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New-Holland ; such as may have fangs in imitation of the ancient Greek and Roought to belong to the genus Natrir, and man writers, given the name of Seathose with cylindrical bodies to the genus Snakes to the large ees or fishes they Pelamis.
happened to observe; this. I apprehend 1. Sp. Ophinectes cinereus, Raf. Cine- is the case with Pontopidan in his Natural revus Ophinectes. Entirely gray or ash History of Norway, with Mongitore in colour.
his remarkable objects of Sicily, with Le2. Sp. Ophinectes viridis, Raf. Green guat in his travels to Rodriguez-Islands Ophinectes. Entirely green.
&c. Their observations, and the facts |_ 3. Sp. Ophinectes luteus, Raf. Yellow they record, are potwithstanding equally O. Entirely yellow.
valuable, since they relate to monstrous 4. Sp. Ophinectes cerulescens, Raf. unknown fishes, which seldom fall under Bluish O. Entirely of a bluish colour. the observation of men. The individuals
5. Sp. Ophinectes versicolor, Raf. Ver- of huge species are not numerous in nasicolor 0. Varied with many transverse ture, either on land and in water, and it is zenes, blue, wbite, red, green, and black. probable they often become extinet for Many species are probably meant here. want of food or reproduction.
6. Sp. Ophinectes maculatus, Raf. Spot. Among the four diferent animals which ted 0. Covered with many irregular large have lately been observed by Americans, spots.-Many species.
and named Sca-Serpents, only one (the 7. Sp. Ophinectes punctatus, Raf. Dot- Massachusetts Serpent) appears to be ted 0. Covered with numberless small such: another is evidently a fish, and two dots.- Many species.
are doubtful. I shall ofter a few remarias 8. Sp. Ophinectes crythrocephalus, Raf. on each. Red-head O. Head of a beautiful red, 1. The Massachusetts Sea Serpent: ·body --
From the various and contradictory ac9. Sp. Ophinectus dorsalis, Raf. Backed counts given of this monster by witnesses, O. Dark green with large spots of yel- the following description may be collectlow and light green on the back.-Length ed-It is about 100 feet long, the body is 3 or 4 feet; Dear Dewitt's land.
round and nearly two feet in diameter, of 10. Sp. Ophinectes major, Raf. Large a dark brown, and covered with long Ophinectes. Green spotted with red and scales in transverse rows; its headisscaly; brown.--Length from 8 to 10 leet; also brown mixed with white, of the size of a from the shores of Dewitt's land.
horse's and nearly the shape of a dog's; This last species appears to be the the mouth is large, with teeth like a shark; largest real sea-snake, which has iallen its tail is compressed, obtuse, and shaped under the personal observation of natural- like an oar. This animal came in August ists as yet. But larger species still have last into the bay of Massachusetts, in purbeen noticed at different periods. If I had suit of shoals of fishes, herrings, squids, the time and opportunity of perusing all &c. on which it feeds. Its motions are the accounts of travellers and historians, very quick; it was seen by great many, I could probably bring many into notice; but all attempts to catch it have failed but this tedious labour must be postponed, although $5000 has been offered for its and I must warn those that may be in- spoils. It is evidently a real Sea-Soakes, clined to inquire into the subject, not to belonging probably to the genus Pelamison be deceived by the imperfect and exagge- and I propose to call it Pelamis megophias, rated accounts of ancient or unknown which means great sea-snake Pelamis. It writers. Whenever they neither mention might however be a peculiar genus, which the scales nor tail of their Sea Serpents, the long equal scales seem to indicate, and or when they assert they had no scales, which a closer examination might have or had gills or fins, you must in all those decided : in that case the name of Megoinstances be certain that they are real phias monstruosus might have been apfishes rather than Serpents. There might propriated to it. however be found some Sea Snakes with- 2. Capt. Brown's Sea Serpent. This out scales, since there are such land snakes, fish was observed by capt. Brown in a and there are fishes with scales and yet voyage from America to St. Petersburg, without fins; but there are no fishes with- in July, 1816, near 60 N. latitude and out gills, and no snakes or serpents with W. longitude, or north of Ireland. In gills ! in that important character the clas- swimming, the head, neck, and fore part. sical distinction consists.
