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OR,

UNIVERSAL

ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY:

ON A NEW

NEW PLA N.

IN WHICH IT 18 SHEWN,

THAT CONSONANTS ARE ALONE TO BE REGARDED

IN DISCOVERING THE AFFINITIES OF WORDS,

AND

THAT THE VOWELS ARE TO BE WHOLLY REJECTED;

THAT LANGUAGES CONTAIN THE SAME FUNDAMENTAL IDEA;

AND THAT THEY ARE DERIVED FROM

THE EARTH,

AND THE

OPERATIONS, ACCIDENTS, AND PROPERTIES,

BELONGING TO IT.

WITH

ILLUSTRATIONS DRAWN FROM VARIOUS LANGUAGES:

The Teutonic Dialects, English, Gothic, Saxon, German, Danish, &c. &c.-Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish. The Celtic Dialects, Galic, Irish, Welsh, Bretagne, &c. &c.— The Dialects of the SCLAVONIC,

Russian, &c. &c.— The Eastern LANGUAGES, Hebrew,

Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, Gipsey, Coptic, &c. &c.

VOLUME I.

CAMBRIDGE:

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS :

FOR RICHARD PRIESTLEY, 143, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.

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P R E F A CE.

IN

my former Work on the subject of Etymology, I unfolded the doctrine of Elementary Language; and I illustrated by a series of examples, how that doctrine might be applied to the discovery of relations, existing between Words, which were before totally unknown. In explaining this Elementary Doctrine, it was shewn, that Consonants were alone concerned in preserving and exhibiting the affinities of words, and that the Vowels were to be wholly removed from our regard, and even rejected from our view. By the establishinent of this doctrine I had laid the foundation of a new System in the developement of Human Speech; and every thing was indeed then discovered, which related to the symbolical forms, by which the affinities of Language are propagated and preserved. I was then fully persuaded, that the Earth was an important object in supplying the First and Fundamental idea, conveyed by words; and I had accordingly announced, that my succeeding Work would probably be dedicated to the consideration of those words, which were connected with our term EARTH, and its numerous parallels, existing in various Languages. Though I was always persuaded of the importance of this object in supplying the Fundamental idea, deposited in words; I did not imagine, that the connection with this object was always to be discovered, or always to be exhibited. I conceived, that we might well be contented with our success in unfolding the secrets of Language, if we were enabled to discover the relation of a series

of

a

of words to each other, under some general or prevailing notion ; and I imagined, that the Original and Fundamental idea could only be occasionally seen, or partially detected. I had certainly never hoped, that I should be enabled to pursue this principle in so wide a sphere of action; through which, as I now conceive, it is capable of being extended. I had certainly never ventured to suppose, that I should be enabled at once to assume this Fundamental idea, this secret masterspring in the mechanism of Language, as the first principle of my System, to which I could readily refer all the other parts of the same machine, however remote and dissimilar they might appear.

The present Work, where the words are examined, which belong to our term EARTH, i is established on this principle, and other Volumes are already prepared, which relate to Races of Words under different Elementary characters, and which are constructed on the same foundation. I must request therefore, that the present Volumes may be considered as representing the first part of my work on the subject of Etymology; and that the former Volume should be regarded only as an illustration of the Elementary Doctrine, on which alone the Art of Etymology is founded; as it relates to the symbolical forms, by which the relations of Language are generated and recorded. I have stated in a portion of this Volume, that my former Work was arranged with due care and diligence; and that the affinities of the words, which were there examined, have been detailed with fidelity, according to the true principle of the Elementary Doctrine. But how-, eyer successfully those words may have been explained, under one point of view, as relating to each other in their secondary though prevailing idea; the Reader will at once understand, that this mode would not correspond with the new and more extensive plan, on which the present Volume has been prepared. The various parts therefore of the former Work will appear in some future Volume, when the Elementary Character, to which they belong, shall be considered; and the Race of words, which it contains, will again be detailed under the relations before explained, with an exposition likewise of the Fundamental idea, by which that Race is connected with other Races of words, conveying a different sense, under the same Element. -The Title of my Work has been changed from ETYMOLOGICON MAGNUM to ETYMOLOGICON UNIVERSALE, that the pale of distinction between the two publications may be more marked and decided. To each of these Titles some objections may be formed ; but as in deliberations of this kind there is no end, and but little profit, we may rest satisfied with a brief appellation, which sufficiently designates the nature and the extent of the performance,

when

The Introduction of the former Work has been enlarged into an ample Preliminary Dissertation, in which an abundance of new matter will be found, of great and extensive importance, in the contemplation of Languages. In this Dissertation I have considered the Elementary Doctrine more fully; and I have here'exhibited a Canon, relating to this Theory, (page 25,) and unfolding to us a wide 'scene in the affinities of Human Speech, which were before altogether remote, and totally unknown. I have added likewise a series of observations, which are intended to illustrate the additional part of my System, contained in these Volumes ;; and I have shewn, in a brief detail of acknowledged and familiar, examples, the potent operation of the Earth, in affording various trains of ideas, which appear to be altogether remote from the nature of such an origin. I have moreover distinctly though briefly unfolded the various Elementary Characters, (p. 94, &c.) which supply names for the Earth, &c., and which will become the objects of my enquiry in future Volumes on the origin of Languages. Though no explanation can be more concise than this detail, on a subject of such vast extent, it must not

however

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