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time seen ordering whisky for the party to be sent below; on which a bystander remonstrated on the inconsistency of persons of such refined taste using so base an indulgence in the midst of fine scenery and harmony: the argument was at once admitted as just; but how could it be helped ?—" it was just by way,” said this individual, “of accommodation to the ordinary practice in steam-boat jaunts.”

In some country districts, nearly all wagers and bets are in whisky. And it is to be particularly remarked, that all the drinking usages are in the nature of debts of honour, which it is in some sort the interest of the debtor to have most fully and generously discharged, his reputation and fame requiring this satisfaction. The prize at playing of drafts among certain classes is frequently whisky-and, with few exceptions, the premium in all games of quoits and curling; and as this last is sometimes contested between parish and parish, there are large meetings and deep carousals.

In some remote marine counties, cargoes of lime are discharged on the shore, and taken from the vessel by measure : the whisky usage here is one bottle for each hundred barrels. If the usage is neglected, the parties effect their revenge by putting the small lime into the measure first, and then the large or shell lime afterwards; whereas, if the shell lime had been first lodged, and the small poured above it, by the minute particles of the latter dropping into the chinks, a better weight would have been obtained; twopence a barrel or thereby can thus be lost to the farmer. Sometime ago, a large and strong man, much inebriated in consequence of this usage, was laid on the deck of the vessel, sheltered in a sail, to sleep; on unwrapping his covering, he was found dead--it was supposed by apoplexy in consequence of drinking.

The principal drinking usages connected with new year's day, halloween, with births, marriages, and baptisms, are so well known, that we must pass them over for fear of overloading this essay. The following advertisement by the respectable magistrates of a town in the west of Scotland may be stated, however, as the fruits of discussion on the subject.

Notice.- As the scavengers in the employment of the contractor for cleaning the streets of the town, are in the practice at this season of the year, and at the fairs, of soliciting gifts from the respectable inhabitants, the provost and magistrates earnestly request that those to whom such applications are made, will give no gratuity, as the money so raised is in most instances spent on spirituous liquors, thereby

injuring their own health, and leading to the neglect of their duty, to the great discomfort of the inhabitants.

v It is expected that those to whom the scavengers may apply after this notice, will give intimation to the contractor, that they may be dismissed the service.”

Council Chambers."

One custom we omitted at the proper place, and may bring it in here. In former times, it was usual on the morning that succeeded the marriage-day, for the friends of the bridegroom to be allowed to fasten with a straw rope a creel or basket to his back, and to throw as many stones into it as possible; while the office which the bride sustained in this ceremony was to undo the rope before her husband should be borne down by the weight of this practical joke. The custom has been generally abrogated, but in some parts it has been commuted into a forfeit of whisky. We are not sure that the new usage is less barbarous or perilous than the one it has superseded. The whisky forfeit is still denominated the “creeling:

The grim and unearthly inhabitants of the coal mines are rendered doubly hideous by fetters of drinking usage of extraordinary strength; and they are by these withdrawn still farther from the charities of civilized and christian life. At boring for coal, as soon as a workable seam is obtained, the master bestows a gallon or two of whisky, to which the workmen contribute largely. In sinking, as soon as the first coal is turned out, the dose is repeated; and as all the colliers cannot get to work at once, each one has or pays his quota of drink as he enters. Whenever a room has been cut for every pickman, the overseer assigns a room to each man, when another drink is resorted to. When there is no more water supervenes than can be mastered by the engines in one day's working in the week, that day is occupied in drawing water, and requires a dram; this is supplied by some tavern-keeper, and may be paid in coals. When a screen is required to be put up, this makes a day's drinking. The payment of wages is generally on Saturday night, and in a public-house, and the usage-money is sixpence in the pound; but of course greatly more than this is frequently consumed. At new year's day, the master again bestows a bonus of liquid fire. Now, if it were possible for any body of men to require to be uncommonly steady and meritorious, it is this class of workmen. Their confined labour in caves, where the beauteous daylight never sparkles, their

cadaverous looks and frightful habiliments, make them an astonishment, and almost, at first sight, an abhorrence to the general human race: but all such antipathy could well be got over by their practising copious ablutions while above ground, by attention to neatness in their dwellings, by intellectual improvement and religious consistency. A condition of things not likely to have place while their whisky usages continue to absorb their means, health, comfort, and intellects; nevertheless, there are many valuable men in this line of business among us, on whom, as on a fulcrum, a better order of things may be reared up.

Collier.—At the marriage of a collier in some places, the new married man takes a bottle of whisky down into the pit, and gives each man a glass. His fellow-workmen then leave the pit, put the bridegroom into a creel or basket, and drag him triumphantly to his own house, when they all receive a glass from the young wife's bottle. After this hateful initiation into the mysteries of drinking, they join together, go to a public-house, and the end is frequently most deplorable.

