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on his. He looked up in her face, his own “No, Charley; you were only a little suffused with a colour I had never seen in rude from being a little over eager. If it before. His great blue eyes lightened she had been seriously advocating dishonwith thankfulness, and began to fill with esty, you would have been quite right to tears. How she looked, I could not see. take it up, so; and you thought she was.”. She withdrew her hand, and Charley “ Yes; but it was very silly of me.

I dropped behind again. In a little while dare say it was because I had been so dishe came up to my side, and began talking. honest myself just before. How dreadful He soon got quite merry, but Člara in her it is that I am always taking my own side, turn was silent.

even when I do what I am ashamed of in I doubt if anything would be worth tell- another. I suppose I think I have got my ing but for what comes after. History horse by the head, and the other has itself would be worthless but for what it not." cannot tell, namely its own future. Upon “ I don't know. That may be it," I anthis ground my reader must excuse the swered. “I'm afraid I can't think about apparent triviality of the things I am now it to-night, for I don't feel well. What if relating

it should be your turn to nurse me now, When we were alone in our room that Charley ?” night – for ever since Charley's illness He turned quite pale, his eyes opened we two had had a room to ourselves wide, and he looked at me anxiously. Charley said,

Before morning I was aching all over : I “I behaved like a brute this morning, had rheumatic fever. Wilfrid.”

The Chinese immigrants to America are re- of these grandees have more than two or three ported to be peculiarly clean in their habits, cotton shirts, and these are mainly of Nankeen and are largely employed in laundry work; yet cloth, because warmer, which they probably it would seem from Consul Sinclair's report on change and send to the wash only once during the British and foreign trade at the port of the winter; and as for wearing flannel next the Foo-chow-foo for the year 1869, which has just skin for keeping their persons warm, or for been printed, that the Chinese experience of the warding off rheumatism, they scorn the idea, domestic laundry is rather limited, and that perhaps because these stuffs wear out in the even the Emperor himself sets an example of process of constant washing, and therefore rigid economy as regards his washing bill. would cost money. A respectable Chinaman Speaking of the Nankeen, or “ Soochow” who had spent many years of his life in Peking cloths, Mr. Sinclair states that they enter very once assured Mr. Sinclair that the Emperor largely into competition with foreign made shirt- himself could not have more than one or two ings, being much stronger, and hence more du- cotton shirts in his wardrobe. Mr. Sinclair rable, since they are woven by handloom and supposes that, like many of the well-to-do Chicontain a greater proportion of the raw material. | nese people in that vast empire, their august These Soochow cottons give more warmth, with- Sovereign wears silks and pongees for underout costing much more at first than our own clothing, while foreigners employ flannels and cotton manufactures, while they prove in the merinos.

Pall Mall Gazette. long run a cheaper article. Mr. Sinclair expresses bis surprise that a small attempt has not been made at Manchester to imitate these Nankeen cloths, both in width and texture, for sale against the real Soochow stuffs, for it can A RECENT communication to the State Dehardly be doubted that steam power is a cheaper partment from the United States consul at St. mode of production than manual labour. Helena, states the fact that the white ants, Woollens, such as broadcloths, Spanish stripes, which have effected a lodgment in the island, &c., are not the fashion with the upper and are rapidly destroying everything upon it. No well-to-do classes at Fou-chow, who in winter wood but teak, and sometimes not even that, prefer garments made of furs of various costly escapes their fangs; and numbers of houses in kinds, which last for generations in families Jamestown have been fairly gutted by them without renewal; or else they wear their Chi-doors, window-sashes, floors, and roofs, all benese silks and satins padded with cotton wool, ing eaten up, leaving nothing but the bare both for underclothing and their leggings. Few I walls.


