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à gage of war; for we believe that thus that Cherbourg has for us its as yet Cherbourg is not ready either significance as a part of a system of for defence or aggression : there is great maritime development, as the much to be done, much to be com- result of the resolve of a great napleted, ere it possess its full capacity tion to contest the empire of the for either, ere it could be made a for- waters. midable point d'appui of attack, or Supremacy on the seas is to Engcould dare the vengeance of retribu- land a necessity of defence. She tion; and it is not according to the must maintain it or decline. It is practice of a nation, noted for the to her existence and safety. There astuteness of its policy, to throw out is no choice, no alternative. It is an a challenge ere it was ready for bat- imperative fate. Her position, her tle, to unveil an attempt ere it was polity, her institutions, her comripe for fulfilment. Had Cherbourg merce, her possessions, all demand been intended as a present menace, it that she should have the command would not have been so publicly an- and dominance on the waters. To nounced until the forts were finished, lose it would be to lose all. It is the defence complete—until the pre- therefore as a challenge to contest parations for a transport power and this empire that Cherbourg has its a naval force, equal to such an enter- import and its warning for us. The prise, had been more fully developed. alarm of an invasion may or may not Cherbourg would then not have been be reasonable ; but it is one that it shown whilst it had a sign of weak- behoves not a great people to be proness or unreadiness.
claiming whenever a dock is opened, Neither can we accept it as such or a few ships built-it is one neither a symbol of peace. The policies of dignified nor polític for a nation posempires may change — rulers may sessing resources and elements and pass away--dynasties may be over- power of defence, which might renturned—yet Cherbourg would still der it insensible to such fears, and remain a power of war to be used assure it immunity from such dangers. according to the will, or directed ac- There is now a port, eight hours' cording to the passions, of the men sail from our shores, where an army and the times. It is eminently an could be embarked, and whence it expression of war, defensive or offen- could be moved upon us, not persive, and its only interpretation of haps in the time or in the force aspeace is, that it means a defence, sumed and asserted by so many, strong and assured, which shall en- but still, perhaps, in time and in able the government within to pur- force enough to inflict a terrible sue its systems and its policies free disaster on unreadiness or defencefrom the dread of interference or in- lessness. A descent on a country, terruption from without.
the debarkation of troops, even when Its true meaning is to be found in unopposed, is, we know, the most the past of France-its true signi- difficult and hazardous op ation of ficance in the resolve of which it is In the presence of an enemy, the result and expression; the re- of an opposing force or defensive solve conceived centuries since, trans- means, it ought to be an impossimitted from council to council, from bility. To us it should be such an government to government, from impossibility. There should everydynasty to dynasty-accepted and where along our coasts be a certainty executed by all as a national pur- of such opposing force as would renpose and a national destiny. And der an attempt at debarkation hopethis resolve was and is, that France less and desperate. To effect this should be first of naval powers- we would not advocate that the that it should possess the greatest coast should be surrounded with fornavy as well as the most powerfnl tifications, or be rendered impregarmy in the world. This resolve nable by a costly and perhaps ineffihas progressed step by step, stage by cient enceinte. The real means of stage, has gone on from one port to defence are easier and more certain. another, from inferiority to equality, The great requirements are concenand now aims at supremacy. It is tration and man-power. The ability
at any moment of sending men into vasion which had to be covered by a our ships, and moving soldiers from naval action, or conducted under a our camps, and massing both ships fire from ships, would be a feature and troops on a threatened point, approximating too much to impossiwould be a consummation of defence bility to be attempted. But to poson which the nation might rely with sess this part of the movable force, confidence and security. Forts and there is necessity for man-power. We batteries along the different points have our ships, our guns, all of firstof the coast would doubtless assist class and excellence; but these must and aid the defence. Such are being be manned—we must have the comdesigned, but they must be works of mand of men, which shall assure us time. Meanwhile a good and most of sending them forth in the time of efficient plan has been adopted, that need. And this is a necessity, created of placing batteries of 18-pounders, not only by the exigencies of defence, equipped and ready for service, at but by the still greater urgency to different positions, which should be assert our supremacy intact and unhorsed on emergency from the neigh- questioned. We have ships and bouring farms, and moved in any resources without limit—we need direction where they would be re- only men, or the command of men, quired. This might be further ex- sufficient to render these an evertended by establishing our floating- existing and permanent power. Many batteries at certain stations, and schemes have been advanced for this manning them with old pensioners, -- Channel fleet, with the blockwho might be quartered in cottages ships, guard-ships, and the coast or barracks on shore. But to re- guard as a reserve, is the favourite sist an invasion it is never safe to theory. But a Channel fleet is a trust the resistance to any station- thing which one Admiralty may create, ary force. A place of landing, as and another destroy—which exists toour own experiences have shown, day, and may be doomed to-morrow might be chosen where no such force by any financial exigency. The force could be. A movable defence is the on which England relies to maintain only reliance. A camp such as that its maritime ascendancy, must be a at Äldershott should be formed near permanent one-not subject to the another part of the coastline, will of a minister, or the pressure of a somewhere, perhaps, near Dartmoor, popular outcry. It must be a stand. with an outpost corresponding to ing navy, a body of seamen enrolled Shorncliffe at Portland.