In a case where colliers had been deprived by their master of a Monday's drink usage, through which great inebriation constantly took place, they conspired with the salesmen of the coals, notwithstanding the master permitted them an allowance in lieu of the privation. A certain quantity of coals were secretly disposed of weekly: the proceeds were divided among the men as drink money; and when, after two years, the robbery was discovered, the salesmen were forced to grant assignments to their property to the amount of several hundred pounds, to cover the debt that had accrued in this illegal manner, and thus the matter was hushed up.

In the same colliery the payment of wages is made at a public-house, a previous attendance having taken place the week before of each workman to give an account of his work. At the first occasion they are expected to drink fourpence for the good of the house, and at the last sixpence. And of course great part of the wages melt away after this prosperous commencement of inebriation. Few things testify so much as these facts to the folly, carelessness, or imbecility of masters in these matters. It was not likely the employer could expect a sober set of men, when he persevered in such an admirable scheme for the promotion of drunken habits as his mode of paying the men's wages.

I shall give the usages of tailors and smiths in a large Scottish town, as I received them in the following letter from an

individual of great worth and respectability, and to whom the temperance cause in Scotland is under deep obligations.

“Dear Sir, I received your letter of the 23d ult. this morning, but I am sorry that I cannot send you anything like a complete list of the drinking usages of this place. On reading your last publication, (4th edition, Drinking Usage Pamphlet) I found that you had anticipated nearly all the usages which I had noted; and the difficulty of procuring copies of your smaller pamphlet for circulation among tradesmen, has prevented me from doing more than simply making arrangements for further investigation. Twelve masters of large works have kindly consented to afford me every facility for circulating anti-drinking-usage publications among their men, and more than twenty intelligent, sober tradesmen, have engaged to superintend their circulation, and also to furnish me with lists of the drinking usages in their respective trades, so soon as I shall call to supply them with tracts, the want of which has thus deprived me hitherto of much information which I might otherwise have had.

“ Tailors, in common with other trades, demand entrymoney and other sums from apprentice-boys; and a boardingpint, a smyrna-pint, a lacing-pint, a kissing-pint, and other pints from journeymen. Every tailor must give a boardingpint to his shop-mates as soon as he takes his seat among them; he gives a smyrna-pint soon after, but my informant could not define the term smyrna ;* he gives a lacing-pint when he puts lace on an article of clothing for the first time; and he must give a kissing-pint for indulging, or rather for liberty to indulge, in kissing. He must also pay a shilling when he gets married ; and his wife must give a shilling so soon as she has sat on, or even touched, the board on which he works. My informant's wife had paid a shilling in several shops. A shilling must also be paid for every child.

" For the enforcement of these and other usages, a court is held; and he who presides is styled “My Lord,' for which honour he pays one shilling. He who gave me this information said, that the drinking usages of his trade had cost him a little fortune.'

“ In courts of justice, under drinking-usage law, held among blacksmiths, he who presides wears a quantity of tow (in many cases) around his head, in imitation of a wig, and is styled the

* The smyrna-pint is due when a senior teaches a junior some difficult part of the trade: thus to overcast a button-hole with one thread. The shapingpint is what a tailor gives his customer who orders a suit of new clothes.

Lord Justice Clerk.' The decisions of these judges are final ; and such as do not comply with them, are compelled by persecution to leave the shop. My informant had seen coals or lime put into the hats of non-conformists, and pieces of wire twisted around the sleeves of their coats. He was charged three shillings for violating a drinking-usage on one occasion, but refused to pay it; a court was then held to decide the case, and the decision was, that he had to pay the three shillings, and also other two shillings of court expenses. It was common, he said, to send those who would not submit to the decisions of the court to 'Coventry,' which deprived them of all intercourse with their shopmates, none being permitted to speak to them without being fined.

“A blacksmith who had suffered loss of business from drunkenness, excused himself much as follows: “When I call at a customer's house with my bill for work done, I receive a dram, and the promise of payment in a few days; when the time comes,

I am of course sent for to a public-house, where I receive a dram with the money : the landlord does not let this good opportunity pass, and sometimes the whole amount of the account is drained out of me before the public-house and I separate.'

“ The foreman of a printing-office informed me to-day, that sending to 'Coventry' is common in the office in which he is employed. A printer in another office told me lately, that he had seen ink put into the sleeve of a non-conformist's coat, for the purpose of blackening his shirt, that he might be distinguished by all in the shop. Another printer informed me that he had seen preparations of gunpowder, with burning matches attached to them, suspended by a cord on the button of a fellow-workman's coat, because he would not give money for drink when a usage of the shop required him to do so, and that the powder soon after exploded, and burnt his clothes. A young woman, who is employed as a 'cutter' in a hat-manufactory in town, told me, that on returning to her work on the third day after her marriage, she was carried down stairs by three of the men, and compelled to pay five shillings, according to the custom of the shop. A cabinet-maker assured me, that such as would not comply with the drinking usages in the shops in which he had wrought, were outlawed (the same as being put into “Coventry'); that pieces of wood were thrown at them by their fellows, and that their tools were hid as frequently as possible, to make them comply. Another cabinetmaker informed me that his slippers had been frequently nailed to the floor in front of his bench, during his absence at

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