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maps extant, I conclude that I have where they have seen pale men and · strong grounds on wbich to found the great boats, &c. These I should natufollowing geographical opinions, viz. rally conclude were Europeans, with

Ist, That the great Desert is much vessels ; and that it takes three moons higher land on its southern side (as I to get there, (about eighty-five days) had proved it to be on the north by my at the rate of thirty miles a day, which awn observations) than the surrounding is the least we can give thein with so country, and consequently that its strong a current; it makes a distance whole surface is much higher than the from hence to the sea of about two thouland near it that is susceptible of culti- sand five hundred miles : in computing Fation. 2dly, That the river which this distance, one-third or more should Sidi Hamet and his companions came be allowed for its windings, so that the to within fourteen days ride, and west whole length of the river is above four of Tombuctoo, called by the Arabs thousand miles, and is probably the el Wod Tenji, and by the negroes, longest and largest on the African contiGozen-Zair, takes its rise in the moun- nent. 5tbly, That the waters of this tains south of, and bordering on, the river in their passage towards the east, great Desert, being probably the north- have been obstructed in their course by ern branch of that extensive ridge in high mountains in the central regions of which Senegal, Gambia, and Niger this unexplored continent, and turned rivers, have their sourses; and that this southwardly; that they are borne along river is a branch of the Niger, which to the southward, between the ridges runs eastwardly for several hundred of mountains that are known to extend miles to Tombuctoo, near which city, all along the western coast, from Senemany branches, uniting in one great gal to the gulf of Guinea, and to round stream, it takes the naine of Zolibib, and with that gulf to the south of the equacontinues to run nearly east, about two tor: that they are continually narrowhundred and filly miles from Tombuc- ed in and straitened by that immense too ; when meeting with high land, it is ridge in which the great river Nile is turned more south-eastwardly, and run. known to have its sources; and which ning in that direction in a winding mountains lie in the equatorial region: course, about five hundred miles, it has that this central river receives, in its met with some obstructions, through lengthened course, all the streams that which it bas forced its way, and form- water and fertilize the whole country, ed a considerable fall: for Sidi Hamet between the two before mention d having spent six days in passing the ridges of mountains: the waters thus mountains, came again near the river, accumulated and pent up, at length which was then filled with broken rocks, broke over their western and most feeand the water was foaming and roaring ble barrier, tore it down to its base, among tbem, as he observed, “most and thence found and forced their way dreadlully.” This must be a fall or to the Atlantic Ocean, forming what is rapid. 3dly, That from these falls, it now known as the river Congo. In runs first to the south-eastward, and corroboration of this opinion, some men then more to the south, till it reacbes of my acquaintance, who have visited Wassanah, about six hundred miles, the Congo, and traded all along the wbere it is by some called Zolibib, and coast between it and the Senegal, affirm, by others Zadi. 4thly, That as the in- that the Congo discharges more water babitants of Wassanah say they go first into the Atlantic, taking the wbole year to the southward, and then to the west- together, than all the streams to the ward, in boats to the great water ; this northward of it, between its mouth and I conceive must be the Atlantic Ocean, Cape de Verd.'

. Arr. 7. Memoirs of my own Times: by General James Wilkinson. . 8vo.

.. 3 vols. Philadelphia. Abraham Small, Printer.

THIS is, unquestionably, a work of is quite too much of it in the General's

1 great magnitude,--and of some im. Book. The second and third volumes portance. But its plan is so desultory of his Memoirs are filled with the deand its contents are so anomalous, that tails of his persecutions, with ibe proivé hardly know how to attempt a de- ceedings of courts of Inquiry and courts lineation of the one, or a classification Martial, and with the multifarious evi. of the other. So inuch of the work, in- dence requisite to the vindication of deed, is made up of controversy, which, his patriotism, valour, and capacity. though of a personal nature, has a po- Yet these recitals are plentifully interlitical bearing, that we are almost pre- spersed with reflections, not merely on cluded, by the restrictions which we events, but on characters. It is obvibave imposed upon ourselves, from en- ous that this part of his work offers littering into a consideration of its merits. tle allurement to the general readerWe do not mean to violate the pledge though by the statesman and soldier, it we have given, by taking any side in will neither be read with indifference, the General's quarrels, or pretending to nor lightly prized. pronounce upon the relative deserts of The first volume is more attractive, the parties. We may be permitted, and will always be perused with interhowever, to say that there is an acri. est, by readers of every description. mony in his resentinents, and a coarse. About half of it is occupied in describness in his invective, that no provoca- ing those scenes and occurrences of the tion can justisy. He who appeals to revolutionary war with which our authe public, owes some respect to the thor was connected: this portion of the tribunal to which lie prefers his com- work comprises much valuable inforplaints, however little of that sentiment mation. General Wilkinson's official be may entertain for his adversaries. situation and the opportunities incident Violence is generally resorted to in the to it, have put it in his power to elucideartb of argument, and brings suspic date many transactions that had been cion on the best cause. A degree of either misunderstood or misrepresentdignity is inseparable from innocence ; ed. He has furnished us, too, with and consciousness of truth disdains as many anecdotes of his distinguished coseveration.

temporaries, tending to illustrate their Meinoirs are a very popular species characters, and the circumstances of of writing ; and happily suited to Gene- the times. He has taken pains to inral Wilkinson's propensities. It is the troduce us into the very centre of the most inoffensive mode of gratifying gar- camp, and to bring us acquainted with rulity, since it is at the option of every its bustle, its confusion, and its distresses. one whether he will be a listener, or He does not disguise the object which not. But egotism in any shape should has induced bim to paint in such sombe administered in moderation. There bre shades the sad realities of war. He avows his wish to check the mistaken impulse, which can excite men of senardour of his countrymen in the pur. sibility to seek such scenes of barba

.rism; I found the courageous Colonel suit of the phantom of military glory.

