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not only troops of local friends, but during ductive of laughter! Within reasonable his long residence in Edinburgh almost limits, it is scarcely possible to convey an every distinguished visitor to that city. idea of its diversified contents. The first Even his own immediate successors would pages are devoted to official, police, law, count for a small community. He passes and sanitary notices — notices of contracts, away the patriarch of nine children and bankruptcies, &c. ; these are followed by thirty grandchildren. Not one of these trade advertisements, touching silks, fish, but can recall some affectionate memorial groceries, wines, coffins, wet-nurses, and of his generous kindness of word or deed. information as to how, when, and where
The mournful record does not end here. the thousand-and-one wants of this life, While the above lines in memoriam were and death, may be supplied. Of these we being written, Mr. David Chambers, the shall say nothing, but proceed at once to youngest brother of the Messrs. Chambers, the social contents. What would our reand their agent in London, died unex- served island ladies say to finding their pectedly at his residence at Lee, in Kent: birthdays openly recorded under the most like his brother, he was an earnest friend transparent initials, with their ages, the of Press Reform, and devoted much time street and house-number duly added, in in promoting the repeal of the fiscal re- some such sort as this ? — " Hearty constrictions upon newspapers.
gratulations to the dear, tall, black, stout
Gretchen B- on her to-day's cradlefeast, at No. 18 in the Hauptgasse.
From one who knows her well,
But his name won't tell.”
Or thus: “ To the dear, stout, pretty
admirer.” advertising. There is, however, something
At times our attention is called to a specifically characteristic in German advertisement - a spirit as clearly defined her whom his soul loves, and who hon
swain who has forgotten the birthday of as that in German home-life, German politics, and German beer. True, we find letters, “ Better late than never.” After
estly confesses it by heading in capital represented in their newspapers the Agony thus introducing his salutation, his effucolumn of our own Daily Jupiter; and sion jingles on: the Editor's Letter-box, that medium of communication of our "penny Sundays,"
Your birthday's past, as I do see; wherein - Floretta, with light-brown eye,
Jimmniny-krimminy, 0 dear me! and faxen hair, and considered lovely,"
What can I say, but tell you plain, seeks a suitable matrimonial connection;
I'll try not to forget again. but we have no such publication in all This is at least modest and penitent, England as is published daily in one of but, alas ! some of us are but human, and the fairest and most famous watering- self will assert itself even in congratulaplaces of the Rhine, the Residenz of a tory birthday addresses; a picture of a small duchy, which has succumbed to an beer-barrel
, or a couple of wine bottles, overpowering army, raised by conscription, indicates that "a big drink” would be and armed with the deadly needle-gun, regarded as an appropriate celebration and become a mere province, a step-child of the festive occasion; for instance, “A of a great European power. The organ cheer with three times three to the worthy in question is not, however, ground to Master-joiner, Caspar L- No. 6 Hpolitical tunes ; it is intended to advertise, St, from his true and thirsty friends. and nothing more. Yet it is found in all houses, among rich and poor; and, indeed, Don't be afraid, my worthy son; a tradition is current, that certain old pen- A cask of beer we can empty soon; sioned officers now abstain from breakfast Then broach one in good time, d'ye see, on Sundays and holy-days, since no Tage- Nor very small need it to be." blatt then appears.
Or thus : Imagine a newspaper, small quarto, of from eight to forty-eight pages, costing We're thirsty souls, and could drink some beer, five shillings and four-pence a year, and If you'd give us the chance, old fellow: devoted exclusively to advertisements We'll empty a barrel to make good cheer, every page full of novelty, and often pro- And toast you too with a bellow.
