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2. Six chasseur battalions, each battalion 6 companies. Each company is made up of—

4 Officers

14 Under-officers

3 Buglers

2 Pioneers

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altogether amounting to 909 men; whence the whole body of chasseurs, on a full war footing, would amount to 5454 men. The chasseurs wear the same uniform as the line (except that the collars are light green), and are now armed with rifles, though, till very recently, there was no distinction, strange to say, between them and the line, although such magnificent shots could be drawn from the Bavarian Alps and the Spessart.

The total strength of the Bavarian infantry consequently amounts to 53,886 men on the full war complement. But as there are no reserves or depôts in Bavaria (the Landwehr forming merely a civic guard), not more than 40,000 could be sent into the field, which is, certainly, a very considerable number for a kingdom like Bavaria.*

CAVALRY.-1. Two regiments of cuirassiers, each regiment of 3 divisions 6 squadrons (in war a depôt will be established). Each squadron has 4 officers, 16 under-officers, 3 trumpeters, and 135 privates; or, altogether, 158 men. The whole regiment is made up of

1 Colonel

3 Staff officers

5 Surgeons (1 veterinary)

1 Regimental adjutant
9 Auditors, gunsmiths, &c.

1 Staff trumpeter, and

6 Squadrons

amounting to 956 men; or the two cuirassier regiments, on the full war complement, 1912 men.

The cuirassiers are generally very tall and powerful men, mounted on strong North German horses. Their principal arm is a long, straight sabre, and each man has one pistol. The uniform consists of a light-blue tunic and trousers with a red stripe, breast and back cuirass of polished steel, steel helmet, and white horseman's mantle; and they are very finelooking soldiers.

2. Six regiments of chevau-légers of similar strength and formation with the cuirassiers; or, altogether, 36 squadrons on the war footing =5736 men. They are mounted on native horses very compactly built, wear dark-green tunics with red facings, trousers of the same colour with broad red stripes, helmet same pattern as infantry, with white plume,

* At the time we are writing a very large augmentation is taking place.

and are armed with a sabre and carbine. They are excellent troops, and distinguished themselves greatly in all the campaigns in which the Bavarian troops were engaged.

The total strength of the Bavarian cavalry, without depôts, is, consequently, 7650 men. By great exertions, 7000 of these might be employed in an external campaign.

THE ARTILLERY.-In addition to the ordnance and two laboratory companies, the artillery is made up of 2 regiments of foot and 1 regiment of horse artillery. Each regiment of foot artillery has 6 batteries of heavy, and 6 batteries of light artillery, each of 8 guns; or, altogether, 96 guns.

A battery or company has, including officers, 133 men.

In addition to these 12 companies, each artillery regiment has 3 companies of fortress artillery, amounting to 621 men, and contains altogether, without transport, 2231 men.

The horse artillery regiment has 4 batteries, each of 8 guns, with a total strength of 816 men, including officers, thus made up:

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The total strength of the Bavarian artillery, inclusive of the fortress artillery, laboratory companies, &c., amounts, on a full war complement, to 5642 men, of whom, in case of need, 4100 men, with 224 guns, could march into the field.

The matériel of the artillery is excellent, though not particularly elegant. The native horses are small and ugly, but strong and persevering. The uniform consists of dark-blue tunics and trousers, with black collar and facings, infantry helmets, and dark-grey cloaks.

THE ENGINEERS.-In addition to the staff, Bavaria possesses 1 engineer regiment, also performing the duties of pontonniers. It is divided into 8 companies of 127 men, or 1026 combatants, much resembling the artillerymen in dress. The regiment is thus made up:

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There are also 2 sanitary companies, each containing 5 officers, 1 battalion surgeon, 18 under-officers, 3 buglers, 179 rank and file = 206 men, or together 412 men.


The total strength of the Bavarian army, in a full war complement, all corps being calculated, will amount to 72,567 men.

In a foreign war might be employed

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During peace, the Bavarian army is divided into 2 corps d'armée, each containing 2 divisions of infantry and 1 of cavalry, with the requisite number of guns.

Remarks.-Service from 21 to 27 in the line, from 27 to 40 in the reserve. In addition, there is a universal Landwehr, with liability to serve up to the 60th year.


This army has also been considerably augmented since 1848, and greatly improved.

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INFANTRY.-On a war footing, Saxony has 4 infantry brigades and 1 brigade of chasseurs.

I Infantry Battalion : 1 staff officer, 1 adjutant, 1 ensign, 1 battalion signalist, 14 officers, 68 under-officers, 16 signalists, 872 rank and file (including 64 tirailleurs), 8 carpenters 982 combatants.


1 Chasseur Battalion: Staff as above, 18 officers, 20 upper chasseurs, 20 signalists, 872 chasseurs, 8 carpenters 1001 combatants.


1 Infantry or Chasseur Brigade: 1 chief, 1 brigadier (colonel or major-general), 2 adjutants, 1 brigade fourier, 1 brigade signalist, 4 infantry or chasseur battalions 3933, or 4009 combatants.

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The total strength of the Saxon infantry, exclusive of 4 infantry and 1 chasseur battalion as reserve 20 battalions, with 19,741 combatants, of whom 18,000 could be brought into the field. The Saxon infantry wears a uniform greatly at variance with the other German troops, and not particularly handsome. The tunics are green, with light-blue collars and cuffs, light-blue trousers, and little low caps after the Austrian pattern. The chasseurs wear dark-green, with black collars. They are armed with percussioned muskets and bayonets: 2 under-officers and 16 tirailleurs in each company with Minié rifles.