1. Cilley a straddle on a brass twelveHe justly ridicules the rodomontade pounder, and exulting in the capturewith which we have celebrated the whilst a surgeon, a man of great worth, must trivial successes, and deprecates who was dressing one of the officers, the subserviency with which sturdy re. raising his blood-besmeared hands in a

frenzy of patriotism, exclaimed. Wilkinpublicans can bow to a victorious chief, *

el, son, I have dipt my hands in British however indebted to fortune for bis tri blood. He received a sharp rebuke umphs. He sees in this fondness for for his brutality, and with the troops I military fame, this disposition to mar. pursued the hard-pressed flying enemy,

passing over killed and we'inded, until nify military achievements, and this

I heard one exclaim, “protect me, Sir, alacrity to fawn upon military heroes, against this boy.” Turning my eyes, a pregnant source of calamity to our it was my fortune to arrest the purpose country, and of danger to our most va- of a lad, thirteen or fourteen years old,

sow in the act of taking aim at a wounded lued institutions. General Wilkinson "

." officer who lay in the angle of a wormis not singular in his apprehensions in fence. guiring his rank. he answer. this regard. We bave heard that a ed, " I had the honour to command the gentleman who bas occupied be bigb- grenadiers;" of course, I knew him to est station in our govemnent, and be

and be Major Ackland, who had been

brought from the field to this piace, on whose interest in its welfare has not

" the back of a Captain Sbrimpton, of his ceased with bis administration of its own corps, under a heavy fire, and was affairs, has intimated an intention, at here deposited, to save the lives of both. some period, to raise his warning voice I dismounted, took him by the hand, against so alarming a predilection.

and expressed hopes that he was not

, badly wounded; “not badly," replied As a faithful picture of a battle this gallant officer and accomplished ground, where .grim-visayed war is gentlernan, “but very inconveniently, , rioting in recent desolation, we take I am shot through both legs; will you, the following extract from General Wil. Sir, have the goodness to have me con

veyed to your camp ?" I directed my kipson's account of the action between

een servant to alight, and we listed Ackland the armies of General Gates and Gene- into his seat, and ordered him to be ral Burgoyne, on the 7th of October, conducted to head-quarters.' 1777.

The painting of the Baroness Rei. · The ground which had been occupi. desel is not less vivid, when she deed by the British grenadiers presented a scribes the dreadful scenes she was scene of complicated horror and exulta- comel

la compelled to witness in the British tion. In the square space of twelve or fifteen yards lay eighteen grenadiers in camp. We have never seen the narthe agonies of death, and three officers rative of the Baroness, of wbich Gene. propped up against stumps of trees, two ral Wilkinson has presented us with of them mortally wounded, bleeding, some spirited translations. We are sorry and almost speechless; what a specta. cle for one whose bosom glowed with

in that we have not room for the extracts of -pbilanthropy, and how vehement the this journal of the Baroness, with which

VOL. I. NO, I.

the General has favoured us, and which other, perhaps an abler officer, wbose are replete with interest.

character and dispositions we may The following anecdotes exbibit two

have to learn.” The General acknowillustrious men who have long been red to him, but with noble frankness

ledged these reflections had not occuralike the objects of veneration, in a admitted their force, thanked Colonel view equally honourable to both. Hamilton for bis suggestion, and the . During my intercourse with Gene. expedition was abandoned. I had heard ral Hamilton at New-York. in 1799. of this incident, and making inquiry of our official engagements produced fre- be

: General Hamilton relative to the fact, quent references to the opinion of he gave me the preceding details. General Washington, and I embraced

mbraced On other occasions, when in conthe occasion. to obtain a more distinct versation respecting this great man. view of the private character of that General Hamilton observed, that it was great man than our military relations

difficult to decide, whether General bad permitted.

