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theirs ! Such is the consistency of of Spain, Portugal, Belgium ! sendyour true demagogues

. “Turn them ing our fleet to blockade Antwerp, out!” is John Bright's cry to the and to beat Don Miguel's navy, constituencies against all who dare and permitting the British Legion to differ from him ; and his indigna- to interfere in the purely domestic tion exhales against the whole insti- contest between the Carlists and tutions of the country, if the men Christinos ? Lastly, as regards Sir or ministers whom he chooses to de- Robert Peel, he had but small opnounce do not fall on the instant. portunity of going to war at all ; but But when a popular constituency re- was it not his Foreign Minister, jects him, the case becomes very dif- Lord Aberdeen-the statesman who ferent in his eyes. He is an ill-used amicably settled the Tahiti quarrel man-the country is unworthy of with France, and the boundary him, &c. &c. Nevertheless, now that question with the United States he is framing a new Reform Bill, we -who, along with Peel's own colwould just beg to remind him that if leagues and officials, found it ne triennial Parliaments had been the cessary to engage in the war with rule in the past, as he wishes it to Russia, which Mr Bright has ever be in the future, the only difference so furiously condemned? Let Mr would have been that he would have Bright answer these questions bebeen turned out two years sooner fore he again quotes these statesthan he was.

men as authorities for his peculiar Mr Bright, we have said, was na- views. Desirous of peace they certurally anxious to stand well with his tainly were, but Brightites in any new constituents, who had so gener- sense they were not. The great war ously elected him in spite of his with France, as might be expected, principles; and it is wonderful to furnishes Mr Bright with an inex see the adroitness in this respect haustible subject of invective. Had which lurks under all his fervid ora- he lived in those times, would he tory. But, at one point at least, this not have stopped that war at the adroitness was carried to the very outset, and let France march over borders of most daring farce. For Europe as she liked? Perhaps he who would ever have thought of thinks so; but if he had, most cerJohn Bright appealing, in justifica- tainly the country would have risen tion of himself, to the very class of against him with a hundredfold more rulers and Prime-ministers whom fury than assailed the Aberdeen he so ferociously denounces as war- Cabinet, and might have hung him makers and fools! John Bright at up as a scarecrow on the Sussex coast, Birmingham, with a view to silence to meet Napoleon and his legions the gunmakers, and to make himself arriving from Boulogne. Let Mr look as respectable as possible, abso- Bright try to read history better ; at lutely_invokes the shades of Wal- present he can only give parodies of pole, Fox, Grey, and Peel, as vouch- it. Whether past or present, whether ers for the wisdom of his peculiar as relates to Europe or to America, views. If you condemn me, he says, he knows no more of history than a remember you will be condemning boarding-school miss may pick up also all these great statesmen. This from her manuals.

It is easy to was a floorer to the sturdy gun- rhetoricise when the speaker invents makers, whose knowledge of Parlia- his facts as well as his views, and mentary history was not sufficiently when neither the one nor the other ready to be able to fire the shot back need to square with common-sense. again down the orator's throat; but If Mr Bright knew one-half of what we have no doubt they are quite aware he pretends to have studied, he by this time of the legerdemain prac- would be aware that so far was Mr tised upon them. Did not Walpole Pitt from desiring to interfere with go to war with Spain? Did not Fox the internal affairs of France, that he die exhorting his colleagues to an hailed the early dawn of the Revoluenergetic prosecution of the war with tion with undissembled satisfaction ; France ? Did not Earl Grey go the and even when the Revolution steeped length of taking part in the civil wars itself in blood and horrors, and when