of the body stood upright like a mast; it Nearly all the writers which I can re- was surrounded by porpoises and fishes, member, have been unacquainted with It was smooth without scales, and had that obvious distinction; and they have 8 güts under the neck, which decidedly
evinces that it is not a Snake, but a new 2. It appearsthat anotherlarge species of genus of fish! belonging to the eighth or Water-Snake iz noticed by D. Feliš Azader Treniapnea,mih jamily Ophictiu, and ra, in his travels in South America, (Paris, third sub-Limily Cutremia, along with the 1809. 4 vol. sro.) under the name of gonera Spingebranchus and Synbranchus Curiyni, which may belong to the gems of Bloch, which differ by having only one Pelamis, although this worthy traveller or two round gills under the neck. I has omitted to describe its tail and scales. shall call this new genus OCTIPOS (mean. It may be called and characterized as folin: 3 zills beneatii), whose characters will lows: be-boly round, without scales, (or Pelamis curis. (Curiyu. Azara tr. fins,) head d. pressed, mouth transverse, Vol. I. p. 226.) Spotted and variegated, larz, transverse gills under the neck.- of black and yellowish white. And its specific name and definition will It measures over 10 cet, and is ofthe size be Odlipo: bicolor. Dark brown above, of the leg; it lives in the lakes and rivers mully white beneath, head obtuse. of Paraguay, north of the 31st degree of Capt. B. adds, that the head was two feet latitude. It goes sometimes on land (aniel tous, the mouth 15 inches, and the cy23 shrubs), but moves heavily thereon; it ove, the jaws similar to the horse's-he has a dreadful aspect, but does not bite ; whole length might b. 50 fert.
itlives on fishes, young otters, apercas and 3. The Scarlet Sea-Serpent. This was copibaras. objarved in the Atlantic ocean by the caj). 3. The Water-Snake of Lake Erie has tiinand crew of an American vessel, from been seen again, and described to be of a New-York, while reposing and coiled up, copper colour, with bright eyes, and sixty near the surface of the water, in the sum- feet long. It is added, ihat at a sliort dis. mer of 1818. It is very likely that it was tance halls had no effect on him; but it is a fish, and perhaps might belong to the omitted to mention whether it was owing kine genus with the foregoing; I shall to having har | scales, (in which case it xter it thereto, with doubt, and name it might be a real snoke of the genus ExhyOctips? Coccineus.-Entirely of a hight dris or Pelamis) or to the indexterity of crinison, head acute. Notlijny further the marksman." deserptive was arkied in the Gazettes 4. Mr. W. Lee las brought to notice where the account was given, except that another Sia-Snake', seen by him many its length was supposed to be about 10 years ago, near Cape Breton and New[cat.
foundland, which was over 200 feet long, 1. Lake Erie Serpent. It appears that with the back of a dark green; it stood on our large likes have huge serpents or fish- the water in flexuous hillocks, and went cs, as well as the sea. On the sd July, through it with impetuous boise. This 1917, one was seen in lake Erie, 3 miles appears to be the largest on record, and fron laad, by the crew of a schooner, might well becalled l'elamis monstruosus; which wis 95 or 10 feet lons, and one foot but if there are other species of equal size, in diameter; it; colour waz a dark ma- it must be called then Pelamis chloronotis, hogary, nearly black. This account is or green-back Pelamiz. very imperfect, and does not even notice5. Dr. Samuel Mitchill has exhibited if it hal scales; therefore, it must remain to the Lyceum of Natural History, at the doubtful whether it was a snake or a fish. sitting of the 15ih September, the speciI am inclined to believe it was a fish, un- men of a species of Sea-Snike from his til otherwise convinced; it might be a ri- museum, sent him some years ago from gantic species of eel, or a species of the Guadaloupe, by Mr. Ricord de Mariana, above renus Octipos. Until seen again, which appears to be another new species, and better described, it may be recorded belonging to the genus Enhydris, to which under the name of Anguilla gigus, or githe name of Enhydris annularis may be gantic cel.
given : We shall add its definition and deADDITIONS.
