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what he says he does, but it is at the shall be manifest that we have the sad discredit of his common sense. means of protecting or supporting Nevertheless even supposing (for those who return to their allegiance, there is no end to the hypotheses we I cannot doubt that the spirit in must make for his Lordship’s sake) which the proclamation has been acthat Sir James Outram had actually cepted will declare itself generally at one time recommended confisca- throughout the provinces. Most tion as largely as the magnifying marvellous consolation! When Oude mind of the Governor-General under- is conquered, it will be conquered ! stood,-in fact not “largely” at all,

That is all that his comfort comes to : but “ entirely,-should it not have for by the time our troops, now occurred to his Lordship that Sir largely augmented, are "again movJames's subsequent retractation of ing more rapidly over Oude, &c. &c.” that opinion was a very important that province will be conquered, matter? If a man, when brought quite independently of whether his face to face with the actual circum- Lordship had ever issued a proclamastances, earnestly counsels the oppo- tion or no. If “the spirit in which site of what he had counselled the proclamation has been accepted” before, is it not the greatest possible does not show itself till then (and it proof of the strength and earnestness has not), we may certainly conclude of his latter convictions? Every that a spirit of submission was never man is averse to retract a formerly- produced at all. Indeed, how could expressed opinion, and never does it? As the massacre of five millions so without strong reasons therefor: of people was plainly out of the quesyet Lord Canning acted on the oppo- tion-and as their deportation abroad site principle, and held that Sir would be not less a dead loss to ourJames's first opinion, given on ab- selves--what temptation had the peostract grounds, was better worth ple of Oude to submit ? Lord Canning minding than his later one, formed had confiscated their whole country on the spot after personal observa- --what worse could they be if they tion of the circumstances.

gave vent to their natural wrath, and have shown above, Sir James Out- took the chance of recovering all

, by ram never did concur in Lord Can- fighting it out? So the people of Oude ning's policy of wholesale confisca- doubtless reasoned, and so unquestion, and it says little for his Lord- tionably have they acted. But we ship's sense to fancy so; but even must knock even the last crutch of if it had been so, the revised opinion comfort from the Governor-General. of Sir James was certainly the one to In the self-consolatory sentence which which alone weight should have been we have quoted above, he speaks as given.

if his proclamation were still in force, The only amusing feature in this and hopes that when the conquest of serious and uncomfortable document, Oude comes, the proclamation will occurs towards the close,—where his get credit for the triumph ! Lack-aLordship, after all the confusion and day! as his Lordship in his heart confutation he has heaped upon him- knows, the proclamation has long self, shows a perfectly unique power since been treated as a dead letter. of consoling himself. The facts are From the first it was modified by the so strong against him, that he vir- Commissioners, but of late it has tually acknowledges that hitherto the been wholly discarded, -having been proclamation has proved a failure. found as impracticable in working as

But," he says, in a desperate attempt it is unrighteous and tyrannical in at self-consolation—" when the sea- spirit. So far from confiscating the son shall arrive at which the troops whole rights in the soil of Oude, the can again move more rapidly over the agents of the Government are now country,—when the large police force giving the very fullest effect to Lord now being raised by the chief Com- Ellenborough's principles of moderamissioner at Lucknow shall have tion. Indeed, yielding to the force reached its complement, and received of circumstances, they now find they further organisation,--and when it must carry out those principles per

As we

haps to the extreme. “It may be have been made with chiefs who, so here remarked,” says Mr Russell of late as June last, attacked our police, the Times, writing on the 18th and plundered their posts and vilAugust, “that no civil officer now lages!” So expired Lord Canning's regulates his conduct by Governor proclamation. We wish the moral Canning's proclamation, even as it discredit of it could be as easily was modified by the Commissioners; erased from the memory of the and,” so much is the case otherwise, natives of India, and wiped from the “settlement-engagements for revenue fair escutcheon of British honour.

Printed by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh.

