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sea in ships, and live in the great movement to the programmes of etiwaters, the spectacle was fine and quette. It was a thing to have seen, striking in all its scenes and acts, a thing to remember. often novel; to the citizens of Paris In many respects it may be well and London it must have had a pe- that the English should have particuliar magnificence in the combina- cipated so largely in these fêtes. Mition of so many new elements, a pe- litary and naval men will not have culiar interest from its many new learnt much that they knew not effects.

before; but they will have seen much The next day, Friday, the Queen to strengthen their judgments, much of England left. It was the last of to suggest opinions. To a certain the royal ceremonies. For the last august body, Cherbourg must have time the French flag was hoisted by given many lessons. It must have our ships, the English by theirs. given them eyes to see, and ears to Standing on the Digue, we see the hear, what defence means; must have old effects of the firing and the de- told them how defence is attained, corations under a new aspect; the and taught them that the confidence ships are our foreground, the French inspired by strong defence is well liners lying in an oblique line across bought by expenditure. They will the “Rade," the English moving slow- have seen that peace is not inconly, and forming into two lines as be- sistent with preparation, and have fore. Once more the three thousand heard that the power can best guns echo; the parting had taken maintain peace which is the most place; the royal yacht steams on and strong, and most confident in itself

. on, takes the lead of the squadron, It is to be hoped that when next which follows in noble order through they discuss the Ways and Means, the passage betwixt Fort Querque- the impregnability and capabilities ville and the Musoir, showing to the of Cherbourg may arise before them, practical minds, which could with not as a menace of aggression, but as draw themselves from the sight, what a lesson and a warning of defence. would be the effect of these batteries Henceforth the fête was entirely naon them. The Trinity Brethren steam tional-it was French for the French. after with rival speed, and are greet- A promenade en rade was the proed by the cry of “Go it, soundings.” gramme of the day. The Emperor Soon only a little smoke is seen in the and Empress were to visit the differhorizon, and so ends the royal visit. ent ships and the Digue. It was

What may be the political import our chance to be on the breakwater of this meeting? whether it may con- when the imperial cortège arrived firm alliances whether the inaugu- and landed ; Napoleon stern, resolute, ration of a power which might be and commanding-Eugenie beautiful turned against her kingdom was a and elegant, sweeping along with the fitting occasion for the presence of grace of her Spanish blood, her draan English Sovereign whether her pery floating on her gracefully as the coming was a proof of noble confi- plumage on a swan—the grim staldence in the strength of her country wart soldiers, the ministers of state, and in the good faith of her ally? are and les dames d'honneur. There was questions we shall not debate now. present the state, and also the gloom We are treating of Cherbourg as a spectacle, not as a power aggressive In the programme, also, there were or defensive.

announced fêtes for the people, for the As a fête it was very complete, in town of Cherbourg. We have ignored its externals at least, for we know it as yet, ignored its doings and its nought of the feelings it inspired. revelries. Yet it was the centre of The grace of the visit was reciprocat- the festivities, a pleasant and pretty ed by magnificence of hospitality and place withal, with its festive garb courtesy of reception, and all the and its merry holiday crowd ; and pageantry was tasteful and happy. pleasant it was to turn from the grand There was no omission, no failure ; effects and coups-d'oil to the peasant and the good feeling and festive spirit

gay streets, and the varyof the people gave a lifefulþess and ing picturesque costumes. The town

of power.

groups, the

was well adapted for a fête. On the head of an old lady as our standard, quay facing the sea is a square with for she wore her gear defiantly, as an esplanade, and beyond it to the though she challenged criticism, and west lies the Port Militaire, with its was determined to show the world walls, arsenals, and fortifications. On what a Norman cap was, and should this quay stands the great statue. be. This was a sort of pudding-bag, To the right of it is a group of old well crimped and starched, with long houses, amid which stands the cathe- lappels sticking out behind, or perdral church. At right angles is the haps more like a bishop's mitre, made Port du Commerce, broad and hand- of muslin, and adorned with wings, some, connected by a lock with the than anything else. Diverging from inner mercantile harbour, or Bassin de this were others, much higher and Flot; and parallel with this is the fuller, and drawn in across the foreCanal de Retenue. Along it runs a head with bands of ribbon ;-their broad promenade, lined with a street wings, too, were larger and finer, and of shops and cafés. Around, and be- turned up at the ends like horns. tween it and the basins, are rows and The damsels who wore, or rather bore avenues of trees, which seem to give these, had a conscious look of finery, it relationship with the luxuriance which showed that these were the and beauty of the valley of the Di- mode, and that it was a very superior vette. Beyond and above rises, scarp- thing to have large wings. Others, ed and rugged, the Montagne

