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are clearly discernible. Most of them are of By the committee to whom has been in. species extinct, or not now known to exist. trusied more particularly the cultivation of The learned Doctor enumerates the follow. Botany and Vegetable Physiology, I am di. ing among the varieties that may be made rected to solicit your co-operation in promot. out: Belemnites, Encrinites, Terebratulas, Pec. ing and carrying into effect the designs of tiniles, a Cardiuen exhibited in various frac- this institution. tures, and a spherical Nesb-coloured body, As it is our intention to assemble, as far as which he conjectures to be an Actimia. may be practicable, all the various Trees,

The Lumachella of Coeyman's, were it not Shrubs, gramineous and herbaceous plants of for its linty ingredients, would be nearly our country, whether they are cultivated for equal to the Italian Lumachella.

their alimentary qualities, their medicinal vir

tues, or their use in the arts, or are distinCIRCULAR.

guished for other important or remarkable New-York Institution, April 8th, 1817. qualities, your contributions, hy sending us SIR-By request of the Mineralogical com- the living plant, or the seeds, roots, cuttings. mittee of the New-York Historical Society, layers, offsets, or other means of cultivating I have the honour to forward to you a notice or propagating it, will be particularly acceptof their intention to form a collection of the able, and will be duly and gratefully acknow. minerals and fossils of the United States. ledged by the Historical Society; at the same The object of this underiaking being of great time that we can now confidently assure public utility, they trust that it will meet with you, they will be cultivated with great care, general encouragement. Allow me, Sir, in at the Botanic Garden, the state establishtheir behall, to request of you such donations ment, in the vicinity of this city. of minerals and petrefactions of the United We also request ihe favour of you, to acStatus as you may have it in your power to company such communications by a descrip procure for us, and such information as your- tion of the more prominent characters of the self or friends may possess of the mineralogy plant, and of the several uses to which it is of any part of the United States.

applied. I have the honour to be,

A specimen of the dried plant, prepared Sir, very respectfully,

in the manner pointed out in the subjoined Your obedient servant,

directions, to be placed in the Herbarium of GEORGE GIBBS, Chairman. the Society, will also be acceptable.

Another object of the Society is to collect CIRCULAR.

specimens of the various woods, which are AMERICAN ZOOLOGY AND GEOLOGY, employed in any of the arts of life, or which

New-York Institution, March 11, 1817. in any way administer to the benefit of man;

SIR-In behalf of the New York Historical should it be in your power to contribute to Society, I beg leave to solicit your assistance the cabinet, you will oblige the Society by toward the formation of a Zoological Muse- sending specimens of a size that will admit um. For the purpose of becoming more of a block being formed of about 6 inches in extensively acquainted with the animal crea- length, and 4 in width, with an account of tion, a plan bas been digested for collecting the purposes to which such woods are seve specimens and productions from the different rally applied. Specimens of these dimen. tribes. These it is intended to preserve and sions, if carefully selected, will show the tex. arrange in an apartmeni alloited for their rc- ture and character of the wood. ception. The document annexed to this let. The various Barks and Roots which are in ter, contains some of the leading subjects of like manner made use of in diet, medicine, inquiry. Every fact and article relative to or in the various arts and manufactures, will this exalled department of Natural History be an acceptable addition to the collection will be thankfully accepted and duly estima- now forming in this Institution. ted I beg you to accept the assurance of Preparations illustrative of the internat my good will and respect.

structure and economy of the vegetable body SAMUEL L. MITCHILL, Chairman and of the diseases to which plants are liable,

more especially those which frequently fall CIRCULAR

onder the notice of the farmer or the hortiNew-York Institution, Ipril 8, 1817. culturist, will be gratefully received, and will SIR-It was o:e of the original objects in claim the particular attention of this Society, the establishinent of the Historical Society I am, Sir, respectfully, of New-York. 1o attend not only to the ciril Your humble servant, and ecclesiastical, but also to the natural bis

DAVID HOSACK, Chairman, tory of our state and country. At a late meeting of this Institution, com

DIRECTIONS mittees were selecied from its members for To be observed in Collecting and Preserving the cultivation of the several departments of

Planis. Zoology and Geology. Botany and Vegetable 1. As the flower and the leaf are the parts of Physiology, and Mineralogy.