From Macmillan's Magazine. which side lies the fault: whether the theTHE NATURAL THEOLOGY OF THE

ology which they expound is all that it FUTURE.

should be, or whether the reason of those

who impugn it is all that it should be. (A Paper read in the Hall of Sion College, Jan. 10, For me, as (I trust) an orthodox priest 1871.)

of the Church of England, I believe the WHEN I accepted the unexpected and theology of the National Church of Engundeserved honour of being allowed to lec- land, as by law established, to be emiture here, the first subject which suggested nently rational as well as scriptural. It is itself to me was Natural Theology. not, therefore, surprising to me that the

It is one which has taken up much of clergy of the Church of England, since the my thought for some years past, which foundation of the Royal Society in the seems to me more and more important, seventeenth century, have done more for and which is just now somewhat forgotten. sound physical science than the clergy of I therefore determined to say a few words of any other denomination; or that the on it to-night. I do not pretend to teach, three greatest natural theologians with but only to suggest; to point out certain which I, at least, am acquainted - Berkeproblems of natural theology, the further ley, Butler, and Paley – should have besolution of which ought, I think, to be soon longed to our Church. I am not unaware attempted.

of what the Germans of the eighteenth I wish to speak, remember, not on nat-century have done. I consider Goethe's ural religion, but on natural theology. claims to have advanced natural theology By the first, I understand what can be very much over-rated : b'it I do recomlearned from the physical universe of mend to young clergymen Herder's “ Outman's duty to God and to his neighbour; lines of the Philosophy of the History of by the latter, I understand what can be Man” as a book (in spite of certain delearned concerning God Himself. Of nat- fects) full of sound and precious wisdom. ural religion I shall say nothing. I do not But it seems to me that English natural even affirm that a natural religion is possi- theology in the eighteenth century stood ble : but I do very earnestly believe that more secure than that of any other nation, a natural theology is possible; and I ear- on the foundation which Berkeley, Butler, nestly believe also that it is most import- and Paley had laid; and that if our orant that natural theology should, in every thodox thinkers for the last hundred years age, keep pace with doctrinal or ecclesias- had followed steadily in their steps, we tical theology:

should not be deploring now a wide, and Bishop Butler certainly held this belief. as some think increasing, divorce between His “ Analogy of Religion, Natural and Science and Christianity. Revealed, to the Constitution and Course But it was not so to be. The impulse of Nature"- a book for which I entertain given by Wesley and Whitfield turned the most profound respect — is based on a (and not before it was needed) the earnbelief that the God of Nature and the God est minds of England almost exclusively of Grace are one; and that therefore, the to questions of personal religion; and that God who satisfies our conscience ought impulse, under many unexpected forms,

or less to satisfy our reason also. has continued ever since. I only state the To teach that was Butler's mission, and he fact — I do not deplore it; God forbid ! fulfilled it well. But it is a mission which Wisdom is justified of all her children, and has to be re-fulfilled again and again, as as, according to the wise American, “it human thought changes and human sci- takes all sorts to make a world,” so it ence develops ; for if in any age or country takes all sorts to make a living Church. the God who seems to be revealed by Na- But that the religious temper of England ture seems different from the God who is for the last two or three generations has revealed by the then popular religion, then been unfavourable to a sound and scientific that God, and the religion which tells of development of natural theology, there that God, will gradually cease to be be- can be no doubt. lieved in.

We have only, if we need proof, to look For the demands of Reason (as none at the hymns — many of them very pure, knew better than good Bishop Butler) pious, and beautiful — which are used at must be and ought to be satisfied. And this day in churches and chapels by perwhen a popular war arises between the sons of every shade of opinion. How ofreason of a generation and its theology, it ten is the tone in which they speak of the behoves the ministers of religion to in- natural world one of dissatisfaction, disquire, with all humility and godly fear, on' trust, almost contempt.“ Disease, decay,