Mr Burke, correctly discerning in its Fox that peace with him was imposchiefs nothing but apostles of intoler- sible, and that the active prosecution ance and anarchy, most strongly of the war was inevitable.” And urged a crusade against it as a foe then he makes the statement, which to the commonwealth of Europe, Mr the Duke of Argyll repeated the other Pitt resolutely refused. He would day from personal knowledge, that take no part with the Allied sove- “almost Mr Fox's last words to one reigns in their invasion of France in of his most intimate friends and col1792. Even the decree of the Con- leagues, enjoined on his survivors the vention, offering aid to the disaffected vigorous prosecution of the war. in every country against the estab- And in accordance with these views, lished Governments, could not draw the late Earl Grey (whom Mr Bright Mr Pitt from his policy of non-inter- also quotes as an authority on his ference, until the French Republicans side), as Mr Fox's successor in the settled the matter by declaring war Foreign Office, used the following against us. Lord John Russell is the solemn and emphatic language in the only living statesman in whom Mr House of Lords: “I am far, very Bright inclines to repose confidence, far, from holding out to your lordand he is one who in his early days ships confident anticipation of sucvituperated the Tories for engaging cess. The event is in the hands of in the war with France ; but when Him who giveth the victory. But he came to study the subject (as we one thing is certain, that our only wish Mr Bright would do), and to hope is in resistance, so far as we hold the pen of history, as in his Life can resist the ambitious projects of of Fox, what does he say? He tells the enemy.” Could language be us that “ Mr Pitt took a totally dif- inore explicit or more solemn? It is ferent view of the nature and objects the language of one who feels that of the war" from Mr Burke. even resistance is all but hopeless, was ready to admit that we had but that resist we must, whatever nothing to do with the internal go- betide. It is easy for Mr Bright to vernment of France, provided its traduce the dead and vituperate the rulers were disposed and able to living. It is easy for one who does maintain friendly relations with the nothing but talk, and who cannot foreign Governments. In short, he even draw up an ordinary bill for treated Robespierre and Carnot as he Parliament, to lift his heel against would have treated any other French the statesmen of England, and to rulers, whose ambition was to be re- vilify the policy of his own country sisted, and whose interference in the for generations back. Any one can affairs of other nations was to be do that, and the meaner and more checked and prevented.” Orturn to narrow-minded the better. But what another authority and another event. are we to think of such an one, when The Edinburgh Review, to whom the every fact which he condescends Tory chiefs of the beginning of the upon proves to be erroneous, and century used to be the incarnation when every authority he appeals to of all evil, in a recent article, gives gives him the lie? the following statement of Mr Besides imputing innaginary prinFox's views on the war, after his ciples of policy to particular stateseyes had been opened by his own men, Mr Bright favoured his Birnegotiations with the French Govern- mingham audience with some sweep, ment. A year after Pitt had sunk ing new readings” in the wide field into the tomb, and when Fox ruled of British history. “If you turn to in his stead, the latter did not scruple the History of England," he told the to boast that his predecessor's policy gunmakers, “ from the period of the had failed to restore peace to Europe, Revolution to the present, you will but that “his own system had never find that an entirely new policy was been tried.” But when he tried adopted ; and that, while we had enthat “system,” what was the result? deavoureil in former times to keep “The practical experience of Buona- ourselves free of European complicaparte's policy, thus acquired," says tions, we then began to act upon a the Whig reviewer, "convinced År system of constant entanglement in theirs ! Such is the consistency of of Spain, Portugal, Belgium ! sendyour true demagogues. “Turn them ing our fleet to blockade Antwerp, out!” is John Bright's cry to the and to beat Don Miguel's_navy, constituencies against all who dare and permitting the British Legion to differ from him ; and his indigna- to interfere in the purely domestic tion exhales against the whole insti- contest between the Carlists and tutions of the country, if the men Christinos? Lastly, as regards Sir or ministers whom he chooses to de- Robert Peel, he had but small opnounce do not fall on the instant. portunity of going to war at all ; but But when a popular constituency re- was it not his Foreign Minister, jects him, the case becomes very dif- Lord Aberdeen-the statesman who ferent in his eyes. He is an ill-used amicably settled the Tahiti quarrel man-the country is unworthy of with France, and the boundary him, &c. &c. Nevertheless, now that question with the United States he is framing a new Reform Bill, we - who, along with Peel's own colwould just beg to remind him that if leagues and officials, found it ne triennial Parliaments had been the cessary to engage in the war with rule in the past, as he wishes it to Russia, which Mr Bright has ever be in the future, the only difference so furiously condemned? Let Mr would have been that he would have Bright answer these questions bebeen turned out two years sooner fore he again quotes these statesthan he was.

