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former element predominated the reproach of national tyranny and inaccursed institution of slavery roused justice we are still pure ; and whether all the world against her. It was to we are hereafter to stand or to fall, the other element, shown in idle we must for ever be an example to the luxury and the pride of wealth, that world, as the first nation that has Spain, at a time when she seemed wielded its power, not in selfishness striding onward to European do- or cruelty, but in beneficence. minion, owed her fall.

Nor have our late terrible trials With thankfulness we feel that passed away without assuring us that from neither of these sources of ruin we are free from all symptoms of has the faintest cloud yet dark- moral decay. When the war with ened the lustre of British prosperity. Russia began, it was felt that we Wherever our sword has been drawn, were going forth against a long-culit has been that of the protector and tivated warlike power—“a man of the liberator, not of the oppressor war from his youth;" and we assured and enslaver

ourselves with justice that the Pacisque imponere morem,

resources accumulated by a long caParcere subjectis et debellare superbos. reer of peaceful progress would give

the material elements of warlike To no chapters in the proud history strength to us much more abundof our battles can we point with more antly than the development of purely confidence for the vindication of this military power could impart them truth, than to those two last Indian to our enemy. The wealth accumuwars, which, to a heedless observer, lated by our agriculture, manufacjudging of them by analogy with the tures, and commerce, would afford acts of other powers, might be deem- inexhaustible pecuniary resources ; ed to illustrate the spirit of aggres- our shipping would supply a navy sion. What was the chief result of or transport our troops ; the mechathe campaign on the Sutlej, but the nical skill, cultivated for peaceful salvation of the submissive people of purposes, would instantly be turned Hindostan from the

tyrannous rule of to the creation of destructive ena savage soldiery? Seventy thousand gines. strong, with arms and money, and All this was exultingly felt ; but the powerful discipline which old sometimes a scarce audible voice Runjeet Singh had communicated to whispered, What would all avail if them, they thought they might take the repose of a long peace had lost India and keep it to themselves. The to us our ancient hardihood and bloody reign of anarchy and extir daring—the ardour that ever panted pation which such an oligarchy would to be forward - the cool courage have held had they been successful, never fluttered into panic, and the can be conceived only from the scenes stubborn endurance that seemed to which then took place at Lahore, and bring up renewed strength and energy those which befell at Delhi and to the last telling charge, when the Cawnpore the other day. But for desperate labours of the day had that protracted list of bloody battles, broken the strength and spirit of of which Ferozeshah,Aliwal, Sobraon, all besides, allies or foes ? No, they and Chillianwallah are still familiar were not gone ; it was seen at once, to us, the project would have suc- with a throb of pride, when the guns ceeded. And in the last and most fired and the bells rang for Alma, desperate of our trials, who were the that the ancient spirit was not dead. enemies ? Not the docile people of And so it proved during the whole the land for they remained true Crimean war, and has proved even during the temporary paralysis again under still sadder and sterner of the strong protecting hand-but calls, that every class—the prouda pampered soldiery, trained to titled descendant of the Norman inmimic our own supreme warlike vader, the son of the wealthy Saxon tactics, and idly dreaming that the yeoman, the Celt of the Highlands Empire which they thought they and of Ireland, the rough ploughman held for us, they might take and and shepherd of the Lowlands, even hold for themselves. No: from the the restless and not always reputable discontented citizen-all have in their of putting to rights, and while other several grades, and as one deadly sections of the community are underemergency arose after another, not going rectification, the military force only exemplified, but strengthened of the country is surely too important and enlarged, the warlike fame of to be passed over. At such a junctheir ancestors.