What can a “million donnerndes Hoch" | arms, as a good evangelical Christian, with be, other than a cheer as loud as a million trust in the Lord God, who has the rule thunders or a bellow?
over life and death, slept away, after that Happy couples proclaim their approach- she had been to me scarcely three-quarters ing nuptials thus : “ With the loving con- of a year the faithfullest and happiest wife, sent of their parents, W-Hand protection and aid in all my sorrows, sufST- herewith announce their be- ferings, and cares. Hence, I beg for silent trothal.”
sympathy in my unforgettable and irrepIn the following notice there is some-arable loss. W—, 17.7.70. The deeply thing truly Homeric: “ HAVE A CARE weeping and deep cast-down husband, A. a fat cow will be hewn to pieces in my Ryard, on Tuesday, 'at 11 A.M. sharp, and We now find a notice of death headed the flesh will be sold at 3d. a lb."
“ Thanks." About our next extract there is a grim “THANKS.—My husband, H—Kblood-thirstiness that would have done now rests in God; and I would thank all credit to the court of King Theodore ; it re- those who accompanied him to his last minds one of the Pantin tragedy under resting-place — the Worshipful Sick and patronage, and must surely emanate from Burial Clubs, the Fire Brigade, and the one whom urgent private affairs have re- Madrigal Society, for the soul-stirring called from the scene of the war ere his hymns at the grave-side ; as also those who appetite for horrors was satiated : “T- helped and comforted me during his illness. M recommends himself for private -THE SORROWING WIFE.” slaughtering. Terms moderate."
And here again is a similar notice, which Our next is of another description: moreover contains a happy suggestion to “ When two young ladies, whose room is our Woman's Rights Committee, for the on the ground-floor in the B-Street, utilisation of the able-bodied female popuattired for the night in complete negligee, lation. amuse themselves with mouse-hunting, • THANKS.– To all those who accomthey should take the precaution of first panied our now-in-God sleeping son, closing the curtains; and, when the pleas- P- N-, to his last resting-place – to ures of the chase are over, they jump into the honourable virgins who bore his body bed with a single spring, they should mind company as also to his friends who carthe bed does not break down with them. ried him thither, our heartfelt thanks." Whoe'er the cap is found to fit,
Such would-be benefactors to the human Need not scruple to wear it.”
race as Mrs. Gamp (“if I could afford to
lay out my feller-creeturs for nothink, I A lady who seems to have left the place would gladly do it, such is the love I bear unbeknownst to the inhabitants, causes the them") are scarce even among ourselves; following to be inserted : “GOOD-BYE! but that there are in Germany, too, “ sober Want of time obliges me to adopt this creeturs to be got at eighteenpence a day way of bidding my friends and acquaint- for working-people," who “don't name the ances adieu. I shall be sure, at the proper charge,” but suggest the modesty of their time, to recollect the small debts I have prospective claims, would appear from the left behind me. Signed J. P., Widow, late following: “ At No. 21 in the Roof-chamof the Hotel 24" Dated Over the bers, orders for sick-nurses are taken Frontier."
kindly ; also the undressing and dressing of Here follows a parade of private grief, corpses is performed.
The advertiser can upon which the pen of a Juvenal might produce the best testimonials. Charges employ itself. That our readers may have moderate.". Whether these testimonials it in its integrity, we render it literally: are from those who have been under the “Deatu Notice. To all relations, friends, advertiser's hand or from those who may and acquaintances, I intimate generally, yet come under them, does not appear. In rather than by special notice, the sad news these days, it might not be extravagant to of the death of my dear, inwardly and suppose that the testimonials had been hotly loved faithful wife (mother, daugh- procured by spiritual agency. ter, sister, and daughter-in-law), Julia Having dealt with deaths, we may reR-née — who, scarcely in the mark that births are announced thus : twentieth year of her life, the past night " To the Privy Councillor Lat 12 o'clock, at the hour and the minute Name J. F. S." at which she, to me, ten days before, had Here are some miscellaneous morsels. presented a healthy and dear boy, in con- “ To be sold cheap, a tolerably modern sequence of miliary fever, softly in my 'dress-coat, in very good preservation.”