a plant from which the Botanical charac,

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ters are most frequently derived, the spe. New-York Institution, April 8, 1817. cimen to be taken, should possess both the The above Circulars were prepared by the power and the leaves in their perfect stale. Committees whose Reports were published But where the root, the radical leaves, the in our last number, and should have accomseeds, the seed vessel, or other parts of the panied those valuable memoirs. plant, exhibit any striking peculiarities, or possess any remarkable properties, these organs should also be carefully preserved.

carefully preserved. LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOIl. In collecting a specimen of an herbaceous or gramineous plant, care must be

CIETY OF NEW-YORK. taken to cut it close to the ground, that the

SITTING OF MAY 8, 1817. leares near the root, which are the most Dr. Mitchill, one of the Vice-Presidents, perfect, and oftentimes furnish the speci- read a memoir on the fossil remains of ortic characters of the plant, may be pre- ganized beings, more especially of animals, served.

in the region around New-York. He traced III. In collecting a specimen of a tree or them through their various situations and

shrub, it is, in general, only necessary to forms in transition, in secondary and alluvial cut a portion of one of the branches con- tracis of country. taining the flowers and some of the most All Long-Island, the southern part of Staperfect leaves.

ten-Island, and the superior and recent strata IV. They should be gathered upon a dry day; of New-York Island, all abound in those re

for if collected when wet, they usually licks. The county of Monmouth in Newturn black in drying.

Jersey is replete with these monuments of 1. They are to be carefully placed between ancient existences; and so indeed is Burling

the leaves of a large book, or between ton, and generally speaking the whole dig. sheets of blossom or blotting paper, or trict south of the Raritan river; abundance common wrapping paper. The quantity of them has been discovered in Dutchess, of paper to be interposed between the dif- Orange, Rockland, Ulster, Columbia and ferent plants is to be determined by their Albany counties, and in short almost all the structure and the quantity of moisture they way northward to Montreal, and westward may contain.

to Michillimakinac. VI. When they are thus carefully arranged The author enumerated particularly the

for drying, their several parts properly reasons he had to believe that an American spread oui, yet retaining their most batu- Elephant once existed different from the ral position, idey are to be put under a mo- trans-atlantic species. He supposed there derale degree of pressure, either by means had been a Rhinoceros different from the aniof the machine usually employed for this mals now living. He argued conclusively purpose, with screws to increase or dimi- that there had been a Taurian animal somenish pressure, or in a y other manner where between an Iguena and a crocodile, that

enient : observing, and exactly resembling the famous reptile of however, to regulate the degree of pres- Maestricht. Of all these he possessed teeth or sure by the structure and succulency of the bones, found near Shrewsbury and Middleplant.

town. The Mammoth or Mastodon was VII. The paper in which they are placed proved to have existed near Newburgh, and

must be renewed every 24 or 36 hours, at Nyack, 40 miles from this city ; bones of until they are perfectly dried. In removing other land animals had been dug by himself them from one book to another, care must from a layer of earth covered by a thickness be taken that the fowers be not injured, of 8 feet of sand stone, and 4 of arable soil. and that they be not long exposed to the Oysters, Clams, and Scallops existed in va. air, as they are apt to become shrivelled. rious places, in their proper shapes. Pecti. This process should be performed in a dry nites, Terebraiulas, Encrinites, Ammonites. arartment, where the sun has some access Baculites, Cardiums, and Anomias, were freand the air is frequently changed. quent in the soil and in the rochs. Nor were VIII. When they are thus perfectly dried, Belamnites, Spirulas, and Gryphoas, at allun.

they are to be placed, each species by it. common. Mindapores, Tubipores, and other seli, in a large book for the purpose, until productions of the great class of Polypes, they are removed to the systematic place were often met with in a petrified stale. assigned them in the cabinet.

Dr. M. considered that about twenty speThere have been many other methods cies of the creatures whose remains he had employed in drying plants; but after various described, were extinct, or at least not now trials, the process now described has been known to be inhabitants of this world. He be. found the least troublesome and the most lieved New-York to be as memorable a region successful.

D, H. for such deposites as any on the globe, and enPublished by order of the Historical So- couraged further researches, as he had only ciety.

JOHN PINTARD, ploughed a few furrows in this fertile and

Recording Secretary. productive field.


April 16th.

LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. acknowledged, as he bad told Mr. T. beforo

This association was organized in Februa- his departure, to be unknown to the great ry, 1817, for the express purpose of cultivating Zoologists of Europe. Natural History. The officers are,

• Mr. Rafinesque exhibited a species of New Hon. Samuel L. Mitchill, F.R.S. E. President. reis, an oceanic worm, not heretofore des.

