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General Clausel on the expedition of Medeah (Mediyah), and the Zouaves received what the French call their baptism of fire, and what we commonly designate as the first smell of gunpowder, at the Pass of Mouzaïa (Musaya), to which they were destined to give renown by their valour upon several subsequent occasions. The circumstances under which the Zouaves were placed at first were anything but agreeable. Isolated in small parties in the interior of the country, night and day they had only to lay down the pickaxe to take up their muskets, and they had the greatest difficulty to obtain the commonest necessaries of life; as to comforts, they had none. One of their captains fell in this first campaign, the first of a long and glorious list, which comprises names illustrious in the annals of the army, a son of the Duke d'Harcourt, who had carried the knapsack and the musket; a nephew of Marshal Duke of Istria, the gallant Bessières; and a grenadier in the island of Elba, Peraguey, who had risen from the ranks to be chef de bataillon, when he was killed in 1845, and whose grey hairs were for a long time the object of the respectful affection of his younger comrades.

Medeah was evacuated by the French troops early in 1831, but in the month of June of the same year General Berthezène had to lead a division there, to enforce the authority of the Bey who had been appointed over the district. On returning from this expedition a furious onslaught was made upon the rear-guard, at a time when the soldiers, worn out with fatigue and excessive heat, were pursuing their painful way along a mountain path which only permitted of the passage of one man at a time. Duvivier returned to the succour with the 2nd battalion of Zouaves. The natives gave their shouts of war; the Volunteers of the Charter, who still wore la blouse gauloise, struck up "La Marseillaise," and falling together upon the Kabyles they checked the onslaught, and then retiring from eminence to eminence, and covering the march of the wearied troops, they enabled the whole force to reach and establish itself at the farm of Mouzaïa, without the loss of one trophy to the enemy.

The retreat of Medeah was most honourable to the Zouaves, and they assumed from that time a position in the French army. Still recruits came in so slowly that the two battalions were reunited into one, and a royal decree of the 7th of March, 1833, fixed the number of companies at ten, eight French and two native, and it was provided that there should be twelve French soldiers in every native company. The command of the battalion thus organised was given to De Lamoricière, he having particularly distinguished himself by his gallantry and military capabilities, by his acquaintance with the language of the country, and by his tact and judgment, as well as his zeal and audacity. Their head-quarters were Dely-Ibrahim (Dali-Ibrahim, Mad Abraham), where they established dwellings, forges, everything with their own hands. Frequent expeditions into the Sahel (Sahel, plain of grassy pasturage; Sáhil, coast), the Mitidja, and into the lower region of the Atlas varied the monotony of camp life. Every day the Zouaves became more industrious, more disciplined, and more warlike; they learnt to walk quick, and for a long time, to manœuvre with precision, and to fight with intelligence. Their uniform and equipments were regulated. They are now so well known, and so popular, that it is almost needless to describe them. Their dress is the Oriental garb with the colours of the French infantry, and is generally

supposed to be a style of dress better adapted for a variable climate, and for active military exercises, than any that has yet been adopted. The officers alone preserved the European dress, as an Oriental garb suited to their rank would have been too costly. They often exchanged the képi, however, for the red cap, called by the Turks fez, and by the Moors chechia. M. de Lamoricière was known in the province of Algiers by the name of Abu or Bu Chechia, Father Cap, but he exchanged this name in Oran for Abu Arana, Father Stick! De Lamoricière was the founder of the Zouaves, a force which, whilst it has preserved that personal intelligence which is characteristic of irregular troops, and its members have continued to be true children of Paris by their liveliness and gaiety, has attained all the solidity and precision of the most brilliant regiment.

Marshal Clausel led the Zouaves, whose military value he was one of the first to appreciate, into Oran in 1835. They came under the cognisance of the Duke of Orleans on the occasion of the expedition of Mascara, and so great was the opinion which the prince entertained of their capabilities, that on his return to Paris he obtained a decree constituting the battalion into a regiment of two battalions of six companies each, with permission to raise them to ten. M. de Lamoricière retained the command, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.

On their return to the province of Algeria early in 1836, the Zouaves were once more directed upon the old theatre of their exploits-Mouzaïa. The point was more obstinately defended than before, but the marshal also knew his territory better, and the Zouaves were charged to carry the crest of the mountains instead of forcing the pass-a most laborious enterprise, which they achieved with perfect success.