“ Eleven young hens and a cock, good | lasting talkers, and remarkably intelligent, layers, to be sold.” Is this the rara but because they have picturesque instincts, avis ?
and are not satisfied with expressing their “ Chamber-sportsman M- resides at ideas by feeble words; while they satisfy No. 7 L St. The above recommends their natural impatience by using gestures himself as a medium for the destruction of in lieu of whole sentences, and can, and do, all species of vermin.”
occasionally carry on conversations without The mahogany child's chair, and the any speech at all. For example, I have Oxford prohibition concerning the main- seen a man in a balcony near the top of a tenance of dogs, cats, and other singing- house narrate entirely by gestures his day's birds, are so old as to have been entered adventures to a friend on the ground floor in the Index Expurgatorius of the most of a house on the opposite side of a street. inveterate Joe Miller; but we can produce The gesture-language is believed to be, a modern instance.
in the main, the same all the world over; “ BIRD HALL, WILH. St.- I have the still, in places widely apart, in which the honour to announce to the honourable habits of life are very different, it is natupublic of that I opened my bird-hall ral to expect a corresponding difference in on Saturday, last for the sale of Parrots, a language which is plainly imitative, and Aquaria, and all sorts of other foreign and nothing else. In Mr. Tylor's work upon indigenous birds. Entrance to non-pur- the Early History of Mankind, which conchasers, 7 kreuzers; to purchasers, 3. - tains a very interesting account of this lanMost respectfully, R. S.”
guage, it is stated that, according to the We will conclude with two notices illus- general practice of mankind, shaking the trative of the German national character- head is the sign for the negative “No." In istics - Music and Economy.
South Italy, however, shaking the head • The Singing Society meet to-night at never means “No," but always, “I don't the Muckerhöhle.” The name is not invit- understand you; what do you mean?” ing; but the locality is historical.
while “No” is expressed by elevating the And: “ A gentleman wishes to hire a chin and protruding the under-lip a little: fur-cloak for a few weeks."
and a still stronger negative by the same movements, to which is added, scraping the under-side of the chin with the tips of the right-hand fingers, holding the knuckles
outwards, and the fingers slightly bent. From Chambers' Journal.
In the curious affidavit in support of the THE GESTURE-LANGUAGE IN SOUTH
will of a deaf-and-dumb man, unable to ITALY.
read and write, quoted by Mr. Tylor, which In South Italy there is current a vener- explains the signs used by the testator to able story, which is here given with all re-express his testamentary wishes, it is to be serve, as the diplomates say : in other observed that the testator expressed his words, it is totally unworthy of belief. death by laying the side of his head in the The story is this. A stranger present at a palm of his right hand, and then lowering cabinet council in Naples, after some silent the right hand, palm upwards, to the pantomime had taken place, asked when ground. In South Italy, a Catholic counbusiness was going to begin, and was told try, death is expressed by making the sign that it was over. “But," objected the as- of the cross with the first two fingers of tonished stranger, “ nobody has said a the right hand held together, upright, beword.” “ True," was the answer; “but fore the face, that being the final action of surely you observed what was going on?” the priest when administering the sacra“ I saw nothing going on,” said the stran- ment to a dying person. The gesture by ger, “except a few shrugs and grimaces, which the English deaf-and-dumb man exand the king signing his name. You don't pressed his death, would, omitting the mean to say you call that business? ” “Of lowering of the hand, mean, in South Italy, course," was the answer. “ What's the sleep. In this country, we beckon a person use of a long talk, when we can express towards us by holding a hand or finger our meaning as well, and more quickly, by with tips upwards. In South Italy, howsigns.” The story, though an exaggeration, ever, the tips are held downwards, and the is, nevertheless, not so utterly absurd as it English manner of beckoning is used for seems to the English reader. Southern salutation. The verb “go" is expressed Italians use a great deal of gesture while in South Italy by holding the open hand, speaking; not because they are deaf or the palm perpendicular, to the ground, and dumb, for they are quick of hearing, ever-'pointed in the intended direction, and