Caspar Wistar Eddy, M. D. | Vice Presi- cribed, and which propagates by offsetts or Rev. F.C. Schæffer, dents. germs; and also a species of Gordius or hair John Le Conte, Esq. Corresponding Sec. worm, of fresh water, ditferent from the speJohn B. Beck, M. D. Recording Sec. cies bitherto known. They had both been

Benjamin P. Kissam, M. D. Treasurer. discovered by Mr. E. R. Baudouine, in the vi. Messrs. John Torrey,

cinity of this city. D'lurco Knevels,

Ş Curators. • Mr. Rafinesque delivered a learned and Ezekial R. Baudouine, A. B.)

instructive lecture on the classification and The following are extracts from the minutes nomenclature of natural beings; as an introof their proceedings.

duction to his future exercises on the subjects Sitting of April 9th, 1817.

assigned to him. • It having been resolved, that the mem

April 21st. bers of the Lyceum be encouraged to direct A fine specimen of the Columbus glacialis their attention to special objects, in the great or great speckled Loon, from Long-Island field of Natural Science, the following ar. Sound which had been purchased by Mr. rangement and distribution were made : each Baudouine, was exhibited by Mr. Clements, in of the members named, in addition to his behalf of the committee, elegantly prepared. general studies and pursuits, to attend in a 'P. S. Townsend, M. D. read a memoir particular manner, to the branches or departe on the stellar crystalization of snow, groundments confided to him.

ed on some very beautiful phenomena of this Ichthyology, or fishes,

kind, which he witnessed and examined duPlaxology,or Crustaceous animals ( to the ring, March, 1817, and illustrated the same, Apalology, or Mollusca,

(Presdl. by drawings from nature. Geology, or the earth,

May 5th. Botany, to C. W. Eddy, V. P.

'A written communication was received Mineralogy to F. C. Schæffer, V. P. from the President, who was unable to attend Mastodology, or Mammalia, ) to John the sitting of this day, recommending the Erpetology, or reptiles, Le Conte, adoption of measures forobtaining a complete Glossology, or nomenclature, ) Esq. catalogue of the vegetables growing spon. Helmintology, or worms,

taneously within thirty miles of New-York: Polypoligy, or Polyps,

to c. S. •Whereupon it was resolved, Atmology, or meteorology, į Ralines “That Caspar Wistar Eddy, M. D. and Hydrology, or waters.

que. Messrs. Jobn Torrey and D'lurco Knevels, Taxodomy, or classification, J.

be a committee for preparing a Flora of the Ornithology, or birds, to B. P. Kissam, region in and around New-York city, and

M D. that they report the same to the Lyceum, Zootomy, or comparative anatomy, to with all convenient speed.

James Clements, Esq. •Dr. Eddy likewise read the lecture on Oryctology, or fossils, to P. S. Townsend, Botany, introductory to his future exercises

M. D. on that subject. Entomology.orinsects,to Mr. John Torrey, Messrs. Schæffer and Townsend, laid on Conchology, or shells, to D’lurco Knevels. the table, specimens of curious petrifactions,

• Mr. Rafinesque read a memoir on a fossil from Corlaers Hook, contained in a mass of and undescribed species of Tubipore, wbich indurated clay, lying about thirty feet below he called T. striatula, found near Glens Falls, the surface of the alluvial soil, thereabout. a cataract of the river Hudson; and present. These gentlemen promised a further commued a specimen of the same for the cabinet : nication on this subject, at a future meeting. also a description of ten species of insects be- ‘Baron Charles H. Smith, savoured the longing to the genus aphis, which had not society with his presence, as an honorary been described by any former Naturalists; member, and laid the contents of his Port and all of which destructive creatures are Folio before the Lyceum. These consisted found in the United States.