The Zouaves did not make part of the first expedition of 1836, but the following year one of their battalions formed part of the advance-guard of the division, which was destined, under the orders of the Duke of Nemours, to revenge the check received the year before. The siege of Constantine is the great feature in the history of the Zouaves. They marched at the head of the first column of assault. Horace Vernet has immortalised the scene at Versailles. This was the last episode in the first epoch of African warfare: the treaty of Tafna was concluded, and the Turkish government was finally superseded throughout the country.

Marshal Valée, who had succeeded to the government of Algiers, attempted to carry out two different systems: one was to govern directly a certain portion of the territory, the other was to create a European society by the side of Arabic institutions, organised by the genius of Abd al Khadr. Placed at the advanced posts, the Zouaves had to accomplish at Coleah (Kuliyah) what they had done at Dali Ibrahim-to erect buildings, open roads, and drain the lands. But when Abd al Khadr, yielding to the irresistible influence by which he was surrounded on all sides, abandoned his allegiance and lit up a Holy War, it was more than native blood could stand. Large numbers of Zouaves went over to their countrymen, and carried into the ranks of the enemy the advantages of the military instruction which they had obtained under the French. But the regiment did not lose in strength; it had been before reinforced by a battalion of volunteers who had defended the citadel of Tlemcen in 1836, hence called that of Méchouar, and on the news of hostilities breaking out it received a large accession of recruits.

Upon the invasion of Abd al Khadr's territory the ensuing spring, the French having been obliged to act on the defensive all winter, the Zouaves formed part of the first division under the Duke of Orleans. It is needless to recapitulate the events of that sanguinary campaign, the plains scoured by the cavalry of all the tribes of Algeria and Oran, supported by the "rouges," as they were called-Abd al Khadr's regular cavalryand every defile obstinately defended by a regular infantry and myriads of Kabyles. The Zouaves were, upon every expedition, engaged in every battle, and the well-known gathering sounds of their drums and trumpets were familiar to the whole army. Every regiment in Africa had a particular beat by which it could gather together its men when dispersed by night in a fog, or by the heat of a battle. Sometimes it was also sounded at a moment of extreme danger. The origin of this is attributed to the 2nd Light Infantry, General Changarnier's regiment.

Winter brought about little rest. The Zouaves had suffered severely, and were reorganised. Lamoricière, raised to the rank of a general officer, was succeeded in the command of the regiment by the then Lieutenant-Colonel Cavaignac; and the Commandants Regnault, killed in Paris, June, 1848, and Renault, now general of division, both promoted, were succeeded by the then Commandants Leflô and Saint Cavaignac had distinguished himself by the heroic defence of the citadel of Tlemcen, at the head of the 2nd African battalion, and his energetic character, his mind full of resources, and his calm yet effective courage, had already obtained for him a high renown in the army.

The Zouaves passed the winter at Medeah, amidst all kinds of privations and difficulties, yet were they ready in spring to follow Marshal Bugeaud on a campaign in the Atlas; and whilst one battalion proceeded in May, under the same marshal, into Oran, another remained, under General Baraguay d'Hilliers, in Algiers. The Zouaves thus assisted in the war of 1841 at two different points.


The war had assumed proportions which demanded an increase of The Zouaves were augmented to three battalions, with a complete regimental staff, but only one company could receive natives, and the corps assumed a purely French character. The mixture of French and natives did not work well, and the latter were enrolled in a new corps, called that of tirailleurs indigènes, or native riflemen; and these battalions, officered by brave, intrepid men, among whom are the now well-known General Bosquet, as also Generals Thomas, Vergé, and Bourbaki, all well versed in the language of their men, have testified in the Crimea that they are worthy younger brothers of the Zouaves.

No sooner had the regiment of Zouaves thus reconstituted received the colours which the king had sent them, than its three battalions were separated to go and serve each in a different province. War had, in fact, broken out in every direction. The Zouaves were represented by one or two of their battalions in most of the important battles fought in the campaigns of 1843 and 1844, obstinate struggles against the Kabyles, long marches in the desert, cavalry charges repelled, in the Jurjura, the Quarsenis, among the Beni Menasser, at the capture of the Smalah, in the glorious engagements fought by General Bedeau against the Marocco cavalry, and lastly, in the memorable battle of Isly.

