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to be regretted that the author has ne. “ Cistus canadensis. Rock Rose. Late glected to notice, by siinilar abbrevia- in autumn this plant sends off curved ice tions, the states, soils and seasons, in crystals from near the root, of a very sinwhich the plants are found. This useful gular structure." We should like to know addition would have rendered his manual that structure. by far more useful in practice, and might " Spergula saginoides. Flower penhave added something to Botanical geo- tandrous. Persoon asks whether this is graphy, by the personal observations of not a variety of Sagina procumbens. the author. A few, (but very few indeed) Professor Ives considers all the American geographical observations are however of- species of Spergula and Sagina, as a nafered through the work. For instance, tural assemblage of plants, which ought it is mentioned that the Iris gracilis of to be united in one genus.” Bigelow is common near New-Hlaven; “Lactuca elongata. Tall lettuce. Dr. that the Lysimacha quadrifolia is found Bigelow calls this the Fire-weed, but the there, with 2 tu C leaves in a whorl; that Fire-weed is a species of Senecio." It is the Zanthoxylum fraxinifolium was found the Senecio hieracifolius, see Pursh. both there and near Williams' College, “ Marchantia polymorpha. Brook liverbut always with pistillate flowers only ; wort. In the spring some of these species that the Beseda luteola was found spon- send up ovate anthers or buds on pellutaneously near New-Haven by Dr. Ives; cid filaments from the disk of the Frond. that the Sarracenia purpurea was found Near the middle of the summer the umin the lakes of the Catskill mountains; brellas appear, bearing the fruit under the that the Arum triphyllum is mostly die- rays.” cious near Williams' College; and that But while we commend what appears the following species of Carex were found to deserve it, we feel compelled to blame there by Professor Dewey, and near what we consider incorrect; and thereNew-Havea by the author, Carer cespi- fore, we must express our surprise that tosa, C. crinita, C. stipala, C. paniculata, Mr. E. should have omitted to distinC. scirpoides, C. festucacea, C. peduncula- guish by the letters L. W. Mx. Mg. and ta, C. varia, C. tentaculata, C. lupulina, P. the species which have been described C. oligocarpa, C. folliculata, C. plantagi- in the first instance by Linnæus, Wildenea, C. conoidea, C. granularis, C. pelli- now, Michaux, Muhlenberg or Pursh, to, C. lacustris, (and var gigantea) and C, &c.; for by this unwarrantable omission vexicaria.
(although a botanist will generally know This manual is rich in vulgar names, the author of each species) students for many of which are peculiar to the New- whom the work is intended, will be unaEngland states, and therefore valuable. ble to ascertain, unless with much trouble Several of them appear to be introduced and the help of many books, who were for the first time to our notice; but as the the authors of each species. Let us hope greatest part are, by the author's own they will not be led to believe that Mr. E. confession, taken from Hosack's cata- is the author of them! logne, Phelp's catalogue, Bigelow's flo- Only three new species and three new rula Bostoniensis, &c. and as the author varieties are introduced in this work, at has omiited to acquaint us with those he least as such; a few more may be blended has taken directly from the vulgar, we are among the underived names, which we not enabled to give him the credit le pro- could not detect on perusal. They hably deserves. Vulgar names are at all are, times a valuable appendage to classical Sp. 1. “ Xylosteum solonis, page 26. synonomy, and indispensable in local Two flowers seated on a germ ; berry botanical writings.
double not distinct: leaves oblong ovate, We have observed with pleasure, some villose. Found on the white mountains interesting observations scattered through of New Hampshire, by Dr. D. Solon, a work, which might be thought to pre and communicated by Mr. C. H. Smith." clude such auxiliary improvements, and This species is exceedingly like the X. we shall notice most of them, since they villosum of Michaux, differing merely by reflect credit on the author.
having the fruits more connected as in the “ Corydalis cucullaria. Colic weed. Mitchella repens Those found near Williams' College are Sp. 2. “ Urlica whill vi, p. 104. Almostly hexandrous (meaning probably bany flax. Leaves alternate, heart ovate, not diadelphous); they have also a two 3 nerved, upper ones opposite, panice leaved bract, so near the calyx in the im- forked, root tuberous. About 6 feet high, mature state, as to give the appearance of discovered near Albany by Mr. Ch. Whita four-leared calyx."