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We left the north of China, and Chinamen, and enabled us to smile sailed from the important city of at captiousness, that seemed to think Tientsin, bearing the cheering intelli- nothing was gained so long as they gence to Shanghai of a treaty of had to pay taxes or dues to conpeace having been concluded be- temptible mandarins ! Happily, tween the Empires of Great Britain people at home would think more and China, and of the advent of a wisely and more disinterestedly upgreat era in the history of the latter on the subject, and England would nation. Henceforth, thanks to allied rejoice that so much good had been arms and allied diplomacy, China wrought with so little violence, and was open to the enterprise of the that our arms, though they had missionary, traveller, or merchant, punished severely, were free from and the ships of England might not the charge of injustice and robbery. only visit her seaboard, and enter All in Europe, who had ever known her harbours, but were at liberty or read of China, would apprecialso to penetrate to her farthest ate the humiliation that the proud borders, by means of tbat noble and exclusive Court of Pekin must stream, the Yang-tsi-Keang, which have endured, when it yielded the flows by and through her rich- points which have already been made est, and hitherto most secluded, pro- public through the medium of the vinces. Many other valuable con- press. Therefore, Anglo-Chinese opicessions were made ; but those above nions did not press heavily upon our mentioned were those most fraught spirits—but the heat did! What a with change to the “Central Land,” constant exercise of ingenuity it is and with high promise to British to procure a draught of fresh air-or, interests, commerce, and policy. more correctly speaking, a draught

A thorough appreciation of the of air only-during the July heat of present unhealthy condition of the a Shanghai summer! There is noEuropean mercantile intellect located thing fresh or pure at that unhappy at the “Five Ports” in China, car- period; all Nature stinks aloud; ried us through the anticipated and any one gifted with acute olfacordeal, of being told by the majority tory nerves in Shanghai, must necesof our belligerent merchants that we sarily suffer from nose-ache, until all had not slaughtered half enough sense of smell is lost, or thoroughly VOL LXXXIV.NO. DXVIII.

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blunted. Unsavouriness and close- burdens, ever repeating their melansteaming heat apart, Shanghai is choly cry of "Ah-ho! ah-ho-ho!” replete with interest.' Situated in a Allah be praised that that busy scene rich and highly cultivated plain, near has not yet commenced; for then our the mouth of the “Son of the Ocean," only hours of rest, from 4 o'clock as the Chinese figuratively style the until 7 o'clock in the morning, would Yang-tsi-Keang, and on the eastern be broken, and heat, stench, musquiseaboard of the great valley which toes, combined with coolies, might stretches north to Pekin, and west drive us to desperation, and to take to the mountains of Sychuen, closely a passage home in the first Peninsuconnected with most of the import- lar and Oriental mail-boat, and thus ant cities of this empire by means mar our anticipated visit to Japan. of a wonderful ramification of can- The lull in European commerce does als, Shanghai is, in fact, the Liver- not appear to have checked Chipool of China, and likely still more nese activity wherever money-makto rise in commercial importance as ing is to be done; and although, in the results of the Treaty of Tientsin their

jargon, Messrs Smith, Brown, develop themselves.

and Robinson "have makee broke !" It was on Saturday the 18th June or “that new chop tea no catchee 1842 that the boats of the British yet, by bye can do,” yet that in no fleet opened the port of Shanghai to way affected the Chinaman's line of the ken of the world; and to-day, business. In the city, about the sixteen short years afterwards, the river-side, and in narrow pestiferous value of the European and American streets, there is a clang and din of exports and imports amounts to no commerce. Oily, strong - sinelling less than twenty-six millions of dol- men rush past you carrying loads of lars per annum, or, at the present sugar or fusty bags of rice; here rate of exchange, six millions ster- piles of rattans impede the way, or ling, of which the lion's share goes bundles of dye-woods rattle about to or comes from Great Britain and your shins ; and then all the congloher colonies. These figures give some meration of foul smells is suddenly idea of the progress of commerce in mastered by tubs of some abomination à city, even in this slow-moving brought from the Eastern Isles to country; but the scene of vitality and tickle the palates of the sons of the bustle Shanghai affords to the visitor Flowery Land! Put on a pith hat, is still more striking. At this mo- spread a thick cotton umbrella, také ment eighty odd sail of splendid advantage of every streak of shade clippers, fleet-footed racers of the thrown by tree or wall, and let us deep sea, from London, Liverpool, watch the entrance of the Soo-chowAberdeen, and New York, are riding foo Canal. Numbers of boats are at anchor off the quays; flags and passing and repassing; some carry pennons, as varied in colour as their native merchants or brokers, who owners and consignees are numerous, have been doing, or are going to do, flaunt gaily in the fervid zephyrs that business in Shanghai. In spite of waft anything but ambrosial smells the unpretending appearance of their from the fields and gardens of a comfortable boats, tens of thousands, people who are far too practical to in dollars, are about the figures in care for the filthy means whereby which their inmates carry on their mertheir vegetables are brought to mar- cantile transactions. Smooth, silverket in such marvellous perfection. tongued Asiatics as they are—adepts We know that directly the monetary at lying, chicanery, and duplicitycrisis in Europe has ceased to react they are commercially honest neverupon the firms established here, and theless. Good faith in mercantile that the new crop of teas shall have transactions they have found to be arrived from the tea-growing districts, advantageous; and, being an eminevery wharf which projects into ently practical race, they adopt the adthe river will be inaccessible for the vantageous virtue, and as a rule (not throng of lighters pressing around without exception) they practise it. them, and that crowds of sweltering But the same man who will, to the coolies or porters will wail over their uttermost farthing, account to his brother-merchant for thousands, or is full of danger to our well-formed assist him in a commercial crisis, barks and expert seamen. And then, will unblushingly defraud his go- after a long and toilsome voyage, the vernment by the grossest perjury, junk-sailor often endures sad crueland subscribe remorselessly to a fund ties from pirates, whose ships are for procuring the heads of foreigners, ever prowling about in the neighor destroying a European community bourhood of the centres of commerce. with arsenic—Howqua and Canton Still, in spite of typhoons and pito wit. Besides these boats full of rates, and the competition of Europassengers, there are barges carrying pean vessels that already have enthe greatest amount of goods, and tered the field against them in the drawing the smallest conceivable coasting trade, the native craft have amount

