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the authors of the science, and are shipped, but by the number delivernot reputed to have given it any ed alive. The contractors now took cordial welcome or assistance. The an altered view of the terms of their functions to which the physician and contract : formerly, it had been to surgeon have hitherto been trained, supply so much ship room and prohave been those of curing diseases visions, now it was a contract to and healing wounds. No one feels a keep people alive, fortified by a pennatural prepossession at first sight alty on each death. The surgeon, for something that is to supersede instead of merely physicking the sick his science, and accomplish the object and treating sores and wounds, was of his labours by other means. With- converted into a sanitary officer, who out any ill feeling to the world, looked keenly to the ventilation of the votary of the curing art has his the ship, the salubrity of the food, heart's affections on difficult and in- and even the habits, generally, of structive “cases ;” and the humane the passengers, as promotive of health hospital-surgeon will feel a private or of disease. They were not to be sorrow in contemplating an array of permitted to deteriorate their conempty wards. The medical depart- dition; it was equivalent to allowing ment of the army has endured some them to cheat the contractor. A obloquy, because its surgical offi- signal decrease in the mortality of cers have not also been sanitary such passengers was the result. officers. But the function was out of The practical conclusion of the the routine of their duties, and there Commissioners on this point is well was no warrant or authority for the put in the following short statement : undertaking if they desired it. No "In civil life, sanitary science as yet doubt, as Sir James Hall explains it, is neither much studied nor widely the regimental or inspecting surgeon spread, nor has the value of its pracwould have something to say about tical application to the ordinary conthe salubrity of quarters or the site ditions of life obtained any very geof an intrenchment, yet these are neral acquiescence. While the tenfunctions merely incidental to the dency to fuse together the practice staple duty of such an officer among of medicine and surgery has thrown the sick and wounded. They are almost the whole practice of the not functions in which he has either country (except that of the great power or responsibility ; and it de- towns) into the hands of the general pends on his relations with the offi- practitioner, a subdivision of labour cers in command, whether any sug- of another kind has simultaneously gestions he makes will be listened to been gaining ground in the medical In private life, indeed, the consulting profession. The study of sanitary physician, whose patient calls him in science has been taken up as a spefor an opinion on the drainage of cialty, and the field has been abanhis house, or an analysis of the doned by the mass of the profession, water in the pump, or even for his to be exclusively occupied by those views about the neighbouring fen who so study it. The names of those or graveyard, might not feel grati- eminent in either branch are perfied by the compliment so paid to fectly well known to the public, who his enlightened views, and his ad- employ the one or the other accordvancement with the spirit of the ing as they want individual sickness age. The sanitary function has yet treated or public sickness prevented. to be defined and adjusted. How It is rare to send for the health offireadily it may come to the hands of cer to treat sickness, or to employ the medical officer, was shown some the eminent practising physician or years ago, through an ingenious ad- surgeon to drain a town or to guard justment which at once created the a district against the approach of transformation on shipboard. The cholera. The fusion between the mortality among Government emi- medical and surgical specialties is in grants to distant colonies, and among the army medical department even penal transportees to Australia, had more complete than in the civil probecome alarming. It was suggested fession ; and if efficient sanitary offithat the shortest remedy was to pay cers are to be obtained, it will be by for their passage, not by the number the encouragement offered by Government to the army medical offi- kept with him. We shall say no cers to make themselves thoroughly more on a matter which we thormasters of the specialities of that oughly discussed while it was yet branch of the medical art, and its fresh.* practical application.”
