as that of Poland or India, owing to the state of the atmosphere, but, whether it has ever occurred in the barometric pressure, and the ther- London previous to this visitation ? mometric changes. There was at and the medical men of London alone present a peculiar diarrhaa very ge- could tell us. nerally prevalent, which he thought This disease may be the same was owing to a certain constitution as the cholera of former years; it of the atmosphere, and which, co- does not follow, because we have

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