and death around I see,” is their key-note, | any such curse is formally abrogated in rather than “ O all ye works of the Lord, the eighth chapter and 21st verse of the bless Him, praise Him, and magnify Him very same document — “I will not again together." There lingers about them a curse the earth any more for man's sake. savour of the old monastic theory, that while the earth remaineth, seed-time and this earth is the devil's planet, fallen, ac- harvest, cold and heat, summer and wincursed, goblin-haunted, needing to be ex- ter, day and night shall not cease.” And orcised at every turn before it is useful or next, the fact is not so; for if you root up even safe for man. An age which has the thorns and thistles, and keep your adopted as its most popular hymn a para- land clean, then assuredly you will grow phrase of the mediæval monk's “ Hic breve fruit-trees and not thorns, wheat and not vivitur,” and in which stalwart public. thistles, according to those laws of Nature school boys are bidden in their chapel wor- which the voice of God expressed

in facts. ship to tell the Almighty God of Truth And yet the words are true. There is that they lie awake weeping at night for a curse upon the earth, though not one joy at the thought that they will die and which, by altering the laws of nature, has see Jerusalem the Golden, is doubtless a made natural facts untrustworthy. There pious and devout age : but not — at least is a curse on the earth; such a curse as is as yet— an age in which natural theology expressed, I believe, in the old Hebrew is likely to attain a high, a healthy, or a text, where the word “arlamah(correctscriptural development.

ly translated in our version “ the ground") Not a scriptural development. Let me signifies, as I am told, not this planet, but press on you, my clerical brethren, most simply the soil from whence we get our earnestly this one point. It is time that food; such a curse as certainly is exwe should make up our minds what tone pressed by the Septuagint and the Vulgate Scripture does take toward Nature, natural versions : “ Cursed is the earth” — Łv tois science, natural theology. Most of you, I épyous ooû; " in opere tuo," as the Vulgate doubt not, have made up your minds al- has it — “in thy works.” Man's work is ready, and in consequence have no fear of too often the curse of the very planet natural science, no fear for natural theol-, which he misuses. None should know ogy. But I cannot deny that I find still that better than the botanist, who sees lingering here and there certain of the old whole regions desolate, and given up to views of nature of which I used to hear but sterility and literal thorns and thistles, on too much here in London some five-and- account of man's sin and folly, ignorance thirty years ago — not from my own and greedy waste. Well said that veteran father, thank God! for he, to his honour, botanist, the venerable Elias Fries, of was one of those few London clergy who Lund: then faced and defended advanced physical “ A broad band of waste land follows science - but from others — better men too gradually in the steps of cultivation. If than I shall ever hope to be — who used it expands, its centre and its cradle dies, to consider natural theology as useless, and on the outer borders only do we find fallacious, impossible, on the ground that green shoots. But it is not impossible, this Earth did not reveal the will and char- only difficult, for man, without renouncing acter of God, because it was cursed and the advantage of culture itself, one day to fallen ; and that its facts, in consequence, make reparation for the injury which he were not to be respected or relied on. has inflicted: he is appointed lord of creaThis, I was told, was the doctrine of Scrip- tion. True it is that thorns and thistles, ture, and was therefore true. But when, ill-favoured and poisonous plants, well longing to reconcile my conscience and my named by botanists rubbish plants, mark reason on a question so awful to a young the track which man has proudly traversed student of natural science, I went to my through the earth. Before him lay originBible, what did I find ? No word of all al Nature in her wild but sublime beauty. this. Much — thank God, I may say one Behind him he leaves the desert, a decontinuous undercurrent of the very formed and ruined land; for childish deopposite of all this. I pray you bear with sire of destruction, or thoughtless squanme, even though I may seem impertinent. dering of vegetable treasures, has deBut what do we find in the Bible, with the stroyed the character of nature ; and, terriexception of that first curse ? That, re-fied, man himself flies from the arena of his member, cannot mean any alteration in the actions, leaving the impoverished earth to laws of nature by which man's labour barbarous races or to animals, so long as should only produce for him henceforth yet auother spot in virgin beauty smiles thorns and thistles. For, in the first place, before him. Here again, in selfish pursuit of profit, and consciously or unconsciously Let us pass on, gentlemen. There is no following the abominable principle of the more to be said about this matter. great moral vileness which one man has But next it will be demanded of us that expressed — “ Après nous le Déluge,”- natural theology shall set forth a God he begins anew the work of destruction. whose character is consistent with all the Thus did cultivation, driven out, leave the facts of nature, and not only with those East, and perhaps the deserts formerly which are pleasant and beautiful. That robbed of their coverings; like the wild challenge was accepted, and I think vichordes of old over beautiful Greece, thus toriously, by Bishop Butler, as far as the rolls this conquest with fearful rapidity Christian religion is concerned. As far from East to West through America ; and as the Scripture is concerned, we may anthe planter now often leaves the already swer thus. exhausted land, and the eastern climate, It is said to us I know that it is said become infertile through the demolition of - You tell us of a God of love, a God of the forests, to introduce a similar revolu- flowers and sunshine, of singing birds and tion into the Far West." *