de Roule. again, had degenerated down almost From the square and from the line of to the cap of the grisette, but these the docks lead the chief streets, which, must have been low people from other at their different meetings, form either provinces, or from Paris; no righta little square or “place.” The minded Norman girl would have conroads from the town are broad, have descended to such a thing. Then, avenues of tall trees, and little de- again, there were all kinds of comtached groups of houses for a mile or promises betwixt the two — all, two beyond, and run through pretty however, pretty, fresh, and light; valleys, or a verdant wooded cham- they set off the browned comely faces paign. In this arena provincial taste and the blue eyes beneath. These had done its utmost. At all the corners caps are much given to go in twos and in the squares, by the fountains and threes, to be nodding into shop and along the quays were flags, and windows, and be bobbing out of voipennons, and banderoles, grouped like tures, and have a great affinity for trophies, and bound in the centre by cheap-johns and roundabouts. They, shields, bearing the letters N. and E. too, alone have reverence for legends of On the side of the streets were poles martyrs and saints—they alone bave also, with shields and banners, and any faith in sacred medals. The rogue from every window hung a flag. who exhibits a great picture of a Saint Amid this triumphal scene moved Jean André, and a representation of thousands from all parts of France, all hisacts—how he prayed, how he bein little currents, passing onwards stowed alms, how he performed mirwith holiday gait, or grouping round acles-has them for his sole audience, a band or juggler, or rushing in droves, for the sole purchasers of his tracts when the cannon announced somé and medals. "We find them by our imperial movement. Conspicuous side, in great numbers, mixed up with among all were les dames de Nor- soldiers, and matelots, and blouses, mandie, in their cloth jackets and as we stop to look at a juggler. The gowns, which hung gracefully enough fellow depends more on his impudence from them, though innocent of crino- than skill; he has a great horn proline,—that they seemed to have ap- truding from his forehead, and the plied au revers and appropriated to feat he is now performing is to throw the head-dress. Oh, those head- rings of different sizes into the air dresses ! they were quite a study. and catch them on it. The horn is We traced them in all their varia- ringed now to the very tip, there is tions, and strove to fancy whether just room for one little one more. He these variations depended on charac- takes that in his hand, throws it up, ter, station, or locality. We took the tries to catch it ; fails-sighs deeply, sacrés and grimaces. Again he tries, formed by the directors of the railagain fails—sacrés, shakes his head; way for the accommodation of their Burleigh-like, strokes his chin and passengers. Picturesque it looked, shouts out, “ Ah voilà-he will never with its seats gleaming through the go on 'till the plate is full.'” Im- trees, and all the groups which mediately a shower of sous fall on moved about amid them. The occuthe plate, and the ring goes on pants, however, found their camwith a sharp click. There is great paigning full of vicissitudes, we besensation among the caps and the fiere, and their adventures and disblouses. We are in expectation of tresses furnished Charivari with another trick. The rogue takes up many a subject. The Parisian is not the sous, piles them in little heaps one who can find in the picturesque on two sticks ; poises them as though a compensation for comfort. Back about to do some balancing feat; we go into the town with the crowd then strikes them off dexterously —and it was certainly the most orinto either hand, and deposits them derly road-wise crowd we were ever in either breeches-pocket ; gathers in. Never once had we our toes up his properties, and walks off. trodden on or our ribs elbowed, and There is a great shaking of the caps we saw everything without having a at this-great sacréing from the fat woman on our back, or a strong matelots and mustaches, silent in- heavy-booted bumpkin in our front. dignation from the blouses. On we To see was the easiest thing in Chersweep to another corner, where a bourg. To eat, to drink, to sleep, buffoon has taken his stand, a mot- was the grand difficulty. Even å ley cap on his head, in his hand an Frenchman cannot live on spectaimprovised violin, made of a large cle, so the struggle for viands and a stick and a bladder, with a string bed went on daily and hourly. Each drawn over it like a bow; on this hotel was in a constant state of siege he accompanies himself as he shouts