In conclusion, let us drop for the They propose that a special sani- reader's consideration a few thoughts tary officer should be attached to the upon the question, whether it is deQuartermaster-General's department cent and just, wise and generous, that of every army in the field. As the our country should be given to the watcher over all preventible causes practice of maligning the mass of its of disease or death, the functions of soldiery as a kind of pariah class, such an officer will range beyond when estimated with the rest of the drainage and ventilation, and even citizens of the British empire. It is the salubrity of the foods and liquors. true that we uphold their fame in all As a brief summary of the elements comparison with foreign troops. They of morbid evil permitted to operate are the only men who will stand to upon our force in_the Crimea, we be cut down at their post; they are shall take from the Report of M'Neill the only troops who can be trusted and Tulloch a paragraph, of which in lines against columns, or who can we have no doubt the terms were be handled in small detachments well weighed and carefully revised close to a hostile army. Dupin cribefore the document was issued. ticises as a peculiar nationality the Observing that the returns of sick- superb arrogance with which our ness and mortality relate to matters statesmen and generals have ever beyond the region of their inquiry, spoken of auxiliaries and foreign they say, “But the mortality in the mercenaries when engaged in the Crimea has been too remarkable not same operations with British troops, to excite a strong desire to ascertain, comparing their combination to the if possible, its causes. The medical mixing of gold with the baser metals. evidence appears conclusive against Of late years the national boast has attributing it to anything peculiarly been better grounded than ever. Our unfavourable in the climate; and all standing and fame among the nations the officers, of whatever rank or of the earth, though it may have profession, whom we examined, re- many substantial foundations, has in ferred to overwork, improper diet, late trials and difficulties been upheld exposure to cold and moisture, with chiefly by the soldier. And yet, at deficient shelter, inadequate clothing, home among ourselves, he is still and defective boots, as the causes of spoken of as the black sheep of our disease. Some of the witnesses ap- family. It was predicted that when peared to attribute greater influence the Russian war ceased, and a large to one of these causes, some to an- portion of our army was disbanded, other ; but there can be no doubt that crime would immediately increase. the mortality was the effect, not of It did not. In the interval between any one cause apart from the others, the two wars, the Russian and the but of a combination of the whole.” Sepoy, the number of criminals con
Let us count one of these causes tinued steadily to decrease. Howof mortality, the “overwork,” among ever the survivors of that long stern the sacrifices cheerfully and heroically conflict, in which the enemy was not made by the soldier : there was an the most formidable destroyer, beend to be gained by it which neither stowed themselves, it was not by quartermaster nor commissary could becoming tenants of the jails. In achieve. We had a wide-extended one shape, however, their conduct front and a thin line, and overwork taught an unpleasant lesson: the must make up for the deficiency of disbanded did not come forward on numbers. But the other causes were the new emergency, and raw redeficiencies in things due to the sol- cruits had to be sent to India. dier-due by our engagement with Hence the natural inference is, that him to go where he went to fight our our enlistments bring in high-spirbattles, and the bargain was not ited thoughtless youths, with little
* See “The Crimean Report and Chelsea Inquiry,” in the Number for July 1856 notion of the actual soldier's life come a burden to their country.” and struggles ; that when these The object of the Act was to sweep come upon them, the natural cour- into the army every blackguard in age, endurance, and dutiful feels and out of jail, and it became habitual ing of their race, supported by a to suspend the punishments of atropowerful system of discipline, make cious offenders, and enlist them ; so them go through with what they that to be enlisted in the army, and have engaged for; but that when to be transported to the plantathey have endured all, and find how tions, were but two ways of accomsmall the reward is in any shape— plishing the same object, enjoying a position, repute, or pecuniary recom- common infamy. In the Gentlepense—they are not inclined to re- man's Magazine for April 1744, there sume the same career. We believe appears the following highly satisthat the hard trials and the variety factory statement of the working of occupations improved to useful- of the Act : “A general press began ness by the strict discipline kept up, for recruiting his majesty's regiconverted many of the raw recruits ments and manning the fleet, when who had been taken to the Crimea upwards of one thousand men were into very valuable men for some de- secured in the several jails of London partments of civil duty when they and Westminster, being allowed 6d. were disbanded, and it is satisfactory a-head per diem by the Commisto think that some of them are thus sioners of the Land-tax, who examine occupying positions of permanent them, and send those away that are usefulness, and reaping better re- found fit for his majesty's service. wards than any that awaited them The same method was taken in each in the service.