ture, it may even, while improving, Indifference or selfishness would fall behind and become virtually denow say, Let us be content; the teriorated if its rate of improvement heart of the army is sound. It has be slower than that of other bodics. been proved by the hottest of fiery It is frequently remarked that the ordeals that our soldiers will do their social evils of the day seem so awful duty; the nation is safe, and we to us, not because they are worse than ourselves are safe. But the history those which our grandfathers could of the past has already emphatically have seen-they are in reality not so proclaimed that there is no safety bad—but because a searching inquiwhere there is national injustice. The sitive age has for the first time exinjustice may fall externally, as on a posed them to sight. But if this be conquered dependeucy-or internally an accurate view, it must open up tous on a race or a class. That our men the perception of new duties and rewill ever stand true in the hour of sponsibilities, since we now know of danger—that they will ever dutifully evils which our ancestors did not see. endure the fatigues and miseries Blind enough, it is true, they must which are inevitable to the lot of war, have been, if they did not know the and are adopted by them in the adop- cruel devastation to which their poor tion of their lot-we cannot doubt. soldiers notonly were liable, but which But if it become known that the they systematically underwent. How soldier, besides the inevitable hard- they died off, and how their value in ships and dangers of his calling, is life and their loss by death were estisubjected to unnecessary cold and mated, could not, we think, be better damp, is dressed in uneasy and in- told than in the following calculation sufficient clothing, is fed on food by a man of literary and political emisordid and unwholesome, and is sur- nence during the latter portion of the rounded by impurities which offend eighteenth century. It will be seen his senses and poison the air he that, for reasons which are in all rebreathes ;—and that he is subjected spects distinct enough, he would like to all these elements of unhappiness to see negro troops, purchased from and unhealthiness, not because they the slave-dealers, serving in the West are the necessary hardships of war, Indies instead of white men. but because their removal would cost money and trouble, which it is “ Of an English regiment in actual desirable to save ;-the soldier can

service of war in the West Indies, fourscarcely be expected to exhibit the fifths die every year of disease ; and, spirit of patriotism towards a coun

therefore, to that extent it must be contry which so forgets him.

tinually recruited On this calculation, a It will at once be perceived that body of 1000 men, to be kept up for


years, will require 4000 recruits. The we are going to found our views on

freight of 5000 men, with their stores, statements and charges which have officers excluded, amounts to L.100,000 ; lately been very prominently before levy money, at L.5, to L.25,000; clothing, the world ; and we shall therefore set at L.3 for 1000 men for five years, and 4000 out with the precautionary remark, men for one year, to L 27,000,- besides that we believe the soldier of the pre- many other expenses which attend Eng. sent day to be in a better condition lish troops, that would not be required than the soldier of the last century. for black troops ; freight of 1000 EngThe question is, whether his condition lish troops home at the end of the war, is as good as it can be made- a ques

L.20,000: inde, in all L. 172,000. Add tion founded on the principle, that British subjects yearly for five years,

to this the loss of the industry of 1000 whatever ameliorations can really valued at L.20, L.100,000 ; and the loss be communicated to it, should not of the industry for every 4000 British be evaded because they are trouble- subjects who died, valued at seven years' some or expensive. This is an age purchase, which is a low enough calculation for men in the prime of life, such as spot at a given time. The one merecruits to regiments commonly are, thod is, by despatching that number, L.560,000 : inde, L.660,000;-the whole with perhaps a small additional pertogether making L.832,000. But the purchase of 1000 negroes in Jamaica, at bringing them to their post hale, san

centage to balance the disabled, and L.40 each, with 100 every year to keep

guine, unharassed, through the most up the number, which is a very large allowance, would be L.60,000; clothing,

careful and costly organisation for

all at 408. a-year, L.11,000 : inde,

their transit and sustenance. The L.71,000. The balance in saving would

other method is, by despatching some be L.761,000.” *

fifty thousand men, in the expecta

tion that, though the remainder be Thus, to keep a garrison of a thou- left dead or dying on the road, a sand men for five years, you must fifth part will reach the point of descalculate on the cost of sending out tination in serviceable condition. Of five thousand men, and on the cost the army of half a million with which of bringing back one thousand, with

Napoleon crossed the Niemen to his the several collateral items of cost

Russian campaign, only twenty thouwhich the inconvenient discrepancy sand recrossed it in returning; and if between the exports and the imports the extermination in this case may occasions. We could even suggest be laid to causes of a wondrous and an element of cost which the astute