little children. But there are more facts As we proceed, we find nothing in the in nature than these. There is premature general tone of Scripture which can hinder death, pestilence, famine. And if you our natural theology being at once scrip- answer, Man has control over these; they tural and scientific.

are caused by man's ignorance and sin, If it is to be scientific, it must begin by and by his breaking of natural laws: what approaching Nature at once with a cheer- will you make of those destructive powers ful and reverend spirit, as a noble, healthy, over which he has no control; of the hurand trustworthy thing: and what is that, ricane and the earthquake; of poisons, save the spirit of those who wrote the vegetable and mineral; of those parasitic 104th, 147th, and 148th Psalms — the Entozoa whose awful abundance, and spirit, too, of him who wrote that Song of awful destructiveness in man and beast, the Three Children, which is, as it were, science is just revealing - a new page of the flower and crown of the Old Testa- danger and loathsomeness? How does ment, the summing up of all that is most that suit your conception of a God of love ? true and eternal in the old Jewish faith ; We can answer - Whether or not it and which, as long as it is sung in our suits our conception of a God of love, it churches, is the charter and title-deed of suits Scripture conception of Him. For all Christian students of those works of nothing is more clear — nay, is it not the Lord, which it calls on to bless Him, urged again and again, as a blot on Scrippraise Him, and magnify Him for ever? ture ? — that it reveals a God not merely

What next will be demanded of us by of love, but of sternness a God in whose physical science? Belief, certainly, just eyes physical pain is not the worst of evils, now, in the permanence of natural laws. nor animal life (too often miscalled human Why, that is taken for granted, I hold, life) the most precious of objects — a God throughout the Bible. I cannot see how who destroys, when it seems fit to Him, our Lord's parables, drawn from the birds and that wholesale, and seemingly without and the flowers, the seasons and the either pity or discrimination, man, woman weather, have any logical weight, or can and child, visiting the sins of the fathers be considered as anght but capricious and on the children, making the land empty fanciful illustrations — which God forbid and bare, and destroying from off it man - unless we look at them as instances of and beast? This is the God of the Old laws of the natural world, which find their Testament. And if any say (as is too often analogues in the laws of the spiritual rashly said), This is not the God of the world, the kingdom of God. I cannot con- New: I answer, But have you read your ceive a man's writing that 104th Psalm New Testament? Have you read the latwho had not the most deep, the most ter chapters of St. Matthew? Have you earnest sense of the permanence of natural read the opening of the Epistle to the Rolaw. But more: the fact is expressly as- mans? Have you read the Book of Kevserted again and again. “They continue elations? If so, will you say that the God this day according to Thine ordinance, for of the New Testament is, compared with all things serve Thee." “ Thou hast made the God of the Old, less awful, less dethem fast for ever and ever. Thou hast structive, and therefore less like the Being given them a law which shall not be granting always that there is such a broken

Being - who presides over Nature and her . (uoted from Schleiden's "The Plant, a Biog- destructive powers? It is an awful probraply.” Lecture XI. in fine.