low." This species was described for the
first time in Mr. Green's Catalogue of the it is described with geminated, entire Plants of the State of New-York. acute leaves, which does not answer to
Sp. 3. “ Hydnum chrysorhizon, p. 140. any American species we are acquainted Paper Punk. Membranaceous, flat, with. spreading, stemless, root yellow filiform, The Martynia proboscidea is not a naextending along the grains of decaying tive of the northern states; it has never timber. Discovered by Mr. Torrey.” It been found above the Potomac, and must belong to the genus Odontium of even there it appears naturalized. Rafinesque: Odontia section of Per- The Betula lenta var. lutea or yellow soon.
birch, is probably the B. excelsa of WilVar. 1. “ Anthoxanthum odoratum var. denow and Pursh. altissimum. Larger, and of a darker Mr. E. has omitted to notice as exotics green: found by Dr. Ives."
the following plants, Rosmarinus officinaVar. 2. “ Hepatica triloba var. acuta. lis, Dionea muscipula (native of NorthCalyx leaves acute, leaves 3 to 5 lobed Carolina only), Hortensia Speciosa, Goracute. Perhaps this variety ought to donia franklini, Ficus carica, &c. constitute a new species. The specimen He has two genera with double names ! found by Professor Dewey, near Wil- which is an unaccountable blunder, viz. Tiams' College, are much firindr in their Limnelis or Dactylis! and Bartonia or texture than the common kind, and dif- Centaurella! In the first instance, Dactyfer materially in their general habit. lis is the real name, Limnetis being a dif
Var. 3. “Prunella pensylvanica, var. ferent genus which he has called on the ovata and varlanceolata, two varieties with authority of Roth by the erroneous name ovate and lanceolate leaves."
of Sparlina, a diminutive of Spartium. The author has introduced very few of In the second instance, Bartonia is the the new species of Pursh, and other late real name, Centaurella being erroneous, writers; he has however adopted the two as it is a diminutive of Centaurea. new species of Dr. Bigelow, the Iris gra- He has not adopted the good genera of cilis and the Bunias edentula ; but only Chimaphila Pursh, and Hedeosma Perone of the new species of Rafinesque, the soon; but he has adopted the erroneous Vicia milchelli : On this occasion he has generic denomination of Orizopsis Mifallen into two singular mistakes. Ist. He chaux, derived from Oriza, which Rafiasserts that this last plant was found last nesque has changed in Dilepyrum since stummer by Dr. Mitchill, and named so by 1308, and Fluvialis Persoon, too much C.S. Rafinesque, while it was sent by Dr. like an adjective, and previously named Mitchill to him in Philadelphia, in 1803, Cavolinia by Wildenow and Decandolle: and described by him as such in 1814, in also Diphascum similar to Phascum, which a pamphlet which bears the title of Precis must be changed in Diphas. des Descouvertes Somiologiques, &c. and He has changed the name of Clitoria in which 5 new genera and 40 new species into Vexillaria, on the authority of Sir of American plants are described. 2d. James Smith's criticism, who however He gives to Mr. Rafinesque the title of did not venture on such a change ; but as an Italian naturalist. Of the title of a na- it happens that this new name is good, turalist we believe Mr. R. will always be and that the genus Clitoria must be di* proud, but he never dreamt of being an vided in two distinct genera, we shall Italian, any more than the American citi- adopt it for one of them. zens who travel and reside in various parts Cymbidium coratiorhizon is again introof Italy! If these were to be taken as a duced in the American Flora, after being standard of Mr. E's accuracy, we are left off by Pursh, and is distinguished sorry to say that it would give us a very from the C. odontorhizon, by its oblong unfavourable opinion of it.
acute and undivided lip; both are stated We shall endeavour to state some to have a white leafless sheathed stem., other errors scattered through this work; We apprehend there is here an oversight, we presume they are in greater number or a new species is probably meant; we than we have been able to detect on at know of a third one unnoticed by Pursh, tentive perusal; but such as have fallen which has yellow stems, and a spotted under our observation, will convey a ge- elliptic obtuse crenate lip. We think neral idea of their nature.
those plants may form a peculiar genus The Physalis alkekengi of Mr. E. must very distinct from Cymbidium, to which be some other species of Physalis, since the name of Clarorhiza may be given: that species does not grow in America; our new species shall be called Cl. macuor it may be the cultivated European lata. plant, which ought to have been stated; The Satyrium bracteatum of Wildenow VOL. I. NO. V.
and Persoon, but omitted by Pursh, is with one or two species of each genus. adopted: this is probably right.