scription 1. The Pelamis megophias,or Great Sea. Enhydris annularis. Ringed Enhydris Snake, appears to have left the shores of - whitish, ringed with black, rings broadMassachusetts, and to have ba:lled the at- er on the back, which is cinereous and ratempts to catch it, probably because those ther angular in the middle; tail broad, atte.npts were conducted with very little short,obluse,with 70 pairs of scales underjudgment. Put a smaller snake, or fish, neath, more than 200 pairs of abdominal 9 feet long, and a strange shark have been scales. taken, of which the papers give no de This animal is about 18 inches long, coscription ; let us hope that they will be vered with smooth and roundish scale described by the naturalists of Boston.. above, the head is depressed, obtuse, small,
• Rafinesque covered with similar scales, and nearly 5. Lxtracts from the Journal of Mr. black, the lips are white; a white half ring Charles Le Raye, relating to some new seis on the pipe of the neck, and extends Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region, on each side over the eyes; a black line with Notes by C.S.R. connects the eyes with the nostrils; an ob- A concise and interesting Topogralong white band lays below the head, lon- phical Description of the state of Ohio, gitudinally ; the nostrils are round, the Indiana Territory and Louisiana, &c. Imouth is small and with a few small teeth; was published at Boston in 1812, in a the body is cylindrical, but the back is small 19mo. volume, by an anonymous slightly carinated towards its centre, and writer, styling himself a late Officer of of anish colour; the black rings are nar- the U.S. Army. To this work, an account row underneath. The tail is only two of the Indian tribes East and West of ibe inches long, very compressed ; the extre- Nississippi, is added; and likewise, ne mity is broader, obtuse, tipped with white, Journal of Mr. Le Raye while a citive and has a slight lateralanne on each side, with the Sioux nation, on the waters of or a protuding longitudinal nerve; a simi- the Missouri. This Journal occupies ler appearance is perceptible on the upper from page 158 to 204, and is replete with and lower edges, which appear to be useful and valuable geographical inforthickened ; the whole tail is covered with nation and natural observations large scales of a transverse and broad Mr. Charles Le Raye, who appears to shape.
have been a l'anadian trader, and an inThis snake is found in the West Indies, telligent man, was going, in 1801, to trade in the sea, particularly on the shores of wiili te Osage nation, when, on the 234 the Island of Guadaloupe.
of October, he was made a prisoner and 6. A fabulous account of a great Water.plundered, liy a party of Sioux or NadoSnake that, according to the Indian trudi- wessies, who were ihen at war with the tion, dwelt in ancient times in a lake near Osares. Ile reinained their captive until Philadelphia, may be seen in Dr. Barton's the rih April, 1815, and during that peMedical and Physical Journal, Vol. 2, p. riod visited many nations on both sides 103. As other indian traditions, relating of the Missouri, such as the Ricaras, to the mammoth, the megalonx, &c. it Mandans, Minetarrecs, and the Crow, the may be parily founded on truth.
Flat-head and Snake Indians. He was 7. The great Sea-Shake has been seen allowed to accompany a hunting party of again towards the middle of September, Minetarrecs (or Menitures or Gros-venin the bay of Massachusetts, and three tres) to the plain of the Yellow Stone yellow collars observed on its neck, which river, and the upper plains of the Mishas led some to believe it might be ano- souri, near the Rocky Mountains. Those ther individual and species; but this cir- excursions enabled him to observe macumstance might have been overlooked ny of the new and rare Quadrupeds of before: it is not stated whether it had those regions, and he appears to have streaks of a lighter hue on the body, as been the first observer, who has noticed the first was represented to have by some them with accuracy, and whose observawitnesses. It is therefore likely that the tiors have been communicated to the two characters of " streaks of a lighter public: Since such observations of (aplue on the body, and three yellow collars tains Lewis and Clarke, as relate to those on the neck," may be added to its de- parts, were only made between 1804 and scription. The collars are described as 1806, and not published until 1814. about 2 inches broad and i foot apart. Those circumstances will render Mr.
8. Dr. Mitchill informs me that Gene Le Raye's observations particularly inral Hawkins has written a Memoir on the teresting. It is from intelligent travelSea-Serpents of Massachusetts, which he lers that naturalists derive their most has sent, with a drawing to Sir Joseph correct and accurate materials: I conBanks ; it is a paper of some length, and sider those furnished by Mr. Le Raye as much interest, as it relates facts and all highly valuable, mostly new, and entitled the circumstances attending the appear- to priority; wherefore they claim the ance and natural history of those huge attention of all those who shall feel any animals, taken upon the oaths of eye- share of interest in the study of the aniwitnesses. He attempts to prove, with mals of North America: and I have been much probability, that several individuals induced to collect them together and ilhave been seen, and two at least, if not lustrate them by appropriate notes or three species ; one with three collars, comments, hoping thereby to rerder another without any, and a smaller one, them of more easy access and utility.