and organised, quartered either in munication should be established ships or barracks, but still endowed by rail with the coast, and along its and invested with the character of whole extent should exist a direct stability, and affording those belongand continuous line of railways, ing to it the assurance of continuous by means of which bodies of men pay and service; and giving to the might be hurled and concentrated men who wield the destinies of the on any one position, or posted nation the certain power of sendat several, with a rapidity and an ing forth one powerful fleet after ease which strategists never dreamed another to meet the exigencies of of. Confronted by an army
defence, and still retain the appointsupported too by heavy guns, and ed reserve as a last resource. It conscious that, move where he would, was our intent to have discussed turn where he would, that army the possibilities of forming such an would move more rapidly and more institution, and the details of its surely than he, and be ever ready to arrangement; but space fails us, and, oppose him, an invader would pause moreover, the subject is too large and and deliberate well ere he launched important to be drawn in at the end forth his legions on such an enter- of an article. It is one, however, prise. There is another part of this which must be forced on our attenmovable force, however, to be con- tion and consideration. sidered-our feets. They would be It is the lesson which Cherbourg equally ready with steam-power to conveys to us—the warning which it concentrate and oppose, and an in- utters—that we must stand forth and
reassert our supremacy as a naval and the capabilities of the five ports power; that we must answer such militaires-the grand demonstration challenges as it and the system of of the maritime aims of France. which it is part may be supposed to Thus strengthened, thus defended, signify, not by loud-voiced alarm- England might repose on her wealth, not by spasmodic efforts of prepara- or develop her prosperity peacefully tion or defence, but by a methodised and securely-might hear of docks and systematic resolve equal to their being opened without alarm, and of own in strength, more than equal to forts being built without giving thema theirs in powers of resources; to have passing thought. Thus assured, Engever alive and ready for action a land might assume the dignity of a
naval force, a power of ships and great nation—too strong to fear ag· men, which should defy the efficiency gression, too strong to provoke it.
LORD' CANNING'S REPLY TO THE ELLENBOROUGH DESPATCH.