He acknowledges that he has compiled Two species of Villisneria are noticed this part from various modern authors; as follows. 1. V. Americana (Tape grass) the Vosses from Sprengel, the Li hens leaves linear, peduncles straight. 2. V. from Acharius, the Fungi from Turten, Spiralis, peduncle of the fruit spiral, leaves &c.; but as the species amounting to 12, Linear with tapering base. We doubt of exclusive of ferns, have all been found in the identity or existence of this last, as the New England states, they become a stated ; we should have liked to know on new addition to our Flora : whence we what authority it is admitted. Pursh has covsider that their enumeration may be not found it, nor did we ever hear of it deemed a valuable supplement to that littill now; if really distinct from the V. te work, and regret it could not be more Americana, it will be probably another extended at present. But we hope, that in new species.
a future edition, such as the author opThe Xylostroma gigantea (Leather pears to have in contemplation, he will punk or Oak leather) with parallel fibres, not forget his promise to enumerate all filling the interstices between the clear. the plants of the northern states, including ages of decaying wood; is well known the cryptogamous, and we invite him at to us as different from the European spe- the sanio time to correct the errors which cies: many species are probably blended it has been our duty to point out. under the vulgar denomination of Punk; We had omitted to state, that in the and they deserve to be studied.
preamble to this manual, and the notes Many errors of the pross are besides to occasionally interwoven, there is some he noticed over the whole work; but for additional and practical information for these the author is not to be blamed, since the student, but little that descrves to be he declares that he lives at a distance recorded. from Albany. It is much to be regretted, Upon the whole, vre deem this compithat our printers should be so ignorant, lation a practical and useful one (but by and not yet in the habit of employing one no means classical,) so far as it extends, lightened correctors, whence it arises that making allowance for the unavoidable very few, if any, works on physical and errors in works of this kind, when unmathematical sciences, are printed cor- dertaken in haste by young botanists, not rectly in the United States.
perfectly acquainted with the state of the The whole of this manual is written in science. We should, however, feel very our vernacular language, an example unwilling to discourage similar attempts i worthy of imitation in local works; but of the same author or any other, but unfortunately the technical language of should merely recommend thera to ac. Botany is not yet thoroughly fixed with quaint themselves thoroughly with the us, notwithstanding the labours of Mar- laws, language, and situation of the science tyn, Milne, Smith, Barton, and even Mr. both at home and abroad, before they Eaton, as they are in the Latin and venture to publish their lucubrations and French languages: many terms are arbi- observations; and we ought to warn them trary for want of a translator of para. against mistaking partial or superficial mount authority. Mr. E. has followed his knowledge, for requisite attaininent and own translation, but many of his terms needful science. appear rather awkward and at variance In particular reference to the author of with the above authors; we shall not, this work, in which we are happy to perhowever, undertake at present to criticise ceive much zeal and knowledge, we ad. them, lest our attempt might be deemed vise him by all means to persevere in his preposterous.
worthy pursuits, but let him endeavour * Any endeavour to elucidate the subject to acquire such additional informatien as of American cryptogamy, must be wel- may be requisite, in order to enable him come to the lovers of Botany, while the to improve his future labours, and it would subject remains so deeply involved in ob- be more gratifying to perceive him herescurity ; they will therefore receive with after directing them towards works of a pleasure the first attempt of Mr. E. who original nature, or to the statement of has begun to illustrate the whole subject, facts and observations, rather than the by giving us the genera ncarly complete, compilation of names and phrases.
'C. S. R.
1 Ant. O MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES,
By C. S. RAFINESQUE, ESQUIRE.