county." This species of recruiting, When people speak of enlistment with variations, was continued so as the proper refuge for all the worth- long, that Grose, in his Military less scamps of the community, they Antiquities, gives the following acare but repeating a scandal long ago count of its practice in 1780 : All affixed upon our army by Act of the thieves, pickpockets, and vagaParliament. In the recruiting Acts bonds in the environs of London, too of Queen Anne, justices of peace are lame to run away, or too poor to authorised to impress into the ser- bribe the parish officers, were apprevice “such able-bodied men as do hended and delivered over as soldiers not exercise some lawful calling or to the regiments quartered in the employment, or have not some other towns and villages where these banlawful and sufficient support and ditti had lived. The pressed men maintenance.” In the early days of deserted, nor did the regiments on Methodism, a clergyman of that per- which they were imposed take the suasion, named Nelson, was forcibly least pains to prevent their escape or enlisted at Halifax as a person to retake them, as they justly con“having no lawful calling or employ- sidered being thus made the comment."
panions of thieves and robbers a It became the practice in these most grievous and cruel insult, and enlistments to certify that the recruits loudly complained of it as such to had no visible means of livelihood ; their officers.” The legacy bequeathand it is under a literal interpreta- ed to us by these unworthy acts of tion of the definition that Sergeant the Government and Parliament of Kite, in Farquhar's Recruiting Officer, last century is found in the tradisecures a collier, because, “ may it tional taint still attaching to the please your worship, this man has soldier's life—a taint which makes no visible means of livelihood, for he those who would cheerfully give works under ground.” Burnett said their sons as an honourable sacriof the Act when first adopted, “Iffice to their country, lament it as well managed, it will prove of great they would a crime when they hear advantage to the nation, since by this that a youth has “listed.” It is the means it will be delivered from many traditional result of this policy that vicious and idle persons who are be- has seemed to justify a respectable
* MarshaLL'S Historical Details relative to the Military Force, &c., p. 29.
writer of the present age, Dr Wade, soldier, to be knocked o’the head for in speaking of the British soldier in 3s. 6d. a-week.”* terms which are a heavy scandal to This, as we say, comes close to the the country. In his History of the point. Frankly, we would have the Middle and Working Classes he entire condition of the common soldier says: “ The army is mostly filled from uplifted in the social scale, by the exthe same causes which fill the jails penditure necessary to produce that and houses of correction ; it is not result. If we are told that this may choice, but necessity, which compels cost the nation two or three millions, men to enlist therein. Having lost the answer is that they would be well their character, or contracted habits expended. Perhaps some one will of idleness and improvidence which say that the army is not a mercenary exclude them from the better paid profession. This argument may be walks of civil industry, they are con- decorously employed by those who strained to devote themselves to the receive, but not by those who give. hardships and perils of military life.” The parson and the surgeon of the It might perhaps be hard to deter- parish are not perhaps mercenary, mine by rigid law that there is any and yet if each have not a good house sphere of usefulness from which the and clean linen, with the means of reformed offender should be excluded. educating his family, the usefulness But, far from making the army the of his functions will
be impaired, and general refuge for offenders, reformed the position of his children will sink or unreformed, we would hold that, in the scale of civilisation. It may be next to the Church, it ought to be truly urged that our troops cost more counted the last profession in which by the head than any other troops in offenders stained by dishonesty or the world, but yet it is notorious that other degrading crimes can secure a in scarcely any other country is the welcome.