shaking the hand up and down from the dling the first and second fingers of his wrist; while in this country we simply right and across the first finger of his point with the index finger. In South left, to express a ride ; then he pointed to Italy, “ hunger” is expressed by extending his own stomach, to shew that he was himthe thumb and first finger, keeping the self the rider; next he pointed with his others closed, over the mouth, and giving hand in the direction of a neighbouring a rotary motion from the wrist. The village ; which, together, meant: “ As I reader is at liberty to try this upon any was riding to Then he put up his organ-grinder he meets, and mark the re- hands, and bent his head, as one does in sult. To-day” is expressed by closing taking aim with a gun; next held up his all the fingers of the right hand except the hands, palms outwards, and started back index, then pointing downwards, making to express surprise ; then he moved one a rapid slight movement of the hand up hand quickly round over the other, as we and down; “to-morrow" is the same, ex- do when imitating a drummer for children, cept that the movement is greater, and and bent his body sideways, to express a from the elbow. Numbers, of course, are fall; which meant: Suddenly a man shewn by holding up the fingers. So much with a gun appeared, and aimed at me, for the language itself, and now for the whereupon the donkey started back with method of using it.
fright, and I fell off.” At this the friend After the revolution of 1860, the police down below held up his right hand with affairs of South Italy were carried on by the knuckles towards the balcony, and the Italian carabineers, a remarkably fine fingers slightly bent, and rapidly moved body of men, of great intelligence, and it from the wrist backwards and forwards mostly from the north, in place of the na-|(the way of inquiring in generals), which tive sbirri. The consequence was that the meant in this instance: “ Well, were you malefactors did as they pleased, the cara- hurt ? * In answer to this, the man above bineers being powerless. They complained lifted his eyebrows, put his hand to his that it was of no nse their attempting to hip, and limped a little way, to express : cope with a people who, by a gesture, a “Nothing to speak of — a little lame, that's look, and a word in an unknown tongue (for all; thus the conversation prothe dialects of South Italy are unintelligible ceeded. to people from the north), hatched plots The chief prison of Palermo, the capital under their very noses. Riding once in a of Sicily, consists of a number of detached carriage in Scily past a string of country houses in a large court-yard surrounded by carts, each of which had a driver, armed, a high broad wall. The prisoners are kept lying prone on top of the load, I heard in the houses, and sentries march up and one of these men call out: “ Ah ca !” very down the wall, keeping a look-out within loud, as if to his donkey ; but he meant to and without. attract the attention of the carter in front, Every day, men and women may be who understood perfectly well, and looked seen standing outside the wall, communiback, whereupon the first man held up his cating by gestures with the prisoners at hand, and rubbed together the tips of his the top windows of the houses within. thumb and first finger (the sign for money), The parties to the conversation can see giving a glance at the same time towards one another's faces and their expression, the carriage. In answer, the friend nodded. but can scarcely hear one another speak. The following remarks had been ex- They converse thus by the half-hour tochanged: “ Rich folks there, eh?” “ Un- gether. One may see a woman, for excommon.”. I thought at the time, if these ample, moving her mouth in saying gentry had been brigands, and my coach- “ Cicco," and putting her hand to her foreman an accomplice, he would probably head, meaning, “ Cicco is ill.” Whereupon have nodded, and straightway the armed a prisoner inside, possibly the father, carters would have jumped down, sur- throws out his hands, making the general rounded the carriage, dragged me off to sign of inquiry: he wants to know “ How the mountains; and I should have been did it happen?” and the woman answers : the subject of numerous letters in foolscap Hunger did it,” by making the sign for paper, quarter margin, exchanged between hunger, already explained. Then the man polite diplomatists, who would apparently throws his hands up, and it can be seen be only too glad of the opportunity of that he says “ Dio mio!" and is expressing assuring one another of their“ distin- his affliction. guished consideration.”