* He

99

men as authorities for his peculiar Mr Bright, we have said, was na- views. Desirous of peace they certurally anxious to stand well with his tainly were, but Brightites in any new constituents, who had so gener- sense they were not. The great war ously elected him in spite of his with France, as might be expected, principles; and it is wonderful to furnishes Mr Bright with an inexsee the adroitness in this respect haustible subject of invective. Had which lurks under all his fervid ora- he lived in those times, would he tory. But, at one point at least, this not have stopped that war at the adroitness was carried to the very outset, and let France march over borders of most daring farce. For Europe as she liked? Perhaps he who would ever have thought of thinks so; but if he had, most cerJohn Bright appealing, in justifica- tainly the country would have risen tion of himself, to the very class of against him with a hundredfold more rulers and Prime-ministers whom fury. than assailed the Aberdeen he so ferociously denounces as war- Cabinet, and might have hung him makers and fools! John Bright at up as a scarecrow on the Sussex coast, Birmingham, with a view to silence to meet Napoleon and his legions the gunmakers, and to make himself arriving from Boulogne. Let Mr look as respectable as possible, abso- Bright try to read history better ; at lutely_invokes the shades of Wal- present he can only give parodies of pole, Fox, Grey, and Peel, as vouch- it. Whether past or present, whether ers for the wisdom of his peculiar as relates to Europe or to America, views. If you condemn me, he says, he knows no more of history than a remember you will be condemning boarding-school miss may pick up also all these great statesmen. This from her manuals. It is easy to was a floorer to the sturdy gun- rhetoricise when the speaker invents makers, whose knowledge of Parlia- his facts as well as his views, and mentary history was not sufficiently when neither the one nor the other ready to be able to fire the shot back need to square with common-sense. again down the orator's throat; but If Mr Bright knew one-half of what we have no doubt they are quite aware he pretends to have studied, he by this time of the legerdemain prac

would be aware that so far was Mr tised upon them. Did not Walpole Pitt from desiring to interfere with go to war with Spain? Did not Fox the internal affairs of France, that he die exhorting his colleagues to an hailed the early dawn of the Revoluenergetic prosecution of the war with tion with undissembled satisfaction ; France ? Did not Earl Grey go the and even when the Revolution steeped length of taking part in the civil wars itself in blood and horrors, and when

Mr Burke, correctly discerning in its Fox that peace with him was imposchiefs nothing but apostles of intoler- sible, and that the active prosecution ance and anarchy, most strongly of the war was inevitable.” And urged a crusade against it as a foe then he makes the statement, which to the commonwealth of Europe, Mr the Duke of Argyll repeated the other Pitt resolutely refused. He would day from personal knowledge, that take no part with the Allied sove- almost Mr Fox's last words to one reigns in their invasion of France in of his most intimate friends and col1792. Even the decree of the Con- leagues, enjoined on his survivors the vention, offering aid to the disaffected vigorous prosecution of the war." in every country against the estab- And in accordance with these views, lished Governments, could not draw the late Earl Grey (whom Mr Bright Mr Pitt from his policy of non-inter- also quotes as an authority on his ference, until the French Republicans side), as Mr Fox's successor in the settled the matter by declaring war Foreign Office, used the following against us. Lord John Russell is the solemn and emphatic language in the only living statesman in whom Mr House of Lords: “I am far, very Bright inclines to repose confidence, far, from holding out to your lordand he is one who in his early days ships confident anticipation of sucvituperated the Tories for engaging cess. The event is in the hands of in the war with France ; but when Him who giveth the victory. But he came to study the subject (as we one thing is certain, that our only wish Mr Bright would do), and to hope is in resistance, so far as we hold the pen of history, as in his Life can resist the ambitious projects of of Fox, what does he say? He tells the enemy. Could language be us that “Mr Pitt took a totally dif- inore explicit or more solemn ? It is ferent view of the nature and objects the language of one who feels that of the war” from Mr Burke.

