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An opinion, handed down from rude and ignorant times, and imbibed by Englishmen from their youth, has become very general, that the habitual use of some portion of alcoholic drink, as of wine, beer, or spirit, is beneficial to health, and even necessary for those subjected to habitual labour.

“Anatomy, physiology, and the experience of all ages and countries, when properly examined, must satisfy every mind well informed in medical science, that the above opinion is altogether erroneous. Man, in ordinary health, like other animals, requires not any such stimulants, and cannot be benefited by the habitual employment of any quantity of them, large or small; nor will their use during his life-time increase the aggregate amount of his labour. In whatever quantity they are employed, they will rather tend to diminish it,

“When he is in a state of temporary debility from illness, or other causes, a temporary use of them, as of other stimulant medicines, may be desirable; but as soon as he is raised to his natural standard of health a continuance of their use can do no good to him, even in the most moderate quantities; while larger quantities, (yet such as by many persons are thought moderate,) do sooner or later prove injurious to the human constitution, without any exceptions. "It is our opinion, that the above statement is substantially correct.”

(Signed) BATTY, EDWARD, Esq., M.R.C.S., Lecturer on Midwifery at the Medical

School, Royal Institution, Liverpool. BAYLIS, C. 0. Esq., Surgeon to the South Dispensary, Liverpool. BEAUMONT, THOMAS, Esq., M.R.C.S., Bradford. BERRY, SAMUEL, Esq.,M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Town Infirmary, Birmingham. BIRKBECK, GEORGE, M.D. BLUNDELL, JAMES, M.D. BRODIE, SIR BENJAMIN C., Bart., F.R.S., Serjeant-Surgeon to the Queen,

Surgeon to St. George's Hospital, &c. BROOKES, BENJAMIN, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the British Lying-in Hos

pital. BURROWS, John, Esq., Liverpool. CHAMBERS, W.F., M.D., F.R.S., Physician to the Queen, and the Queen

Dowager, and to St. George's Hospital. CHAVASSE, THOMAS, Esq., M.R.C.S., St. George's Hospital, Birmingham. CHOWNE, W. D., M.D., Lecturer on Midwifery, and Physician to Charing

Cross Hospital. CHURTON, JOSEPH, Esq., M.R.C.S., Liverpool. CLARKE, SIR JAMES, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., Physician to the Queen and the

Queen's Household, &c. CLUTTERBUCK, J. B. Esq. CONQUEST, J. T., M.D., Physician to the City of London Lying-in Hospital.

COOPER, BRANSBY, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.R.S., Lecturer on Anatomy, and Sur

geon to Guy's Hospital. COOPER, GEORGE L. Esq., M.R.C.S. DALRYMPLE, J., Esq., M.R.C.S., Lecturer on Surgery at Sydenham College. Davies, THOMAS, M.D., Lecturer on Medicine, and Physician to the London

Hospital. DAVIES, John BIRT, M.D., Liverpool. DAVIS, DAVID D., M.D., Physician to the Duchess of Kent, and Professor of

Obstetric Medicine in University College. Davis, —, Esq. EYRE, SIR JAMES, M.D. FERGUSON, ROBERT, M.D., Physician to the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. FowkE, FREDERICK, Esq., M.R.C.S. FRAMPTON, ALGERNON, M.D., Physician to the London Hospital. GILL, WILLIAM, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Northern Hospital, Liver

pool. GODFREY, J. J., Esq., M.R.C.S., Liverpool. GRANT, KLEIN, M.D., Professor of Therapeutics at the North London School

of Medicine. GRANVILLE, A. B., M.D., F.R.S., Physician Accoucheur to the Westminster

General Dispensary. GREEN, THOMAS, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Town Infirmary, Birming

ham. GREAT REX, CHARLES BUTLER, Esq., Liverpool. HALL, MARSHALL, M.D., F.R.S. L. and E., Lecturer on Medicine at Syden

ham College, and Consulting Physician to the Westminster General Dis

pensary HAY, ALEXANDER, Esq., Surgeon to the South Dispensary, Liverpool. HOPE, I., M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Medicine at Aldersgate Street School,

and Assistant Physician to St. George's Hospital. HOWSHIP, John, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to Charing Cross Hospital. HUGHES, JOHN, M.D., Liverpool. JEPPREYS, JULIUS, Esq , M.R.C.S. JULIUS, G. C., M.D. JULIUS, G. C., Jun., M.D. KEY, C. Aston, Esq., M.R.C.S., Lecturer on Surgery, and Surgeon to Guy's

LEDSMAN, J.J., Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Eye Infirmary, Birmingham.
LEE, ROBERT, M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Midwifery at Kinnerton Street

Medical School, and Physician to the British Lying-in Hospital.
LEWIS, WILLIAM, Esq., Manchester.

M., Esq., Surgeon to the South Dispensary, Liverpool.
LYNN, W. B. Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Westminster Hospital.
MACILWAIN, GEORGE, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Finsbury Dispensary.
MACKENZIE, J. D., M.D., Physician to the Liverpool Infirmary Lock Hospital.
MACRORIE, D., M.D., Physician to the Fever Hospital, Liverpool.