ļ. Page 165.“ During our stay, the Indians killed a decr, which is called the 4. Page 169,-"A species of the badloug tailed deer. It was longer than the ger, called prarow, inhabits these plains, red deer, of a darker colour, and with a (those of the Sioux river.) Its head much white bolly. Its horns are short, small, resembles the dog; legs short and very and some that ilat; its tail nearly eigh- thick in proportion to its body, armed teen inches long. They are said to be with long, sharp claws, well adapted to plenty in those plains." The plains of digging. The size of the body somethe kanzas river.
what exceeds the ground hog; hair of a Vote. This concise description is suffi- dark brown colour, and tail visibly reciently accurate to enable us to ascertain sembling that of a ground hog. It burthat it belongs to a new species of deer, rows and hedges in the ground.” unknown east of the Mississippi, to which Nole. By this notice, the animal Ishull give the name of Corvus macro- might be a marmot or Arctomys instead urus, which means long tailed deer; it of a badger, but as it is called such by may be characterized as follows-homs Le Raye, I will consider it as a new spesomewhat depressed, shorter than the cies of badger, which may be named and tead, body brownish above, white be- characterized as follows-Melcsium praLow, tail elongated.
tense (meadow badger,) entirely of a 2. Page 160.---"An animal is found in dark brown, tail bushy, long claws. these plains (on the Sioux river, north of 5. Page 187.4" Here, (on the Yellow the mi sowi) called the Prairie chien, or Stone river) we killed several Rocky meados dog. It is smaller than the Moutain sheep. The male, or moungrav fox, and formed much like the dor. lain ram, is considerably larger than the Its cars are pointed and stand erect, and female, and has much longer borns. The the whole head very much resembles the boros of the male which we killed, meldoc. lis tail is love, slinr, and of adun sured three feet in length, and five inches colour. It dig holes and burrows in a dirmeter, at his head. This animal is ligt loamy soil, and in the same loles taller than a deer, and has a larger body. a sinall speckled snake takes shelter, It is covered with soft hair of a dun cowhich the Indians call the dog's guard. lour, gradually becoming of a lighter coThe Indians have many superstitious lour towards the belly, which is entirely notious respecting these dogs. The Ay- white. Its horns are shaped, in many 00-12's or. Va procés natio, have a tra- respects, like the horns of rams, or the dition that the hum:in race sprang from common sleep, bending backwards, but this slog and the beaver. All other na- we many rouch knots. Its tail resemtions hold them in great veneration." bles that of the red deer. The legs and
Note. A very imperfect description of feet resemble the sheep, but the hoofs this not species of fox, which I shall somewhat longer. It is swift, and climbs banne Canis chlorops, (green eyed fox, or the ciefts of rocks with so much agility meadow fox) as it is probably the same and ease, that no other animal can follow species botiver described in Lewis and it, and by this means it escapes the Clarke's travels, vol. i. p. 207. Its defi- wolves. Its fiesh is esteemed equal to nition, drawn from bou accounts, may that of the deer.” A figure of this ani
ail clontated, strait and un colour, mal is annexed. eurs long and pointed, eyes green, fur N oie. This species of sheep has been pale reddish brown.
well described by Geoffroy in the annais 3. Page 168.--" A kind of deer is free of the Museum of Paris, vol. 2, page 360, quently killed here, (on the Sioux river) and Desmarets has given to it the name talled mule deer. It is smaller and of á of Oris cervina in the new Dictionary of darker colour than the red deer, having Natural History, vol. 24, page 5, 1614. larg. tranched liorns. The cars are very Yet some American Naturalists persist in tarie, the tail about five inches long with the wrong belief that it is the same anishort dark hair, and at the end a tuft mal as the argali of Siberia, or Ovis amcomposed of long black hair.