The grand case which absorbed the for themselves) that he could not attention of Parliament last summer forego doing his best for them. And has at length been closed in point of so we have the “Reply.” A very form, as five months ago it was lengthy and elaborate document it closed in point of fact. Lord Can- is. But is it in any other sense satisning has made his reply to Lord factory? During the debates in May, Ellenborough's despatch, and the when the Whigs were making such Government have published it. When a mere stalking-horse of him, Lord tried in full Parliament last May, Canning might well have prayed to Lord Canning’s case broke down so be saved from his friends. But his completely that his Whig friends, reply now makes it doubtful whether who had been so eager to bring it on, he do not need to be equally saved shrank from taking the verdict of from himself. He has allowed himthe House, and, amidst a scene of the self to be caught in the outer edges most grotesque humiliation, begged of the maëlstrom of Whig faction; to be allowed to withdraw their and, having a bad cause, the very charges against the Ministry. Lord elaborateness of his teply only serves Canning has now made appearance to bring out more clearly the errors on his own behalf. We do not think of himself and his angry eulogists at his reply would have been such as it home. is, if he had not been prompted We do not underrate Lord Canthereto by the course taken by his ning. He is a man of ability, an Whig friends at home. They had elegant scholar, and possessed of chosen to make his cause a party good moral firmness ; but not even question, with a view to reinstate Lord Granville will assert that he is themselves in office; and accordingly, a man of original genius, a brilliant throwing statesmanlike wisdom to statesman, capable of saving or rethe winds, they had gone all lengths constructing an empire. He is an in eulogising the Oude Proclamation, ordinary Governor-General placed in and in denouncing Lord Ellenbo- extraordinary circumstances. Withrough's censure of it. They staked out comparing him with the more their
credit as a party in justifying illustrious of his predecessors in the Lord Canning and in criminating the Viceroyalty of India, it is enough to Ministry. They failed,--and now say, that in the history of the
present Lord Canning is invoked as a for- Revolt he will be eclipsed by some lorn hope to cover their defeat. They of his own subordinates. The name did so much for him (although it of Lawrence will overshadow that was only in order to do much more of Canning. It is one of the most marvellous facts of the war, that it to be cleared by the Bombay and was the Punjaub—the most recently Madras field - forces, which, under conquered of our provinces, and Roberts, Rose, and Whitelock, were the one which had fought most advancing to the line of the Jumna powerfully against us—that supplied from the south and west,—and to the means of re- conquering Hindo- march himself into Rohiscund, the stan. This was the untoward realm reconquest of which province could which Lawrence had to deal with; be effected with the force then at his yet he turned the very elements of disposal, and which reconquest was indanger into most potent allies,-re- dispensable to free the important line created an army of 80,000 men in a of communication through the Doab few months' time-raised loans to from serious and ceaseless flank atequip them-and sent them fully tacks. All the rebels over this wide armed, with long trains of siege extent of country, north-east of the guns, ammunition, and supplies of Jumna, would thus have been either transport, to retake Delhi, and aid destroyed or driven into Oude, the in carrying the British standards in conquest of which province Sir triumph back to Lucknow. In the Colin designed to reserve for anPunjaub we saw men of genius act- other campaign,-in the interim, ing in every quarter. It was not spending the hot season and the the muffled action of a system, but rainy months in thoroughly strengththe rapid energetic coups of indivi- ening and reorganising all the surduals. Everywhere individuality is rounding regions; so that, when present. The telegraph from Cal- the campaign reopened, whatever cutta is interrupted--Lawrence be- portion of the Oude rebels should escomes practically independent-and cape from the attack of his converghe and his coadjutors are seen work- ing columns (by that time strong in ing like paladins in upholding the cavalry), would find no resting-place tottering empire. If we turn to the elsewhere, and be utterly crushed, other side of India—to Calcutta—we without being able to betake themsee nothing of this sort. Mountains selves to our greatest peril) a guerilla of care indeed Lord Canning had on warfare. On the other hand, the his shoulders, and he bore the bur- Governor-General insisted that an den bravely and with undaunted attack should be made at once upon moral courage. But he had more of the centre of the enemy's power in the nobility which, in the face of most Oude-maintaining that the capture terrible odds, stands and dies, than of of Lucknow would so discourage the the genius which can strike and save. rebels, that they would give up the As the head of an administrative contest, and send in their submission. machine, in which his own person- The Commander-in-Chief had to yield ality was half-lost, he did his work to the orders of the Governor-Genehonourably and well ; but if we look ral; and the consequence has been a for a ruler dominating over the widespread and harassing guerilla governmental machine, as an Ellen- warfare, a campaign in the hot season, borough or Wellesley would have most disastrous to our soldiers-and done, and making his personality results so unsatisfactory, that not a felt through every part of the service single revolted province has as yet --we look in vain.