1. Dissertation on Water Snakes, Sea istence, believing that eels or similar fshes Snakes and Sea Serpents.
had been mistaken for snakes. THENEVER a singular phenome- Russel was perhaps the first writer who
non, or an extraordinary natural established their existence beyond a doubt, occurrence, happens to be observed in by describing and figuring many of them, the U.S: whether spots in the Sun, huge in his splendid work on the snakes of the fossil bones or sea serpents, a crowd of su- Coast of Coromandel. Schneider estabperficial writers hasten to offerus, instead of lished for them his genus Hydrus, which facts, their own ideas and conjectures on wrong name has been with much proprithe subject, which prove, sometimes, more ety changed in Hydrophis. They have or less ingenious; but often wild, incor- since been described in all the works on rect, or ridiculous. They are generally Erpetology, by Shaw, Latreille, Dauding so much taken up by their own fancy, &c. and those last writers have divided that they forget entirely to consult former them into four genera, Enhydris, Platuwriters of eminence on the same sub- rus, Pelamis, and Hydrophis : which form jects, should they even happen to know a peculiar tribe or natural family in the of their existence; what idea are we to order of snakes, to which I have given the entertain of their attempts to explain those name of Platuria (Platurians, Flat tails or subjects, without availing themselves of Water Snakes): they are completely disthe v. luable writings of Herschell or La tinguished from the land snakes, by havPlace, Cuvier, or Pinkerton, &c.? in whose ing a compressed tail, which serves them works they had been previously and often as an oar and rudder, enabling them to completely illustrate it. Let us listen to a swim with great swiftness, and from the vroup of children attempting to reason fishes of the eel tribe, by having neither and argue on the rising of the sun, an gills nor fins. They breathe through eclipse of the moon, on the economy of Jungs, at remote periods, whence they the bees, or on the structure of a whale, generally live near the surface of the wawithout asking any previous questions to 'ter, like the animals of the whale tribe, their parents, and we shall find a great They prey on fishes and sea animals, and similarity between their thoughts and some of them have venomous fangs. those of many of our speculative writers. Many are known to come on land as tur They often contribute to render contempt. tles, to deposit their eggs. ible the subject of their inquiries, at least About fourteen species of Water Snakes towards the vulgar, while it would other- have been described by the above authors; wise become at all times deeply interest- ten more are noticed in the travels of ing; and should their crude speculations Peron to Australia or New-Holland, one ever reach Europe, they will certainly af- of which was ten feet long; and lately seford very unfavourable specimens of our veral monstrous species have been seen knowledre and attainments in sciences. near our shores. Many others appear to These reflections have naturally suggested have been perceived by former travellers, themselves to my mind on the present and very probably a great variety are occasion.
known to sailors. The knowledge of these The ancients gave the name of Water animals is merely emerging into notice, Snakes and Sea-Snakes to many fishes of and may yet be greatly improved. I shall the Eel tribe, which bear an apparent like not pretend to assert that they are as nus ness with land snakes, although they dif- merous as land snakes, but it is very likely ter materially on examination, by having that one hundred species at least of this fins and gills, and neither lungs nor scales. tribe exist in the waters of the ocean,
Many land snakes are in the habit of lakes and rivers. Intelligent travellers, going into the water, in pursuit of their seamen and fishermen, will gradually food or to escape their enemies, and they make us acquainted with them: meanhave often been called Water Snakes time, I shall endeavour to give a concise when found in that element.
account of those we know, which may Real Water and Sea Snakes had been facilitate their future observations, and I noticed at a very early period by naviga- shall arrange my labour in a sir optical ortors, in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian der, concluding by some remarks on the Seas; but as they had not been described, Sea Serpents, which are merely Sat entinent naturalists brad doubted their ex Snakes, of a very large size.
2. Sp. Platurus laurenti Raf. Tail Water Soakes, with a compressed or de obtuse. pressed tail, and a scaly body. (No fins IV. Genus. HYDROPHis Latr. Daud. and no gills.)
(Hydrus Schneider.) Body cylindrical, I. Genus. ENHYDRIS Latreille, &c. with equal scales in parallel rows, mouth (Hydrus Schneider. Coluber Pallas Dau- with fangs, tail compressed, scales as on din.) Body with transverse scaly plates the body. underneath, mouth with sharp teeth but 1. Sp. Hydrophis chittul Latr. Chittul no fangs, tail compressed, with two rows Hydrophis. White, with many zones of of scaly plates underneath, and often one a light blue, tail obtuse, 306 scales in each or two nails at the end.