of water; some months hence apparently in no wise diminished in they will reach the remotest points number ; and it is probable, indeed, of the empire with their precious that more junks sail to and from freight of tropical or European pro- Shanghai at the present day than duce. Such the scene on the Soo- prior to the opening of the port to chow Canal. Now look up the river European commerce. Apart from above the fleet of clippers, steam- the scenes of activity which the boats, and men-of-war, at that forest waters around the city of Shanghai of masts, like a mass of pine-trees afford, I may add that the “bund” or stripped of branch and leaf ; they quay which forms the river-face of are the native vessels of Shanghai. the European quarter, together with Only the pool below London Bridge the magnificent abodes of the mer can offer a similar sight. This sea- chants, and no less imposing consulson, certainly, these vessels are un- ates, convey an idea of the wealth usually numerous here. Fear of the and prosperity of the community, allies, and the exaggerated reports which is fully supported by their of the “fierceness of the uncontrol- establishments, yachts, horses, and lable barbarians” commanding her mode of living. Even the ministers Britannic Majesty's gunboats, have of the Protestant churches, judging induced their owners to remain in by their dwellings, partake of the port until peace was declared. Our general wellbeing of Shanghai. Recnews has evidently reached them, tors at home on £600 per annum and the clang of gọngs, much dis- live not in such houses ; and poor cordant music, and the noise of curates in England, desirous of encrackers, during the early watches of joying conjugal life, and bearing the past night, are demonstrations of light to the benighted heathen, may, John Chinaman's delight. He has by enduring a considerable amount the prospect of again being able to of heat and many smells,

do far betpush into the outer waters, under the ter in China (in a temporal point of slender protection of the smooth- view at least) than by slaving in the faced Queen of Heaven, who, in her fever-haunted homes of the poor of an smoky little shrine under the junk's English city. The missionary in China poop, smiles approvingly on the poor may not expect, like the merchant, to junk-seaman's offering of a cup of make a rapid fortune and retire, but weak tea, and a candle of pork fat nevertheless it is a fine field for painted bright vermilion. All day, active sons of the Church. There is and all night long, according as the for them the prospect of promotion tide serves, these industrious fellows to vacant Eastern bishoprics; or, if are moving up or down the stream, gifted with more questionable zeal ever heaving in cables, or hoisting for the interests of their country and and lowering their quaint-cut sails. their religion, they may become poliHardy must they be, as well as in- tical agents or Government interpredustrious ; they seem to have but ters. one suit of clothes, and oply a inat He who at the latter part of July, to sleep upon; their food is simply at Shanghai, found anything to adrice, and salt-fish enough to swear mire or write of, might boast of some by, and their pay is very small ; yet energy and good health. Personal they face the tempests of a sea which comfort was then entirely hopeless.

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