mon. It has been well distinguished by Vole. This short account is however being denominated an animal with the characteristic; it belongs to my Cerrus body of a deer, and the head of a ram. hemionus (mule dcer) a new species, akin It is called big-horn by some other trato the Cervus melanurus, or black tail vellers. deer. His description will be-horps ve. 6. Page 189.-“We only hunted the ry branched, longer than the head, ears buffalo, mountain sheep and Cabree. A elongated, body of a reddish brown, tail party was sent to gain the summit of a brown with a black tuft at the end. ridge, so as to pass over the other side,
while the rest of us crawled up, sur. Felis concolor. This species I shall call rounding them on every side, excepting Felis misax, and characterize thus : towards the river. As soon as the signal Tail nearly as long as the body, which is was given, by those who had ascended entirely sallow and unspotted. and gained the opposite side, we all rais- 8. Page 190.--" One of the Indians ed a sudden yell, and sprang out of the killed (near the Yellow Stone river) a beaugrass, and the atfrighted animals instantly tiful wild cat, about one half larger than fled from us, pitched over the precipice, the house cat. Its fur was long and exand were dashed against the stones at the ceedingly fine, covered with black and bottom, where we killed sixty-one. Some white spots on a bright yellow ground. of them fell nearly two hundred feet; Its belly was pale yellow, and its tail but some of them which were near the about two inches long. It is the richest bottom made their escape. it took us looking skin I ever saw.” several days to dress and cure the meat, Note. All the wild cats with short which is cut in thin slices, and dried in tails and only three grinders on each side the sun or by a slow fire.” With a figure of each jaw, form the genus Lynx: This of the Cabree or Missouri antelope. beautiful genus, of which only four have
Note. The Cabree is not described, been recorded, has been increased by me but is figured, and is said in another part to nearly fifteen, in a monography of it, of the work, page 118, to inhabit also the several of which belong to North Amecountry of the Osage. It appears that rica, and among them Leraye's species several animals of the antelope tribe, or shall be distinguished as follows: Lync allied thereto, are found in the western aureus, Bright yellow with black and parts of North America, four of which I white spots, belly pale yellow unspotted, have already ascertained, including this. tail and ears without tufis. 1. The Mazama orina, Raf. (or Ovis mon- 9. The other Quadrupeds seen by Letana of Ord. 1st number of the Journal raye, but not described, are the following, of the Academy of Natural Sciences of which are mostly met between the Sioux Philadelphia) which belongs to an exten- country and the Rocky mountains. sive new genus of animals of the western Lerave.
Notes. continent, where it is the substitute of the Beaver, Castor Tiber, L. antelope tribe of the eastern continent, Otter, 'Lutrix Americana, Raf. the M. pita. Raf. M.bira, Raf. M. pudu. Ermine, Mustela erminea, L. Raf. (Ovis pudu Gmelin,) &c. belonging Marten, - marta? L. to it, and probably many more species. Spotied wild cat, Felis pardalis? L. 2. T'he Mazama caprina, Raf. or Pudu of Bufalo, Taurus crinitus, Raf. North America, of Blainville. 3. The Elk, Cervus coronatus? Geofroy. Cerrus bifurcatus, Raf. (or Antelope bifur- Deer, virginianus, L. caia, of Smith, which is a real species Grizzly, or white bear, Ursus ferox, Raf, of buck, since it has divided horns. 4. Black Bear,
- - niger, Rat. The Strepriceros eriphos, or the Cabree White rabbit, Lepus variabilis, L. of Lerave, and ibex, or antelope of some Lynx, Lynx rufus? Raf. other travellers, which by the figure ap- Mountain cat, -- montanus? Raf. pears to possess the following characters; Fox, Canis virginianus ? L. horns compressed, double the length of the head, tail long and bushy.--My genus HE
BOTANY. Rafinesque Strepriceros includes the species of goats 7 and antelopes with spiral horns.
6. Neogenytum Siculum, or Descriptions 7. Page 189,-“ We killed a wild cat of four new genera of Dicoiyle Sicilian (near the Yellow Stone river) which re
Ver) which red Piants. sembled the domestic cat, and was about They are extracted from my Frag.
Flora the same size. It was of a sallow colour, ments of a
Sicula which I and had a tail nearly of the length of the wrote from memory in January, 1816, body. This little animal is very fierce, about two months after my shripwreck.. and often kills Cabree and sheep by I believe all the characters stated are corjumping on their neck, and eating away
rect; the plants belonging to those genethe sinews and arteries until they fall, ra having all been observed in the snring and then sucks the blood.”
of 1815, were freshly impressed on my Vote. This short notice refers proba
memory. I therefore consider that bly to a new species of cat, very similar
should, hereafter, any slight inaccuracies to the cat seen by captain Lewis, but not be detected in my descriptions, they will killed, (see Travels, page 266,) which I not be material, nor invalidate the egCall Friis fossor, and likewise to the tablishment, characters and classificaVOL. I. yo. II.