Of course the gesture-language is largely But to return to our story-teller in the used in rows, and naturally some of the balcony. The narrator began by strad-'expressions are more forcible than refined. One which invariably winds up every row from the object of his balcony affections, amongst the women of the lowest class is and, utterly disenchanted, fed. This this: a belligerent who is getting the story, although nearly as incredible as the worst of it, but desires to retire with some first narrated, is given without any reéclat, suddenly turns her back on the serve : it is quite true. enemy, throws all her clothes over her head, and retreats. Contempt cannot be more strongly expressed. Love-making by signs is very general.
From The Spectator. The method has many recommendations ;
THE FUTURE OF FRANCE. for as the lovers are not seen together, and don't write, they are not easily found
1.- THE DARK SIDE. out. Every window opens to the floor, How is it possible to exhaust all the ill and has a balcony, so that neighbours have omens for the political future of France great facilities for the pastime. The lan- which seem to throng over and darken the guage of love is very simple ; it is always horizon as we look forth? We can but the same, and always interesting and new. attempt to enumerate the leading classes The gentleman begins by taking out his of symptoms of evil augury. handkerchief, which he passes over has Foremost stands the worst omen of all, face, looking all the tine at the lady, and that the two parties or factions of France throwing into his face and eyes expres- are not divided about a political question, sions of admiration for her; at the same or a political principle, or even a political time he compliments her on her beauty by mode of life, but at bottom about toleratpassing his hand over his mouth and chin. ing each other in any shape or way. The laily's answer is a blush, hiding her There is no common ground between them face, except the eyes, behind her fan, and at all on which they can even negotiate. pointing to the rear, to indicate that The party of movement, the party of the mamma is coming, and retreats. Next cities, take apparently for their motto time, the same play on the gentleman's Proudhon's audacious watchword, Deside, followed by possibly a glance, not of struction first, construction afterwards," discouragement, from the lady; where- " Destruam et ædificabo.” The party of upon he hugs his left side, to express that caution, the party of the peasants, take he loves her to distraction; and the lady apparently for their watchword destruction flees, to return the next day, and observe first, conservation afterwards, “ Destruam the gentleman, of course to her great as- et conservabo.” The Communists would tonishment and displeasure, repeat the destroy the whole system of French society, previous gesture, ending by showing her in order to reconstruct it. The country the palms of his hands, and looking en- party would destroy the specific blossom treaty, which any young lady even unac- and fruit of social life in the great towns, quainted with the particular language in in order to extirpate the cancer that question would understand to mean: I vow threatens property and quiet. The cry of by &c. that I love you more than — and so the cities is, — “ See what a galling and forth. Do you love me? The answer to ignominious tyranny these peasants try to which, of course, depends upon circum- impose upon us; we have been ruled by stances; and thus the ancient comedy their ignorance and cowardice for twenty proceeds. It is understood to be extreme- years ; now let us have our turn, and subly interesting to the dramatis personce. ject them to the principles which have Love-making, short of the “ask-papa” fired us with enthusiasm.” The cry of the part, is frequently carried on in South country, repeated, we are told, in hunİtaly in this way; and it not seldom hap-dreds of letters received every day by pens that when papa is inexorable, or the members of the Legislature, - is, Paris lady in a convent, the whole affair, in- must be destroyed, Delenda est Carthago, cluding agreement and preparation to run - there is no compromise possible with away, is transacted solely by gestures – the spirit of sheer anarchy and self-will apropos of which it is on record, that on which raves of a new order of society, an occasion of the sort, all being pre- without enumerating one intelligible prinpared, and the gentleman in the street ciple of national life.” And there neither waiting at the lady's door with the car- is, nor, we are afraid, can be, any middle riage intended to carry off the happy party of any strength and consideration, couple, an awfully gruff voice was heard to bridge the chasm which separateş these asking : “ Are you there?” The lover internecine political foes, and hold the looked towards the voice, saw that it came 'scales evenly between them, - and that