peculiar character, yet the waste of calculator has omitted—the support- fife showed itself while operations ing of the widows and orphans were still so far within the bounds thrown upon the parish by the pre- of calculation, that they would not mature death of four thousand out have been undertaken by one who of five thousand men in five years. cared as much for the lives of his Then observe the sound rule of eco- men as for the gratification of his own nomy on which the whole is based. ambition, since more than two-thirds It is the rule, well known to all the of his army had dropped away before comfortable classes, that it is cheaper he first faced the Russians at Smoin the long run to buy a good article lensko. This was an instance of though it be dear. British recruits wastefulness of life fortunately rare may be had at the small charge of £5 in European warfare ; but it is the per head, while each negro costs po prevailing feature in Oriental warfare, less than £40. But then the latter and has been exemplified to a frightcommodity wears so well, that you ful extent in every Russian campaign. can supply the losses by one hundred No doubt, when we are acquainted instead of one thousand in the year with the Russian statistics of the late *The sacrifice of black men is, in war, we shall find the efforts to bring short, only ten per cent of the sacri- troops to the defence of Sebastopol fice of white men ; and when other prove no exception. No British expenses, arising out of the continual general has ever dared to waste his dying and exporting of fresh human men after this fashion. The economy cargoes, are considered, the result in of life, so far as it was liable to be figures shows a very clear profit. It destroyed by actual military opereis not easy to look with equanimity tions, was carried to a chivalrous on such statements, remembering perfection by the Duke of Wellington, that they were matter of practical whose conscientious and humane consideration among statesmen. How, principles have been followed by his after all, the active iniquity of slavery successors, and have been signally seems to dwindle before the passive exemplified by Sir Colin Campbeli. iniquity of letting our countrymen die And yet in our Crimean army, duruncared for! While such things went ing the first winter, the rate of moron, proposals for the abolition of the tality, separate from the casualties of slave trade might well be sneered war—the deaths, in short, from those down as fanciful crotchets.

common causes of mortality which There are two ways of setting down afflict us when dwelling at home in ten thousand fighting men on a given peace-were at the rate of between sixty and seventy per cent per an- of the cause, and has not been casually num: that is to say, any community, and carelessly dropped by the way. living as our soldiers then lived, would lose between sixty and seven- "To pass, when life her light withdraws, ty out of every hundred of its num

* Sir John Dalrymple's Memoirs, App. No. 2.

Not void of righteous self-applause, bers in a year. Further, when we

Nor in a merely selfish cause compare the soldier at home with the In some good cause—not in mine own, ordinary citizen, we find that the To perish, wept for, honour'd, known, deaths per thousand among civil. And like a warrior overthrown : ians in the parish of St Pancras are

Whose eyes are dim with glorious tears, two and a fifth; among the Life When soild with noble dust he hears Guards in the Regent's Park there, His country's war-song thrill his ears, they are ten and two-fifths-five to

Then dying of a mortal stroke, one exactly. The deaths of civilians

What time the foeman's line is broke, in the parish of Kensington are 3.3; And all the war is rolled in smoke." those of the Royal Horse Guards, Knightsbridge, 17.5. Taking all It is but justice to the soldier, that classes of the community between the if he is to die, it should, if possible, ages of twenty and twenty-five, the be thus. Since military glory-the rate of mortality among our soldiersat glory of military service in a good home, takenona low average, is seven- cause—is the reward he seeks, let

him teen in the thousand; while that of at least have it in his death. True, civilians, or the rest of the population, though he find himself sinking is eight and four-fifths—not quite a under the length of an ill-calculated half of the soldiers' mortality. These, march, or freezing to death because with a crowd of like statistics, all a commissary has neglected his duty, tending so clearly in the same direc- or wasting away under the unwholetion that we shall not inflict them some food provided by a knavish on the reader, who probably has al- contractor, a sense of duty may supready gone over them, show us that, port him to the end-but should he let the military commander do what be left no other support? He goes he can to be careful of the lives of to his rest, indeed, to suffer no his men in all those operations which more, and is forgotten with the many are purely military or combative, thousands of others, as time rolls there are other things, not perhaps over their obscure graves; but the strictly of a military character, for debt of injustice is inherited by the the safety of the soldier's life, and in survivors, who in their sorrow should the safety of his life for his preser- have, when it can be justly given, the vation from the misery and torture proud consolation that the husband of disease and a death of hardship, or the father died like a true soldier, which the nation has not yet provided with his back to the field and his for him.