Cavaignac was succeeded in the command of the corps in 1844 by

Colonel Ladmirault, now general of division. The ensuing year the Zouaves were the first to sustain, on the frontiers of Marocco, the effects of an insurrection which gradually extended itself throughout the whole of the regency. The year 1846 gave them as little repose as any that had preceded. It was not till 1847 that the submission of Abd al Khadr brought about the entire subjection of the tribes of Algeria. The Zouaves were then posted at a site designated after the young prince of that name -Aumale. This site was at the extremity of the plain which stretches to the east of the Jurjura. It was the point where the submission of the tribes was the most precarious. The provisional government had replaced M. Ladmirault by Colonel Canrobert, now in command in the Crimea. General Canrobert began his African career under the auspices of the brave Colonel Combes, who fell at the assault of Constantine. He acquired habits of command, and was engaged in several brilliant feats of arms at the head of a battalion of Chasseurs in the districts of Tenes and Batna, his reputation soon ranking him among the very best officers of the army. His lieutenant-colonel, M. de Grandchamp, was so dreadfully wounded when captain of the Voltigeurs of the 24th Regiment of the Line, that the Arabs used his body as a block upon which to cut off the heads of forty of his men. His life was saved by the almost miraculous devotion of Commandant Morris, now in command of the cavalry in the Crimea.

In 1849 the Zouaves were called from their post, near the Jurjura, to take a part in the siege of Zaatcha, upon which occasion General Canrobert was the first to mount the breach. After this brilliant success they followed their gallant commander to the slopes of the Aures, and terminated a long and sanguinary campaign by the reduction of Narah.

On their return to their old quarters at Aumale, Canrobert was succeeded in the command of this distinguished corps by M. d'Aurelle, now general of brigade in the Crimea. A decree of the 13th of February, 1852, gave to them a new constitution. It was resolved to increase so serviceable a force by another regiment, thus making altogether three regiments of three battalions each. They were also armed with rifles. With these formidable weapons the rebel mountaineers could no longer stand before them. They were driven from their fastnesses, and, gathering together in the town of Laghouat, they hoisted there the flag of rebellion. General Pélissier led a division of the army to besiege this remote stronghold, and it was once more the Zouaves who had the greatest share in the honours and in the losses of the day; eight officers and one hundred and twenty-three men were put hors de combat, and one of their captains, M. Menouvrier Defresne, was the first to enter the


This was in 1852. In 1854 they received the reward of their numerous exploits by being called upon to serve with the French army in the East. Alma, Inkerman, numerous repulses of sorties, and other gallant struggles before the walls of Sebastopol, have testified that they are still the same gallant corps as in Africa, and their countrymen confidently look to their occupying, on the day of assault, the same place which they did at Constantine and at Zaatcha.



ANOTHER month has elapsed, and we still are utterly ignorant of the course of policy which Austria intends to pursue in the forthcoming European struggle. Rumours are prevalent that she has proposed an armed neutrality to Prussia, while others assert, with equal confidence, that she has offered to join the Allies at the modest price of the Danubian Principalities. A paper in the New Monthly Magazine for May will have served to show how valuable her alliance would prove to us, for such a body of well-organised and efficient troops would indubitably turn the scale; and it is not surprising that the English and French governments strive their utmost to fix so vacillating a power. It has been our opinion from the outset, as expressed in the pages of this Magazine, that the House of Hapsburg will remain true to itself until the last tricky resource of diplomacy has been essayed; but, for all that, our readers may feel inclined to follow us, when we furnish a few further details about the Austrian army, which the more general nature of our previous article vented us from introducing.


Austria certainly possesses a very splendid army. It is, at present, at the period of its greatest possible efficiency, is young, proud of its recent successes, and enthusiastically devoted to the emperor. He went through the last war as colonel, and is greatly attached to the trade of war. There is not a single soldier but knows that Field-Marshal Radetzky was compelled to warn the youthful colonel on the battle-field against exposing himself to useless danger; a warning which, whatever its effect might have been, did not, we fancy, injure the present emperor in the opinion of his troops. The army has retained all its good qualities; it is enduring, and does not lose its esprit under the severest misfortunes. It honestly fulfils its vocation as a truly civilised corps. In the Austrian officer the captured and wounded foeman will always find a protector. The greater portion of its defects has been removed; formerly cumbersome and so uncomfortably clothed that the soldier was impeded in marching, the troops may now be favourably compared with any in Europe, and the accoutrements are the best adapted for the free movements of the limbs. While the supreme command was rendered almost an impossibility by the ambiguous regulations of the supreme council of war, which pointed out an undeviating course of operations, the serious events of 1848 led to a complete alteration of the system, and the generals now act upon their own responsibility. There is, however, another defect in the Austrian army which it is not so easy to remove. In France, whether the soldier is a Fleming, Breton, Norman, or Alsatian, he has been French for centuries, and the same in laws, customs, and language. In the Austrian June-VOL. CIV. NO. CCCCXIV.


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