soldier so far below the level of the While the process of degradation other citizen. Until he reaches a was going on, the sagacious Defoe position corresponding to what he uttered in his own rough fashion some holds in other nations, we maintain remarks, which came close to truth that the expenditure assigned to him and soundness on the point. “Why,” is insufficient. From the constitution
are jails rummaged for and habits of this country-especially malefactors, and the Mint and prisons from our way of dealing with the for debtors : The war is an employ- army-money is the sole means by ment of honour, and suffers some which the amendment can be accomscandal in having men taken from plished. We have ceased to be in the gallows, and immediately, from any way a feudal people—we buy all villains and housebreakers, made services in hard cash-and we must gentlemen soldiers. If men wanted pay what they are worth, instead of employment, and consequently bread, attempting, through the flaunting this would never be. Any man would recruiting-sergeant at the gin-house carry a musket rather than starve, door, to obtain them by a combinaand wear the Queen's cloth, or any- tion of fraud and force. body's cloth, rather than go naked, It cannot be doubted that the many and 'live in rags and want. It is plain kind and judicious details of improvethe nation is full of people, and it is ment suggested by the Sanitary Comas plain our people have no particular missioners will materially improve the aversion to the war, but they are not soldier's condition. They come in a poor enough to go abroad. It is pov- shape that cannot be resisted. Their erty makes men soldiers, and drives tenor forcibly reminds us of one whose cowards into the armies : and the latter days would have been gladdendifficulty to get Englishmen to list is ed had he lived to see the great object because they live in plenty and ease; of his life placed in such a train and he that can earn 20s. a-week at for practical accomplishment. Many an easy steady employment, must be readers will anticipate the name of drunk or mad when he lists for a Dr Henry Marshall, Inspector of Military Hospitals, the author of the work discussion and criticism better than to which we have occasionally refer- that which enjoined us to keep a large red, and of other works devoted to well-paid native army in our Indian the grievances of the soldier, and their possessions. The practical refutation remedy. In the following brief em- of the theory has cost us dear. Hencephatic remark in his Military Mis- forth, we apprehend, it will be found cellany, the reader will recognise a that a large British army will be our grievance which has been lately security there. It is a necessity of thundered loudly in the British ear. all arrangements for governing East
* MARSHALL'S Hist. Details, p. 22.
“With respect to the dinner, it may ern races, that those placed over them be observed, that in this country it is should enjoy the benefits of position ; commonly excellent in quality and and the Coinpany have been accusabundant in quantity ; but it is un- tomed to consider this in the large varying-the same kind of articles incomes given to their officers, and cooked in the same manner, from the even in the improved condition of the 1st January to the 31st December. British soldier when serving them. Que le vent souffle au nord, ou qu'il The new force will probably obtain a souffle au midi,
still higher and better - ascertained C'est toujours du bouilli, mais jamais du position, and it would not surprise roti.""
us to see the sons of yeomen and su
perior artisans finding in the ranks Whatever improvement may here- of the Indian army the sort of proafter be attributable to the Report of vision which the sons of our gentry the Army Sanitary Commission, we have enjoyed in the higher branches cannot help thinking that the future of the Company's service. If this of the British soldier is not unlikely should be so, it is needless to say to be brightened by a historical epi- that the continuance of the soldier at sode, which about this time last year home in his present sordidness, while opened in darkness and calamity. cis brother in the East lives like a Certainly no great theory seemed ever gentleman, would prove an anomaly to be better founded-none ever bore not to be tolerated.
THE POORBEAH MUTINY : THE PUNJAB.-NO. V.
LITTLE had occurred during the turned out of the station, and sent latter part of_June to disturb the across the Indus. The 58th Native peace of the Punjab stations. At Infantry at Rawul Pindee, the 14th Lahore the native troops remained Native Infantry at Jhelum, at Sealdisarmed and passive, as also at kote the 46th Native Infantry and a Peshawur, where, however, a more wing of the 9th Cavalry, the 59th rigid surveillance was necessary, and Native Infantry at Umritsur, the more than once the disarmed regi- 4th Native Infantry at Kangra and ments had been detected secreting Noorpoor, and the 2d Irregular native weapons in their lines. The Cavalry at Goordaspore, were still 21st Native Infantry continued to armed, yet nearly all* had more or form an honourable exception to less given signs of a passive disaffectheir Poorbeah brethren, retaining tion. It was generally felt that certheir good name and their arms tainly in some, and probably in all throughout. At Nowshera the 10th of them, were smouldering the emIrregulars, whose very questionable bers of mutiny, which any chance conduct has been already spoken of, breath might fan into flame. And were, by a most admirably concerted the month of July was to witness arrival of Europeans and Moultanees, the outbreak of that long-suppressed disarmed, unhorsed, ignominiously spirit, in a degree even more blood
* The 4th Native Infantry were most free from suspicion ; next to them came the 69th Native Infantry.