face to the foe. Other forms of death The heroic bargain which the sol- in service require explanations about dier makes with his country is, to accompanying conditions—they may die, if his death will further his be heroic or they may not-but death country's cause. If the cause can be on the field of battle at once tells its duly furthered in any other manner own history to all hearts. and the life can be saved, then it is The art of preserving their own the country's duty to save it without health has probably been more or counting the cost. The soldier may less considered by men since they first dutifully endure the coming of death began to consider anything, although brought to him by disease or hard- it must be confessed that they have ship when he believes it to be inevit- often made a very bad job of it. The able. But that death which has no inquiries of some very clever and enterrors for him, because his soul thusiastic men have lately developed pants for it as the crown of soldier a sphere of usefulness connected with martyrdom, and his nerves are exult- this end, wbich, for want of a better ingly' strung to receive it, is the death name, they have called sanitary in battle, which emphatically pro science. Some of its teachers have claims that the life is lost to the gain doubtless promulgated whims and fallacies, but they have, on the whole, netism, for people admitted long ago proved, by irresistible facts, that there that the gases from decomposing aniare operations and adjustments of mal and vegetable matter are noxious things which can be counted on for to life, and that wholesome food is as saving lives which would otherwise necessary to health in the railway be lost. The peculiar feature of these store or the mess-table as in the new suggestions, when compared private dining-room. But they hare with all previous injunctions for the so fully illustrated the bearings of preservation of health, may be de- general truths on the duties of those scribed thus : Formerly, in all books who have the condition and treator other writings upon health and ment of their fellow-beings in their disease, each individual human being hands, that what was before a diswas appealed to on the best means embodied sentiment or opinion, is of retaining his own health and avoid- now reduced to distinct practical ing disease. The tendency of the precept, illustrated by a crowd of exertions of the sanitarians has been examples. It has been the fate of our to take up the matter at the point army to be among the latest portions where the individual man can do no of the community to reap the harvest more to help himself, since he is sur- of this valuable knowledge. For inrounded by deteriorating conditions stance, when we look at the rules for over which he has no control. The the dietary of our prisoners, we find the poor workman who finds that his following among them:

A change bread is only to be made in a densely of food being beneficial to health, it populous quarter of a large town, is directed that the dinner, on at where there are no drains and no re- least two days in the week, shall ceptacles for impurity – the sailor be different from the dinner on the sleeping in the hold of a ship impreg- other days.”. And as a commennated with poisonous gases--the col- tary on this humane regulation for lier working in an unventilated coal- our thieves and forgers, the Commine, and many others, were inca- mission of Inquiry on the Sanitary pable, by personal exertion, of better-Condition of the Army tells us, ing their own condition, and required that one of the marked peculiarities the intervention of general arrange- of the British soldier is, that he is a ments. However obvious the neces- man who dines every day for twenty sity of considering the position of consecutive years on boiled beef, unsuch persons may seem, yet the world less, of course, when the vicissitudes is full of lamentable instances of the of a campaign relieve the monotony. neglect which they have met with, Then, again, the Surveyor-General of and the history of the whole affair Convict Prisons was examined on venillustrates an often-repeated view, tilation and means of internal purithat general expressions of opinion, fication. Looking on himself as rehowever sound, receive very little sponsible for the health of his conattention, until earnest and enthu- victs, he described the scientific persiastic men work them out to practi- fection of all the internal arrangecal conclusions, and prove, to the ments of his pet prison, Pentonville, amazement of well-meaning but in- of Millbank,—not so perfect a speciactive men, how woefully they have men, since it had been built in the been neglecting their own favourite days of darkness touching sanitary precepts. Such has been the result science, and was not without difficulty of the progress of sanitary labourers. brought within its sphere,--of DartThey have not opened a new object moor, and of Portland. The chairof human inquiry and thought, be- man of the Commission, almost loscause people were taught to keep ing patience at the description of the their feet dry, eat wholesome food, pedantic perfection of the arrangeavoid dissipation, and wash and shave ments for criminals, just after he themselves, before Mr Chadwick was had been sickened with accounts of born. They have not discovered any the filth and unwholesomeness of barnew operation of nature, such as the racks, said to the Surveyor-General, doctrine of chemical equivalents, or whom he knew to be a military man the affinities of electricity and mag- —“What is your reason; take Port

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