d. He

even resistance is all but hopeless, was ready to admit that we had but that resist we must, whatever nothing to do with the internal go- betide. It is easy for Mr Bright to vernment of France, provided its traduce the dead and vituperate the rulers were disposed and able to living. It is easy for one who does maintain friendly relations with the nothing but talk, and who cannot foreign Governments. In short, he even draw up an ordinary bill for treated Robespierre and Carnot as he Parliament, to lift his heel against would have treated any other French the statesmen of England, and to rulers, whose ambition was to be re- vilify the policy of his own country sisted, and whose interference in the for generations back. Any one can affairs of other nations was to be do that, and the meaner and more checked and prevented.” Orturn to narrow-minded the better. But what another authority and another event. are we to think of such an one, when The Edinburgh Review, to whom the every fact which he condescends Tory chiefs of the beginning of the upon proves to be erroneous, and century used to be the incarnation when every authority he appeals to of all evil, in a recent article, gives gives him the lie? the following statement of Mr Besides imputing inaginary prinFox's views on the war, after his ciples of policy to particular stateseyes had been opened by his own men, Mr Bright favoured his Birnegotiations with the French Govern- mingham audience with some sweepment. A year after Pitt had sunk ing new readings” in the wide field into the tomb, and when Fox ruled of British history. " If you turn to in his stead, the latter did not scruple the History of England," he told the to boast that his predecessor's policy gunmakers, "from the period of the had failed to restore peace to Europe, Revolution to the present, you will but that “his own system had never find that an entirely new policy was been tried." But when he tried adopted ; and that, while we had enthat “system,” what was the result ? deavoureil in former times to keep “The practical experience of Buona- ourselves free of European complicaparte's policy, thus acquired,” says tions, we then began to act upon a the Whig reviewer, “convinced Mr system of constant entanglement in

the affairs of foreign countries.” As forefathers of the Commonwealth usual, Mr Bright does not say what by comparing the two. In the brief history or histories of England he period between Cromwell and the has been studying, and in which Revolution of 1688, there was indeed his audience or the public may a change of policy, and the half hope to find any corroboration of Papist and whole voluptuary Charles his statement. It is certainly II. adopted the system of peace-atnot Macaulay's (in which William any-price, or rather for a pretty good III. and his policy are highly ex- price—to wit, French subsidies for tolled), nor any other with which we himself and Court. Perhaps Mr are acquainted, Mr Bright is again Bright never heard of the loud and referring merely to that imaginary indignant outcry of his pacific friends History which floats in his own “the people” on the sale of Dunkirk : brain. Has he no recollection of the but he cannot help knowing that it fact, that instead of “endeavouring was this disgraceful submissive polto keep free of European complica- icy, and their treason to the Protestions,"our kings of old used to pride tant cause, which proved the ruin themselves upon being “Kings of of the later Stuarts, and occasioned France” also 2 and that, considering the Revolution, which (to Mr Bright's the ways and means at their disposal, horror) produced a reversal of policy they really, by their ceaseless inva- upon both of these points. So that sions and wars in France, from the here again Mr Bright's “facts" are days of Ceur-de-Lion and the Black wholly imaginary. To the best of Prince downwards, supported their her means and opportunity, England title in a very formidable and pertina- from the earliest times took a very cious manner. The Spanish war and lively interest and share in “EuroSpanish Armada in the days of Queen pean complications.” She had shown Elizabeth doubtless figure in Mr herself quite as willing to fight with Bright's eyes as a pure myth, devised other nations before the Revolution to exalt the feelings of the nation on as ever she has done since. But her behalf of that “Protestant cause means for doing so in early times which he regards as a grand source were, of course, very limited in degree of misery to this country,-just as he to what they afterwards became ; and regards the ambition of the Grande her interest in Continental affairs has Monarque of France, a century later, gone on steadily widening and inas a myth also. But what does creasing. In these two facts (and not he say to the policy of the Great in Mr Bright's hypothesis of greater Protector? Cromwell was a “man power on the part of our "bloodof the people ;" yet he went farther sucking,” aristocrats !) is to be found than any British monarch, either the explanation of the greater extent before or since, in upholding that of “European complications” nowProtestant cause which Mr Bright adays, and of the costliness of our sneers at,-proclaiming to all Europe wars compared with those under the that the cannon of England would Tudors. In early times, when locomoavenge all murdered Protestants. tion and intercommunication were exHow Mr Bright must gnash his teeth tremely limited, the nations of Europe, at the history of such things! Had and especially our own nation, lived a demagogue of Mr Bright's stamp comparatively apart, and the wars arisen in those times, the Great Pro- and fightings which went on so abuntector would have made short work dantly took place chiefly within each with him. Both may be called men country's own limits. It was Scotland of the people,--but with what a against England, England against difference ! Cromwell was a man of both Scotland and Ireland, -accomaction, of strong common-sense, and panied by rebellions and civil wars English to the core-- and all England in each. But as the means of locofollowed him ; Bright is all talk, motion, especially by sea, increased, all crotchet, and a most exceptional the nations began to be more and Englishman, and not even the gun- more affected by each other's interests makers of Birmingham will long and conduct; and thus England, like tolerate his policy. We insult our her neighbours, became more and

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