of beautiful drawings in Zoology, executed • Dr. Mitcbill related, that Mr. B. Taylor, with his characteristic accuracy; and among wbo bad carried from New-York to England, other delineations, were those of the Big-horn several individuals of that noble quadruped sheep. (Ovis ammon.) the Fork-horned antethe white rump deer, (Cervus Wapiti,) had lope, (antilope bifurcata,) the Grisly Bear. arrived with them, safe; and that he had (Ursus savus) the Prairie dog, (a species of learned from Mr. Tillock's Philosophical Ma. arctomys or marmot.) the American bison (Bos gazine, the animals were now exhibiting at bison Americanus,) and several other most the King's Mews, near London, and were interestiog figures of our native quadrupeds. May 12th. Jacob Dyckman, M. D. read a memoir on • Dr. Mitchill laid before the Lyceum, an a human body lately disinterred in one of the account of captain Dunham's voyage to the cemeteries, and found to be converted to a Isthmus of Darien, and a number of the ad- mass of fat or adipocere. The paper was jacent islands on the Atlantic side, and pre- accompanied with pieces of the muscular sented from that navigator, a number of plants parts, which had undergone this singular procured from the natives, and reputed to be change. The author gave the particular medicinal ; also a piece of American copal, history of the present case, and took an ex. dug out of the earth near the trees which pro- tensive survey of similar alterations in tho duce it, and sometimes carried, unchanged, human subject generally. to the sea, by the floods; and likewise roots •Mr. Schæffer, as lecturer on mineralogy, of edders, or arum esculentum, used in the read an address introductory to the course of tropical regions for human food, they being lectures which he intends to deliver before of a quality between yams and potatoes. the Lyceum.

Dr. P.'s. Towersend read the lecture for Dr. Mitchill exhibited an herbarium, conthe day, which consisted chiefly of a transla- taining specimens of two plants growing in tion he had made from professor Haüy's me. the United States, collected by James Mac moir on the Tourmalines of the United States, Bride, M. D. of Charleston, (S. C.), by which, published in Paris. His just and spirited and in a letter accompanying the same, it is version was accompanied with the manu- satisfactorily shown that the Gentiana saposcript copy of this mineralogical tract, as it nica of Linnæus, and the Gentiana Cates. had been transmitted from the very distin- bei of Walter, are in reality different species, guished author to the president of the Ly, although considered the same by Mr. Purth, ceum.'

in his Flora of North America, and other

May 19th. writers. The distinctions both in description Mr. Pierce presented a sample of native and in fact, were very plain. Magnesia, found by himself, among the rocks Dr. M. offered the sketch of the botany of Hoboken. This interesting mineral is a of South-Carolina and Georgia, by Stephen carbonate. It is besides volute, light, friable, Elliot, Esq. as far as the same was published. and rough; looking like the artificial carbo- Great satisfaction was expressed on finding nated magnesia of the shops. Though it this elaborate and classical work had procomes from the same place which affords the ceeded almost as far as the second order of foliated, and flakey article, already so well the fifth class. described in the American mineralogical • Benjamin R. Kissam, M. D. produced a Journal, it is clearly a different species. The branch of a tree, cut by Richard K. Hoffman, mass of surrounding rock is telgsiein, olivine, Esq. surgeon of the United States' Navy, serpentine, and the analogous forms, and the near the lake of Avernus in Italy. The sight veins wbich mostly contain asbestos, and the of this specimen, derived from a spot so fa. magnesia already described, are now found mous in ancient story, naturally brings to to furnish this new product.

mind the verses of Virgil, in the sixth book The Rev. Mr. Schæffer also presented a of the Æneid, where the whole scenery is specimen of the sanie kind, in which the loose described with poetical elegance. and powdered magnesia, was distributed in

Latet arbore opaca cavities irregularly through the beds of the Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, rock, having the appearance of partial de Junoni infernæ dictus sacer, &c. * composition.

E. Æn. lib. vi. v. 136. et seq.'



leopardalis; 540 birds; about 2500 insects; M R. CHARLES PHILLIPS is prepar. an herbarium of about 40,000 subjects, and

M ing for the press, Speeches delivered numerous geological and mineralogical speby him at the bar, and on various public oc- cimens. casions in England and Ireland, in an 8vo. The libraries, and cabinets of coins, and volume.

medals, viz. of the late THOMAS Hollis and Miss EDGEWORTH has in the press, a vo- THOMAS BRAND Hollis, have been advertise lume of comic dramas.

ed to be sold at auction in London. An Edinburgh Monthly Magasine, was an. The Journal of the late Cap. Tuckey's unnounced to appear on the 1st of April. successful voyage of discovery in the Interi

Mr. BURCHELL, who has for several years or of Africa to explore the route of the Zaire been engaged in exploring that part of the or Congo, with a survey of that river beyond African Continent bordering on the Cape of the cataract, is in the press. Good Hope, has lately returned to England; The new poem on which Mr. Thomas and bas brought with him a numerous col- Moore has been some time engaged, is an lection of andescribed and rare quadrupeds, oriental romance, entitled Halla Rookh. It among which are a male and a female Came will soon appear.