row of the body, 48 in the caudal rows. 1. Sp. Enhydris cuspia Latr. Caspian Found in India by Russel, length 3 feet, Enhydris. Back cinereous olivaceous, very poisonous as well as the following with 4 rows of round black spots, 180 ab- their bite kills in a few minutes. dominal plates, 70 pair of caudal plates. 2. Sp.' Hydrophis cyanura Raf. (H. Found by Pallas in the Caspian Sea, the hoglin Latr.) Hoglin Hydrophis. Blue Wolga, &c. 3 feet long.
above, yellow underneath, 508 scales in 2. Sp. Enhydris piscator Latr. Fishing each row of the body; tail entirely blue, Enhydris. Yellowish brown, with many with 48 scales in each row. Also found small round black spots, in oblique rows in the East Indies by Russel, length two and black line, 152 abdominal plates, and feet and half. 24 pairs of caudal plates. Found by V. Genus. Pelamis Daud. (Hydrophis Russel in the swamps of India, 5 feet long. Latr. Hydrus Schneider.) Differing from
S.Sp. Enhydris palustris Latr. Swamp Hydrophis, by having no fangs, and thereEnhydris. Yellow brown, with rhom fore being harmless. boidál brown spots, edged with black, tail 1. Sp. Pelamis bicolor Daud. (Hydrowhitish underneath, 140 abdominal plates, phis platura Latr.) Bicolor Pelamis. 49 pairs of caudal plates. Found by Black above, whiteunderneath, tail roundRussel in the swamps of India, 2 or 3 ed at the end. Found by Forster in the feet long.
Pacific Ocean. 4. Sp. Enhydris cerulea Latr. Blue. 2. Sp. Pelamis schneideri Raf. (PelaEnhydris. Body blue, belly and tail yel- mis bicolor Var. Daud.) Schneiderian Pelow, with a blue line in the middle, 159 lamis. From the East Indies. abdominal plates, 52 pairs of caudal plates. 3. Sp. Pelamis fasciatus Daud. (HydroFound by Russel in the rivers of India, 2 phis lancicauda Latr.) Zoned Pelamis. feet long.
Sallow, with transverse brown zones, 200 5. Sp. Enhydris rhyncops Latr. Beak- scales in each row of the body ; tail, laned Enhydris. Head partly black, with a ceolate acute, with 50 scales in each row, bill shaped snout, body dark gray, throat Described by Vosmaer and Russel, from and belly yellowish, 144 abdominal plates, the Indian Archipelago, &co 59 pairs of caudal plates. Found in the 4. Sp. Pelamis marginatus Raf. (HyEast Indies by Russel, length four feet and drophis Shootur Latr.) Shootur Pelamis. half, perhaps a peculiar gemis.
Blue, scales slightly edged with yellow, II. Genus. Natrix Raf. (Enhydris many narrow transverse yellow stripes on Latr. Daud.) It differs from the fore, the back: very faint posteriorly, 332 scales going, by having a broad head, (per- in the rows of the body; tail lanceolate, haps with fangs) a narrow neck, the ab- with 40 scales in each row. Found by domen carinated, &c.
Russel in the swamps of India, perhaps an 1. Sp. Natrir dorsalis Raf. (Enhydris Hydrophis. dorsalis Latr. Daud.) Dorsal Natrix. 5. Sp. Pelamis fuscatus Raf. Brown Dirty white, with a black sinuated dorsal Pelamis. Entirely of an olivaceous brown, stripe, 43 pairs of caudal plates. A very scales very small, tail obtuse. I have obsmall species, about 1 foot long.
served it in the Mediterranean, near the · III. Genus. PLATURUS Latr. Daud. shores of Sicily, where it is called Serpe(Hydrus Schneider.) Differing from En- demari (Sea Snake,) along with many hydris, by having tangs, and the tail with real fishes: length 2 feet. two scales at the top.
VI. Genus. OPHINECTES Raf. Dif1. Sp. Platurus fasciatus. Latr. (Hy- fering from Pelamis by having a comdrus colubrinus Schn.) Zoned Plature. pressed body and a carinated or angular Cinereous above, with broad brown zones, abdomen.-Iarrange in this new genus, all tail acute. Length 2 feet, from South the Sea Snakes, mentioned in Peron's America and the East Indies: many spe- Travels; they were all found on the westcies are probably blended here,
ern and southern shores of Australia or