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95. genium loci: see note on v. 84.- famulum: as a deified person, Anchises might have a special attendant.- --ne... -ne: see i. 308, note.

96. putet: § 575, b (334, 6); B. 300, 2; G. 467; H. 642, 3 (523, ii, N.); cf. H.-B. 503. — bidentes (see iv. 57), sues, iuvencos, the suovetaurilia. 99. remissos, returning (allowed to return) to share in these solemnities: apparently the shade, like a divinity, came to receive the offering; cf. iii. 303.

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100. quae... copia eam copiam (in appos. with dona, etc.).quae cuique (dat. of possessor) est: translate, each according to his ability.

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102. ordine, in long array: all partake of the feast in companies; each around its own kettle or fire. - fusi: cf. i. 212-214.

103. veribus: cf. i. 212. For cooking on spits see Fig. 42 (from a vase-painting).

104. serena, with luce.

105. Phaethontis: here the sun-god; usually applied to his son, whose story is told by Ovid, Met. ii.— equi. (See Fig. 43.)

106. fama: the talk about the games.

108. Aeneadas: these famous exiles are more attractive even than the games. - visuri: § 499, 2 (293, b, 2); B. 337, 4; G. 670, 3; H. 638,

3 (549, 3); H.-B. 607.- certare: § 460, b (273, b); B. 328, 1; G. 421, N.1, c; H. 608, 4 (533, ii, 3); H.-B. 586, f.- parati: § 286, b (187, d); B. 235, B, 2, c; G. 211, R.1, a; H. 394, 7 (438, 6); H.-B. 325, 631, 6.

FIG. 43.

109. circo (v. 289): it may here be used of the place of gathering, or of the circle of spectators.

110. tripodes: the kettle with its tripod was a very common prize in games (Il. xxiii. 259, 264, 702); the metals were comparatively rare, and even common utensils were works of art (see v. 266).

113. commissos: see note on notum, v. 6. 114. pares, i.e. rivals. - remis: the ancient

FIG. 44.

galleys relied on oars for their manœuvres, but used sails for speed. The ship race here takes the place of the chariot race in Homer, adopting some of its incidents.

116. Pristim, etc.: these fabulous creatures were probably represented in the ships' figure-heads.

117. Memmi: it was

a fancy of the Romans to derive their names and descent from these Trojan heroes.

119. urbis opus: either vast, like a city or a work worthy of a city. versu, tier. Triremes were not invented till some centuries later than

the times which Virgil is describing (see Fig. 44, from an ancient relief).

123. caerulea: the regular color of the sea-divinities (iii. 432). 124. saxum: a rock evidently just at the surface.

126. condunt: i.e. with clouds.

127. tranquillo locative abl. of circumstance; § 429, 3 (254, a); cf. H.-B. 422, 1, b, and 447.

129. frondenti: i.e. it is set up on the rock, leaves and all.

131. scirent: subj. of purpose. - circumflectere: i.e. the tree on the rock marked the turning-point round which they were to sail, as the racers in the circus drove round the meta (see iii. 429, note).

134. pōpulea (notice the ō), because these were funeral games. 136. intenta: sc. sunt.

137. haurit, etc., throbbing apprehension strains their beating hearts. 140. prosiluere: said loosely of both ships and crew; the perfect indicates the suddenness of the action.

141. versa, from verto, not verro.

142. pariter, together, no one being in advance.

143. tridentibus: the form usually given to a ship's beak, a reminiscence of which is still seen in the prow of the Venetian gondola. The rostrum was a massive projection of brass or iron, intended to sink or disable an enemy's ship in action, exactly like the modern " ram (see Fig. 44).

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144. biiugo certamine: the Homeric chariot-race (see v. 114, note) is here brought in by way of comparison.

145. carcere: the bound, or starting place; properly, stalls in which the horses were confined till the word was given.

147. proni, etc.: the natural attitude for whipping the horses. - pendent: cf. Pope, Temple of Fame, v. 218:

The youths hang o'er their chariots as they run.

148. studiis: a regular word for expressions of approval which take sides. It includes both plausu and fremitu, which designate particular methods of showing favor. - faventum (see note, i. 434), partisans.

149. inclusa: i.e. by hills.

152. turbam inter, amid the confusion and noise of his competitors. 153. pinus: cf. William Browne, Inner Temple Masque:

Steer hither, steer your wingèd pines,

All beaten mariners.

154. discrimine (abl. of degree of difference), distance, i.e. from Cloanthus.

155. locum. . . superare priorem (cogn. acc.): i.e. each to get ahead of the other.

159. scopulo: § 366 (226); B. 187, ii; G. 344; H. 424 (384, i); H.-B. 363, 2, b. tenebant, were just reaching the rock which was the halfway point (metam; medio gurgite); see note on v. 131.