CAVALRY is composed of 4 light regiments, 1 of the guards, each of 5 squadrons.

1 Squadron: 4 officers, 13 under-officers, 3 trumpeters, 138 horsemen 158 combatants, 154 horses.

1 Regiment: 1 colonel, 1 staff officer, 1 adjutant, 1 staff sergeantmajor, 1 staff trumpeter, 5 squadrons 795 combatants, with 772 horses.

Total strength of the cavalry 3180 combatants, with 3088 horses. ARTILLERY-1 foot artillery regiment of 3 brigades or 10 batteries (1 6-pounder, 2 12-pounders, 2 depôt batteries, and 2 principal parks), 1 horse brigade of 2 batteries.


1 ordnance and artisan company, 2 ammunition, 1 chief park, 1 depôt. The Foot Artillery Regiment (without park and depôt): 1 colonel, 3 staff officers, 3 adjutants, 6 batteries with 38 guns 986 combatants. Brigade of Horse Artillery: 1 staff officer, 1 adjutant, 2 batteries with 12 guns 346 combatants.


Total strength of the artillery, without park or depôts = 8 batteries with 50 guns, and 1332 combatants.

PIONEERS. The pioneer and pontonnier division contains 250 combatants; the pontoon train, on a war complement, 225 men, with 408 horses.

The commissariat train company contains 3 officers and 559 men.

SANITARY COMPANY is made up of 4 officers, 19 under-officers, 3 signalists, 220 men.

The total strength of the Saxon troops, without reserves and depôts, will amount to 24,750 combatants, with 50 guns, of whom about 20,000 could be employed in an external campaign.

Remarks. Six years' service, with substitution; three years' reserve. Usually but a small proportion of the army is called out.

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INFANTRY.-8 infantry regiments (1 guards and 1 corps de garde), each of 2 battalions or 8 companies, 1 guards chasseur battalion, 3 light battalions of 4 companies.

1 Line or Light Infantry Company: 5 officers, 14 under-officers, 3 musicians, 188 rank and file (10 tirailleurs) 210 combatants.


1 Battalion: 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant, 1 staff ensign, 1 battalion drummer, 4 companies = 845 combatants.

1 Regiment: 1 colonel, 1 staff officer, 1 staff ensign, 1 staff fourier, 6 musicians, 2 battalions 1700 combatants.


1 Light Battalion: 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant, 1 staff ensign, 1 staff fourier, 1 battalion bugler, 3 musicians, 4 companies 849 combatants.


Total strength of the infantry, without reserves (120 men to each battalion), 20 battalions, or about 17,000 effectives.

The infantry are equipped and dressed exactly after the Prussian model. In the line, the under-officers and tirailleurs have Thouvenin rifles with bayonets; the remainder, muskets. All the light infantry are armed with rifles.

CAVALRY.-6 regiments (1 garde du corps), 1 guard cuirassiers, 2 hussar (1 guards), 2 dragoon regiments, each of 4 squadrons.

1 Squadron: 5 officers, 14 non-commissioned officers, 4 trumpeters, 117 men = 150 combatants.

1 Regiment: 1 commandant, 1 staff officer, 1 adjutant, 1 staff sergeant-major, 1 staff orderly, 4 squadrons 605 combatants.


Total strength of the cavalry, 3630 combatants.

The Hanoverian cavalry certainly possess the best matériel to be found in Germany. The horses, all reared at home, are excellent. The men are voluntary recruits from the peasant classes, who sign an agreement for eight years. When they go on furlough during that period they take their horses with them.

ARTILLERY (ENGLISH PATTERN).—1 artillery brigade, containing 2 companies of horse artillery, 2 battalions or 7 companies of foot artillery, and a laboratory company. The two horse companies contain 2 horse batteries, the 7 foot companies 3 9-pounder batteries and 16-pounder battery, as well as 1 siege park, 1 ammunition column, and 1 depôt company.

Staff of the Artillery Brigade: 1 major-general, 5 staff officers, 4 adjutants, 1 staff pyrotechnist, 8 gunners.

A 6-pounder Foot Battery: 5 officers, 19 non-commissioned officers, 3 trumpeters, 116 gunners = 173 combatants.

49-pounder Foot Battery: 5 officers, 19 non-commissioned officers, 3 buglers, 165 gunners = 192 combatants.

A Horse Battery: 5 officers, 19 con-commissioned officers, 3 buglers, 118 gunners 175 combatants.


Total strength of the artillery, 6 batteries with 36 guns, and 1118 combatants.

ENGINEER CORPS.-Cadre: Staff, with pioneer and pontonnier com


1 Company: 4 officers, 8 under-officers, 2 buglers, 83 men = 97 combatants.

The Corps without Reserve: 1 colonel, 1 staff officer, 1 adjutant, 197 men, and 1 Birago pontoon train.

Total strength of the Hanoverian troops, without reserve, about 22,000 men, with 36 guns, of whom 18,000 could be employed in an external campaign.*

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1 Staff officer (belonging to Quartermaster-general's staff)
6 Captains

2 Lieutenants

* The infantry has been recently greatly augmented.

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