Washington was greater in the field or There may be many living witnesses in the cabinet; be said the world had of the fact. That Sir Henrỳ Clinton, very nalurally decided in favour of his whilst he cominanded in New York.oc: military capacity, but from the sum of cupied the house of Captain Kennedy,

of Captain Kennedy his observations, he considered him at of the British navy, near the battery ; least equally. S

least 'equally sound as a statesman; for and that there were no buildings at that whatever might have been the jealoutime between it and the river. In these

sies or the insinuations of party, it was quarters the chief reposed in security

no humiliation to him to acknowledge, with the ordinary ground in front, rely.

that he had in council frequently differing on naval protection for salety in his ed in opini

his ed in opinion with President Washingrear. General Washington had by his ton

d by his ton, and that events had generally spies ascertained precisely

The in proved that he was wrong, and the Presi

the ap- pro proaches, not only to Sir Henry's quar

dent right. But he dwelt on a specific ters, but to his bed-chamber, and the

trail in General Washington's characenterprise appeared so feasible, that he ter, which it were devoutly to be wishdetermined to carry him off. The ar. ed his successors could imitate ; this 'rangements were made for light whale- was,

cht whale. was, that in “all appointments to office, boats with muffled oars. and 150 Mar- wherein he was especially called to exer. blehead seamen, properly commanded ;*

napdedit cise his own judgment, he nobly divested every thing being ready, the detach- hiinsely of sympathy or antipathy, and ment waited for the approach of night;

of night: made what he considered the fitness of in the interval Colonel Hamilton took

Hamilton took the agent to the office the ground of his occasion to observe to the General, that choice ;" as an evidence of the fact, he “there could be little doubt of the suc- mentioned, that'

ve mentioned, that “ Colonel Pickering, at cess of the enterprise, but,” said he, me “ have you examined the consequences general, was no favourite of President of it?" The General inquired in what Washington, but that he knew the Colorespect?" " Why," replied Hamilton, nel to be a man of industry and method, “ it has occurred to me that we shall and had confidence in his integrity; and rather lose than gain by removiny Sir as to anyselj," said he, there had been Henry Clinton from the command of for some time such a standing, or misthe British army, because we perfectly understanding. between us, that I had no understand his character, and by taking more expectation of office than I had of bim off we only make way for some being appointed Pope's nuncio, when I * As well as I recollect, Col. Humphreys,

received ihe invitation to take charge of of Connecticut, an aid de camp to the Gene the treasury department.That a coolral, was selected for this seryice.

ness bad taken place between the Com

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mander in Chief and Colonel Hamilton, respect of the world; my humble suftowards the close of the war, and that frage could add nothing to the fame of the Colonel had left his family, was no- General Washington, atier be bas merittorious, but there were very few per- ed the plaudits of mankind, by the rare sons acquainted with the cause, which example of a military cbief, who, bav. I shall now submit to my readers, as ing led the armies of his country, correctly as memory will serve me, to the establishment of her inde penand should l' commit an error, will reler dence, peaceably and proudly laid to General St. Clair for correction, who down his arms, and sought bis reward is the only man living, within my know. in the bosum of bis fellow-citizens. But ledge, acquainted with the facts. I will gratify the reader with a fac si

The army was encamped at New. mile of the beads of General WashingJersey at some point east of the Rari. ton's first official letter, dated at Cam. ton, and perhaps at Perackness. The briiige, July 10th, 1775, to the PresiGeneral was just mounting bis horse, to dent of Congress, which will perpevisit his advanced post, when be recol. tuate the character of his manuscript, lected a letter he had recently received and record the extent and accuracy of from the British commander, which it bis knowledge, in all the variety of occurred to bim he might bave occasion military details, a subject little underfor whilst at the lines; he called Colo- stood in this country at that period, and pel Hamilton, and requested bim “to of wbich his own opportunities for corband the letter to him." The Colonel rect information bad been superficial. returned to tbe office, but not being able The comprebension and correctness of to place his hand on it, reported, that his military views, under those circum"it was mislaid.” The General re- stances, must excite the admiration of plied, “I must bave it.” Search was every competent judge, and I do conagain made, without effect, and Colonel ceive clearly deinonstrate, that whatHamilton returning, repeated that the ever may have been the force and enerletter had been mislaid, and expressed gy of his mind, when directed to ofber his sorrow at not being able to find subjects, military affairs were undoubtit.” The General rejoined with warinth, edly his fort. The letter amplifying * Sir, vou sball find it." Hamilton was the topics comprised in these heads was astonished, but replied promptly, “I written by Colonel Joseph Reed, then shall find it, Sir, but must let you know, his Secretary, and afterwards Governor that in addressing me, you do not speak of Pennsylvania, the original rough to a menial.” The occasion was ho- draft of which is in my possession, and nourable to the parties; it was the the published copy will be found in the quarrel of Sully and Henry; it furnish- first volume of Wasbinyton's letters, ed General Wasbington an occasion for Boston Edition, 1795, puge 3.' the display of his magnanimity, and Colonel Hamilton an opportunity to as. A considerable part of the first vo, sert bis personal dignity and indepen- lume of these memoirs is devoted to dence of aind. Colonel Hamilton re- tracing military movements in the late tired from Head-Quarters, but was ap- ** pointed to the command of a battalion

war, and detecting the causes of the in the elite corps, at the head of which failure of our early campaigns. A he stormed a redoubt during the siege multitude of reasons dissuade us from of York before the surrender of Corn- making any remarks on this division of waliis.

the work. In truth, froin the political • It would be presumptuous for me to

into the attempt the eulogy of a man who has animadversions interwoven deservedly attracted the altention and very texture of these memoirs, and

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