been thoroughly reduced to order and Only in two matters has the per- tranquillity. Sir Colin Campbell did sonal action of Lord Canning stood his part of the work-he took Luckout clearly—and neither of them can now--and not only Lucknow, but be made the subject of eulogy. The Bareilly, and every other place of imfirst of these is his overruling the portance. But the rebels did not military plans of the Commander-in- surrender. Lord Canning had entirely Chief. In the beginning of the pre- miscalculated. The object for which sent year, Sir Colin Campbell's plans he had overruled the plans of the were, to clear the Doab entirely of campaign proved quite illusory. And the enemy, and fully re-establish com- thus, in this momentous matter, his munications between Calcutta and policy was a failure. the Punjaub,—to leave Central India The only other instance of marked personal action on the part of Lord Something of the same kind, on a Canning was the issuing of the Oude small scale, has happened again. Proclamation. When demurring to When sending home his elaborate the alteration of his own military Reply, Lord Canning duly apprised plans, Sir Colin Campbell doubtless his friends of his having done so, expressed his scepticism as to the and of the contents of the document,speedy surrender of the Oude rebels doubtless informing them that he upon which the Governor-General had not only exculpated himself and calculated ; and it was to make sure them, but that he had “walked of this hoped-for submission that his into" Lord Ellenborough, and likeLordship resolved to issue a procla- wise shown that the whole Ministry mation. The overruling of the Gene- were partakers in the crime of the ral's strategy, and the issuing of the noble Ear!! The Palmerstonians proclamation, stand together as parts thereupon instructed their organs in of one plan; and both parts of the the press to clamour for the producplan miscarried. Oude must be at- tion of this precious document. A tacked, resolved Lord Çanning; and request which was very quickly anthough the generals demur, I will swered by Lord Stanley's forwardissue a proclamation which will ing, copies of the lengthy letter to make all things go right. Hence the each of the metropolitan journals. origin of the proclamation which ex- With his usual manly straightforcited so much discussion and ani- wardness, Lord Stanley would have madversion, and to a brief and final acted thus in any circumstances ; consideration of which we are con- but both he and his colleagues must strained by the tenor of Lord Can- have felt that in this instance their ning's reply. Very willingly should generosity was put to little proof. we have let the question sleep. But Whoever might be damaged by the Lord Canning is blessed with so publication of the despatch, they many friends in this country, who knew it would not injure them. are resolved to make of him a stalk- For what is the true inference to ing-horse of party, that his unhappy be drawn from Lord Canning's reply proclamation has again been ex- but this—That, according to his own humed amidst a flourish of Whig showing, no proclamation should trumpets. The Whig chiefs in Par- have been issued at all! A strange liament were too thoroughly beaten conclusion, certainly, but the only in summer to have any thought of one that can be deduced from his resuming the fight themselves; but Lordship's elaborate exposition of it seemed to them a good way of the case. Indeed, the whole docucovering their defeat to set their or- ment reads more like the production gans in the press a-sounding on the of an elegant scholar than of a massubject. And Lord Canning helped terly mind versed in the practical them to do so. It is a curious fact work of statesmanship. And there that his Lordship’s “private" commu- can hardly be a greater contrast than nications to his friends appear to be as exists between the clearness of his frequent and full as his despatches style, and the temperate calmness of to the Government are scanty and tone, marking the scholar and the rare. In spring he had fully apprised gentleman,--and, on the other hand, his friends“ privately” of his inten- his manifest incapacity to understand tion to issue a proclamation in Oude, the broad nature of the opposition and of its tenor, before the Govern- which his proclamation encountered, ment knew anything of the matter. his confusion of ideas as to his own And it was these private letters which policy, and the self-contradictory and enabled his Whig friends to arrange wholly untenable character of the beforehand an attack upon the Min- elaborate justification with which he istry on the subject of this proclama- seeks to defend it. tion, and to boast that the Govern- We may pass over the exordium ment would be out“ in three weeks,” of the reply, in which his Lordship while as yet nothing was publicly makes excuses for not resigning his known of any proclamation at all. high office ; for not only had the VOL. LXXXIV.NO. DXVII.