lem. But the writers of the Bible have

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faced it valiantly. Physical science is fac- Physical science is proving more and ing it valiantly now. Therefore natural more the immense importance of Race ; theology may face it likewise. Remember the importance of hereditary powers, heCarlyle's great words about poor Francesca reditary organs, hereditary habits, in all in the Inferno: “Infinite pity: yet also organized beings, from the lowest plant to infinite rigour of law. It is so Nature is the highest animal. She is proving more made. It is so Dante discerned that she and, more the omnipresent action of the was made.”

differences between races; how the more There are two other points on which I favoured race (she cannot avoid using the must beg leave to say a few words. Phys- epithet) exterminates the less favoured, or ical science will demand of our natural at least expels it, and forces it, under pentheologians that they should be aware of alty of death, to adapt itself to new cirtheir importance, and let (as Mr. Matthew cumstances; and, in a word, that competiArnold would say) their thoughts play tion between every race and every individfreely round them. I mean questions of ual of that race, and reward according to Embryology, and questions of Race. deserts, is (as far as we can see) an uni

On the first there may be much to be versal law of living things. And she says said, which is, for the present, best left - for the facts of history prove it — that unsaid, even here. I only ask you to rec- as it is among the races of plants and aniollect how often in Scripture those two mals, so it has been unto this day among plain old words, beget and bring forth, oc- the races of men. cur, and in what important passages. And The natural theology of the future must I ask you to remember that marvellous take count of these tremendous and even essay on Natural Theology, if I may so painful facts; and she may take count of call it in all reverence, the 139th Psalm; them. For Scripture has taken count of and judge for yourself whether he who them already. It talks continually

- it wrote that did not consider the study of has been blamed for talking so much - of Embryology as important, as significant, races, of families ; of their wars, their as worthy of his deepest attention as an struggles, their exterminations; of races Owen, a Huxley, or a Darwin. Nay, I favoured, of races rejected; of remnants will go further still

, and say, that in those being saved, to continue the race; of hegreat words

Thine eyes did see my reditary tendencies, hereditary excellensubstance, yet being imperfect; and in cies, hereditary guilt. Its sense of the

Thy book all my members were written, reality and importance of descent is so which in continuance were fashioned, when intense, that it speaks of a whole tribe or as yet there was none of them,” – in a whole family by the name of its common those words, I say, the Psalmist has antic- ancestor, and the whole nation of the Jews ipated that realistic view of embryologi- is Israel, to the end. And if I be told this cal questions to which our most modern is true of the Old Testament, but not of philosophers are, it seems to me, slowly, the New, I must answer, What? Does half unconsciously, but still inevitably, re- not St. Paul hold the identity of the whole turning.

Jewish race with Israel their forefather, as Next, as to Race. Some persons now strongly as any prophet of the Old Testahave a nervous fear of that word, and of ment? And what is the central historic allowing any importance to difference of fact, save One, of the New Testament, but

Some dislike it, because they think the conquest of Jerusalem – the disperthat it endangers the modern notions of sion, all but destruction of a race, not by democratic equality. Others because they miracle, but by invasion, because found fear that it may be proved that the negro wanting when weighed in the stern balis not a man and a brother. I think the ances of natural and social law ? fears of both parties groundless. As for Gentlemen, think of this. I only sugthe negro, I not only believe him to be of gest the thought; but I do not suggest it the same race as myself

, but that — if Mr. in haste. Think over it — by the light Darwin's theories are true - science has which our Lord's parables, His analogies proved that he must be such. I should between the physical and social constituhave thought, as a humble student of such | tion of the world, afford — and consider questions, that the one fact of the unique whether those awful words, fulfilled then distribution of the hair in all races of hu- and fulfilled so often since -“ The king man beings, was full moral proof that they dom of God shall be taken from you, and had all had one common ancestor. But given to a nation bringing forth the fruits this is not matter of natural theology. hereof” — may not be the supreme inWhat is matter thereof, is this.

stance, the most complex development, of


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