-every restaurant was a battle-field. out the verses of a song with a loud The besieging forces beset the entelling chorus. As there is a great trances and the doors of the salons. flutter and sheering off of the caps, In vain might the host protest and the song

we suppose is not highly gesticulate, until he appeared about moral. The blouses, however, ap- to disjoint himself, and one expected plaud warmly. On we go with the every moment to see an arm fly off, crowd, on through the gay streets as in the old puppet-shows, then a with their shops, on by the quays, leg, then a head, until nothing but and out into the roads under the the trunk remained. Still there was trees, where cafés and restaurants a never-ceasing clamour for a chamhave started up for the occasion, and ber and a dinner. Some insinuated little groups are enjoying their café themselves into passages, and depoor beer ; for the Normans at least sited their carpet-bags there, in the have a particular delight in beer, and vain hope of establishing a location; quaff it from large tumblers with others stood at the doors of the tablegreat gusto; and waggons, drawn by d'hôteinhaling thesteam of the viands, the great club-tailed Norman horses, and struggling to get a position. A are halting for a gossip or a bait. On Yankee would have been at home we go until we come to the new here. Napkins were clutched at, forks station of the railway just opened, thrust into dishes, chairs appropriatand there we light on a curious, ed. Getting a place or a plate was pretty scene. The waste space is

like storming a breach. The air refilled with tents, striped with differ- verberated with the word “ garçon;' ent colours, and hung with flags; it seemed the great effort of the all around and between them are human voice. The thing, garçon, rows of young fir-trees. The little flitted and dashed about with a sort encampment is enclosed by a beauti- of galvanised impulse, making a start fully wooded ridge and the rugged and a plunge at every call. At one heights of the Roule, and at one end establishment there was an indiviit opens into the soft, sunny valley of dual of the name of Alexandre, who the Divette-it is the Camp de Gare, must have been supposed to possess ubiquity, from the way in which he the shouts mingle pleasantly; and we was shouted for and shouted at ; his repose on this spectacle of the fête of name was cried in every inflection of the people, after the bruit of the great voice, until at last, from the despair- representations, with a greater feeling tones in which it was uttered, it ing of the presence of festivity than was evident that Alexandre had ab- we had yet known. Our only dissconded, perhaps to assert the unity turbance is the garçon, who will bring of time and place by a self-incarcer- us beer or absinthe. Like his brethation in the coal-hole. The caps in ren of the hotels, he is in a state of this respect had the best of it, for perplexity and distraction, and rushes they sat in groups behind the booths, about, carrying beer to some fierce with an earthen dish in their laps, colonel who wants coffee, and absupping therefrom with a wooden sinthe to some Normandy farmer spoon something that smelt villan- who wants beer. If the bedlams ously of garlic and herbs. There was of France be not tenanted by these even here, however, a state of war- garçons after the fête, there is more fare, for we saw an old lady diligently tension in the human brain, more slobbering with one spoon whilst she elasticity in human patience, than we warded off the attempts of predatory believed. Such a Babel that café ! urchins with the other. Night brings such a clatter, such smoke, such rapout more phases of holiday life. The pings for the garçon! The only calm squares al glitter with the illumina- person is the mistress--the presiding tions--glass and brilliant ciphers goddess-who sits in her tribune, surand mottoes blaze out in coloured rounded by her bottles, quite impaslight, and fireworks go off at inter- sive to the hubbub and confusion. vals. The streets, too, are all alight, The only one at home in the throng and thronged more than ever, for is a little thing with a green wreath all the sight-seers are congregated round her head, belonging to the there now. And there is more also musicians, who creeps and twines of the military element--mustached with'impunity between the spụrs and officers, grim and martial, stalk about the elbows, and the comers and goers, with clanging sabres, cigars in their always turning up at the right time mouths, and their hands in their to rattle her box, just as some one pockets. The bazaars of the peripa- has received change. There is a tetic merchants are all alive ; peasant crowd and great laughing on the mothers are buying presents for the other side of the quay, and we stroll little ones, and being tempted with towards it. A roundabout is here pictures and candlesticks; the young in full action. It is a gigantic and a ones invest largely in pocket looking- most elaborate one. There are two glasses, which they secrete as soon rows of chargers, and carriages of all as bought. One old fellow has estab- shapes. They are filled now by the lished a lottery, and, from his low caps and the blouses—a few vacant chuckle and sly grin, is evidently saddles are taken