Mr. R. Davenport has published some curi- to the several Registers of the Land Offices ous particulars relative to boiling tar. Some of the United States, by Josiah Meigs, Esq. know, and many probably have heard with: Commissioner of the Land Office. An alout believing, while to others it will be quite tentive observance of its suggestions and repew to hear that a man can dip his hand into commendations cannot fail of affording im. boiling tar without suffering. Mr. D. tbrust portant results. Besides, the exact inforhis finger into tar heated to 230°, and made mation which may, by this means, be fur. two or three oscillations of six or eight inch- nished in regard to the temperature of difes, which occupied between two and three ferent sections of the United States at this seconds of time. The heat did not rise to moment, and the data which may be col. any painful degree, though it adhered to the lected for the solution of interesting questions skin like any other fuid of similar viscidity. of natural bistory, the foundation is laid for

The Mammoth, Elephant, and Hippopola. the compilation of a meteorological digest, mus, formerly natives of England.-In late which, in process of time, will exhibit facts observations which have been published by conclusive on a point of no little interest, Mr. Parkinson on the strata and fossil re- and one on which philosophers are very mains in the neighbourhood of London, we much at variance,--we mean the melioraperceive that the bones belonging to each of tion or deterioration of the climates of our these animals have been discovered. A tooth country. of the Mammoth was found on the beach

CIRCULAR of Harwich, which was presented to the Ge. To the Registers of the Land offices of the ological Society by Dr. Menish. It possessed,

United States. in its softer parts, the colour and appearance Sir, of the Essex mineralized bones so distinctly, You will receive, with this, several forms as to leave no doubts of its having been em- of a Meteorological Register, to which I beg bodied in the stratum of that country leave to request your attention.

Mr. William Trimmer, of Kew, found be- The United States have already established neath a bank of sandy gravel, about six feet twenty Land Offices, viz; At Detroit, in thick, the bones of both the Elephant and Michigan; at Wooster, Stubenville, Marietta, the Hippopotamus.

Zamisville, Chilicothe, and Cincinnati in FRANCE.

Ohio; at Jeffersonville and Vincennes, in

Indiana; at Kaskaskia, Sbawneetown, and Messrs. Magendie et Pelletier, have pre- Edwardsville in Illinois ; at Saint Louis in sented a Memoir to the Academy of Scien- Missouri; at New Orleans, Oppelousas, and ces, communicating a discovery which they north of Red River, in Louisiana ; at Hunts, have made of a mode of separating the sena. ville, Washington, St. Stephen's, and in the tive principle of the bark of the inecacuanha territory lately acquired from the Creeks, in from that which imparts it odour and ascer- the Mississippi Territory. bity. They terin this first principle, heme. These offices are dispersed over a space tine.

of about thirteen degrees of latitude, and The first volume of a Military History of len of longitude. the Revolution, from 1792 to 1816, in 6 vols. The three columns for temperature, winds 8vo. is announced.

and weather, are ruled for three daily obserIt is said that Madame de STAEL, has sold vations of each, viz : in the morning, at 2 her Memoires sur M. Necker, to a company of P. M. and in the evening. The column en. French, English and German publishers, for titled Miscellaneous Observations, is intended one hundred thousand francs! The Cid to comprehend a variety of objects, among brought its author one hundred crowns!! which are the following, viz: 1. The time

Amoures secreteles de Napoleon Bonaparte, of the unfolding of the leaves of plants. 2. et de sa famille, par M. le Baron de B.***, The time of flowering. S. The migration was published in Paris in March last.

of Birds, whether from the North or South, The new novel of les Balicucas, by Ma- particularly of Swallows. 4. The migration dame de GENLIS, is the most popular produc- of fisies, whether to or from the Ocean, or tion of the day.

other places, and the time of their deposition

of spawn. 5. The hybernation of other ani. GERMANY.

mals, the time of their going into winter Professor Saatfield, of Gottingen, is engag. quarters, and of their re-appearance in the ed upon a Universal History since the com- spring. 6. The phenomena of unusual rains mencement of the French revolution. The and inundations. 7. The phenomena of first part, in the nature of an introduction, unusually severe droughts. The history of comprehending a historical survey of the Locusts, and other insects in unusual numthree last centuries, is already published. bers. 8. Remarkable effects of Lightning.

9. Snow-storms, hail-storm's, hurricanes, and UNITED STATES OF AMERICA tornadoes their cause, extent, and duration,

IMPORTANT CIRCULAR. 10. All facts concerning Earthquakes and The following letter has been addressed subterranean changes. il. Concerning epi.

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