162. quo, where (lit. whither).—mihi: § 380 (236); B. 188, 2, b; G. 351; H. 432 (389); H.-B. 372. The construction was once common in English. Cf. Shakspere, Comedy of Errors, i. 2. 11:

Villain, I say, knock me at this gate.

163. litus ama, hug the shore (i.e. of the rock). — stringat sine: ut omitted, see ii. 669, note; palmula: nominative. They leave the rock on the left as they sweep round it.

165. pelagi, the open sea.

166. diversus, so wide (i.e. so far from the rock).

167. revocabat: conative; § 471, c (277, c); B. 260, 3; G. 233; H. 530 (469, 1); H.-B. 484. Cf. ii. 84.

168. tergo: dative. — propiora tenentem, getting the inside track.

170. iter: § 390 (238); B. 176, 4, a; G. 333, 2, N.3; H. 409, 2 (371, ii); H.-B. 396, 2. — priorem, his leader: § 388, b (237, d); B. 175, 2, a, 1); G. 331; H. 406 (372); H.-B. 391, 2.-tuta: i.e. because he has rounded the rock and is now inside on the straight and open course. 172. iuveni: cf. note on v. IO.

174. socium=sociorum. Observe the chiastic order.

176. rector: § 283 (185); B. 168; G. 325; H. 393, 10 (362, 2, N.1); H.-B. 319, ii.

179. senior, fluens, explaining why he was gravis.

180. scopuli: § 346, b (216, b); G. 372, N.2; H. 442, 3 (397, 3, N.4); H.-B. 357. Cf. iv. 576.

181. illum: § 388, a (237, b); B. 175, 2, b; G. 330, R.; H. 405 (371, iii); H.-B. 391, 1.

184. superare: cf. rumpi (iv. 292, I and note), dissimulare (iv. 305). 186. praeeunte: observe that the diphthong is here made short before the following vowel; § 603, b, exc. (347, b, exc.); B. 362, 2; G. 705, exc.; H. 687, 1 (576, i, 1); H.-B. p. 9, ftn.

190. sorte suprema on the last fatal day (abl. of time).

193. Maleae: this headland, the extreme south of Greece, is proverbially dangerous to navigation. — sequacibus undis, the pursuing waves, from which it is hard to escape: § 251 (164, 7); B. 150, 2; G. 185, 5; H. 330, I (333, 4); H.-B. 208, 1.

195. quamquam o, and yet, oh! that- -: a half-expressed wish.

196. extremos, etc., at least let us be ashamed to come off last. — hoc vincite, win this at least (cognate acc.).

199. subtrahitur solum (for aequor), the course flies beneath them

(lit. passive). — artus, frame.

201. viris: i.e. Mnestheus' men, the crew of the Pristis.

202. animi: see note on iv. 203.

203. iniquo: i.e. dangerous.

205. murice, reef: properly a rock jagged and rough, like the shellfish called murex.

206. obnixi crepuere, crashed as they "pulled" against it. — pependit: the stern, however, was still afloat.

207. morantur: translate by a participle, delaying.

211. agmine . . . vocatis, with the rapid driving of oars, and with an appeal to the winds.

212. prona, descending: i.e. where he can run smoothly down to shore; cf. devenere (i. 365), delato (iii. 154), demittere (v. 29).

216. tecto, from her home (the rock): abl. of separation.

217. radit, skims: notice the smooth, rapid movement of the verse.

Not moving her swift pinions, skims along

The liquid way with outstretched wings at rest.

TASSO, Jerusalem Delivered, xviii. 49.

221. brevibus vadis, shallow reefs (lit. shoals): the adjective really adds nothing, but expresses the idea from another point of view. 222. discentem: said with a touch of humor.

227. clamor, the cheers (from shore).

228. studiis: cf. v. 148, note.

229. proprium, their deserved, and so far won (partum). — hi: Cloanthus and his men.

230. ni teneant: for "are indignant at the disgrace (which will be theirs) if they do not," etc.; § 592, 2 (341, c); B. 323; G. 601; H. 581, 1 (511, 1); H.-B. 536, a.

231. hos: Mnestheus and his crew.

234. in vota: i.e. the gods are summoned to be witnesses to his vows. 235. aequora (cognate acc.): cf. iii. 191, v. 217, 862.

237. voti reus, bound to my vow, i.e. if my prayer is granted: § 352, a (220, a); B. 208, 3; G. 374, N.2; H. 456, 4 (410, iii, N.2); H.-B. 343. 238. exta: the nobler entrails, heart, liver, etc.

240. chorus: many fanciful sea-monsters are supposed to attend the god.

247. in naves, for each ship (cf. in dies) that had shared in the race. - optare: § 563, N. (331, g); B. 295, 5, N.; G. 546, N.3; H. 608, ii (533, ii, 2); H.-B. 598, 2, a. Cf. i. 66.

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