by the matelots driving a thriving trade ; and weil after it is in motion. A lady within, he may; for though he shuffles out sort of Frenchified Jarley, directs the cards and draws the tickets from the movement by an organ. At first a bag, we have never yet seen one it is slow and solemn, and the figures prize distributed, and we have staked of the Norman girls have a graceful many sous ourselves. A lottery all look as they sweep on with their blanks must be a rather good specu- arms round each other's waists. Now lation. The cafés have turned them- the tune grows faster, and the merry selves out of doors. Those on the round increases faster and faster, quay, of the Bassin du Commerce until it gets quite niazy ; faster still, are the favourite resort. There we and the figures grow confused and sit, looking out on the crowd, and disjointed." The caps and the hats on the water, and the ships'; the appear to have changed places; then mountain and the valley are just the heads of the girls and the mateseen dimly in the distance; the lights lots change shoulders, and the horses sparkle, street-bands are playing, go into the carriages, and the carand the hum of voices, the laughs and riages into the horses, until the utmost of speed has been reached, adaptation. The creation of Cherand there is a stop. The round does bourg can scarcely in itself be deemed not cease long. Ever as one set of an undue assertion of maritime power riders get off, others are ready to get by such an empire as France, nor on; and it seemed a principle with can the perseverance in a great naevery Norman girl to achieve the tional undertaking, which reflected roundabout before she went to bed. credit and advantage on the country,

Where this great crowd was to be regarded as a challenge or a prosleep was a wonder; yet they all soon vocation. Hostile policy can alone dispersed, some to beds, some to make it a hostile demonstration. On ships, some to the Camp de Gare, this eighth day of August 1858 we some perhaps to hedgerows and door- look upon it apart from policy (that steps,--all disappeared; the last oc- we may dwell on hereafter), and concupants of the cafés, who had fallen template it as the scene of a great asleep at the tables, were roused up, national inauguration—a great naand every one retired to prepare for tional ovation. The consummation the celebration of the morrow. of “les merveilles," the result of more

“ Il semblait être dans ma des- than half a century of labour and tinée de voir s'accomplir par la paix, expenditure, the achievement of a les grands desseins que l'Empereur monument which may compare with avait conçut pendant la guerre.” those of antiquity, and challenge pos

So spoke the Emperor Napoleon terity, are to be celebrated formally the Third. The design, conceived in and solemnly by a nation and its war, was to be accomplished in peace. chief. Decreed when nations rose against There is tradition and precedent nations, it was to be inaugurated amid for the ceremony, and the old details the amity of peoples. The original are to be adhered to, receiving a intent will, however, cling to a de- greater impression from the time, the sign, and give it a doubtful meaning, circumstances, and the agencies. Let even though after - circumstances us review the scene in which it is to should change its purpose.

be enacted. To the north-west of the The principles of peace seem in- town, at the foot of high hills, and .consistent with the politics of war, opening towards the east of the Rade, and yet there may be occasions when surrounded by an enceinte of fortifithe two may be reconciled. The cations, lies the Port Militaire, with defence projected to cover aggres- its system of basins. These are three, sion may, in another period, be lying within one another, connected adopted as legitimate security, and by gates or locks, and containing the means prepared to precipitate seven docks and eleven building-slips, attack be applied to the due de- all excavated out of the solid rockvelopment of national resources and all having great depth below lownational strength. It is not the fact water-all being of great extent, of such defence and such means, if beautifully constructed, and faced at all commensurate with the status with fine granite. (Hereafter we of a country, but the policy of the shall detail dimensions, &c.) Landpower possessing them, which indi- ing at the avant-port or outer basin, cates war. We have seen how, with we pass on towards its end, leaving a great northern power, every step the Bassin de Flot on the right, and of defence was a stage of aggression, see before us an immense excavation, and therefore every addition and oblong in form, and vast in extent increase of force became a menace. and depth. Its bed, level and dry, It must be by connecting some is crossed with chains for mooring such principle with the construction ships ; from it the sides slope upof Cherbourg, that we see in wards to some height in the bare the completion of the great work a rock out of which it has been hewn, propagation of the warlike concep- and then spring up to the terrepleins tion. "The posterity which charges of the arsenal in a straight wall of itself with realising the idea of a solid masonry. Its west and north great man," does not necessarily ac- sides are hollowed into slips and cept his purpose and intent in its docks, in one of which lies the “ Ville


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