M.R.C.S., Liverpool. MATTERSON, WILLIAM, Esq., M.R.C.S., Îork. MATTERSON, WILLIAM, Jun., Esq., M.R.C.S., York. Mayo, HERBERT, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.R.S., Surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital. MERRIMAN, SAMUEL, M.D., Physician Accoucheur to the Westminster

General Dispensary.
MIDDLEMORE, RICHARD, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Eye Infirmary,

MORGAN, John, Esq., M.R.C.S., Lecturer on Surgery, &c., and Surgeon to

Guy's Hospital.
MORLEY, GEORGE, Esq., M.R.C.S., Lecturer to the Leeds School of Medicine.
NELSON, John BARRITT, A.B., M.B., F.C.P.S., &c., Birmingham.
NIGHTINGALE, ROBERT S., Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Eastern Dispen-

sary, Liverpool.

PARKIN, John, Esq., M.R.C.S.
PARTRIDGE, RICHARD, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy at

King's College, and Surgeon to Charing Cross Hospital.
PINCHING, R. L. Esq., M.R.C.S.D.
QUAIN, RICHARD, Esq., M.R.C.S., Professor of Anatomy at the London

University, and Surgeon to the North London Hospital. REID, JAMES, M.D. Roots, H. S., M.D., Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. ROUPELL, G. L., M.D., Lecturer on Materia Medica, and Physician to St.

Bartholomew's Hospital. Scott, John, M.D. STANLEY, EDWARD, Esq., M.R.C,S., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy, and Sura

geon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. TEALE, T. P., Esq., M.R.C.S., F.L.S., Surgeon to the Leeds General Infir

mary. TEALE, JOSEPH, Esq., M.R.C.S., Leeds. THOMSON, ANTHONY Dodd, M.D., F.L.S., Lecturer on Materia Medica, and

Physician to the London University. THOMSON, HENRY U., M.D. TOULMIN, FREDERICK, Esq., Surgeon, Clapton. TRAVERS, BENJAMIN, Esq., M.R.C.s., F.R.S., Surgeon Extraordinary to the

Queen, and Surgeon and Lecturer on Surgery to St. Thomas's Hospital. URE, ANDREW, M.D., F.R.S. URE, ALEXANDER, M.D., Lecturer on Chemistry at the North London School

of Medicine. VAUX, GEORGE, M.D., Birmingham, WALKER, —



ABROAD, going or returning, drink

fine, 117.
Abrogation of drinking usages, cir-

cumstances favourable to, 23, 33,

Accuser failing to substantiate charge,

drink fine, 81, 131.
Affidavit men, 107.
Age, coming of, drink fine, 154.
Agricultural occupations, drinking

usages of, 13, 39, 41, 87, 168, 169.
Allowances of drink, 86, 117.
Ancient nations, drinking practices,

Anniversary of joining trade, drink

fine, 6.
Anti-usage, plan of operations, 226,

Apprentice footing, or entry, reflec-
tions on, 7, 8, 11, 138 et passim.

anecdotes of, 76,
83, 122, 137.
Apron stamping, 131, 146, 119.
Arthur Seat Mountain usage, 43.
Artificial connexion of business, sales,

and liquor, 226 (see also footings,

Artificial states of society, 203.
Assistance at work, refusal of, a drink

penalty, 84, 87, 125, 120.
Auctions, agricultural and others,

drink at, 13, 52, 169.

Bargain, a rue, how adjusted, 14.
Beams of lower deck laying, liquor

at, 114.
Bean feast, 127, 131, 166.
Bell-ringers, 136.
Bench, change of, in workshops, 5,

Bets (see wagers, stakes).
Birthday, a man's, 116, &c.

of children, 20, 116, &c.
Black pot, 167.
Black rock, 116.
Blacksmith's usages, 56, 118.
Block cutters, 5.
Block-makers, 129.
Bookbinders, 159.
Boots, pair of topped, fine, 157.
Brass-founders, 139.
Breakfast dram, 21, 37.
Bricklayers, 146.
Bridewell, fine for being sent to, 117,
Brothering, 5, 8.
Brothers, case of meeting, 215.
Bull shilling, 174.
Burns, examination of the poet's

writings, 60—68.
Butchers, 13, 42, 90.
Buttoning work, fine, 120.
Buttyman, among colliers, 159.

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Backings of drink money, 77, 86,

116 et passim.
Baillie days, 52.
Ballast men, their usages, 149.
Balls, whisky of females exclusively,

Baptism, drinking at, 42, 102, et pas-

drams previous to, 20.
Bargain and sale, use of liquor at,
14, 17, 87, 140, 169.

a good, drink fine, 157.

Cab, stationing first time, 93.
Cabbing, 79.
Cabinet-makers, 4, 79.
Cabmen, 93, 139.
Calico glazers, 146.

-printers, 10.
Candles, leaving burning, 4, 83, 119,

snuffing out, 128.
Carders, 145.
Cargoes, discharging liquor at, 53,
Carpenters, 75, 119.
Cart, cast in a, 17.
Carvers, 136.
Catholic priests, 99.
Cattle, dealers in, 13.


Creeling, 54.
Crowing, among colliers, 158.
Curriers, 119.

Definition of drinking usage, 2, 68,

Delay in paying drink fines (see per-

secution, nonconformity, maltreat-

Demi-usages, 68.
Despotism of drinking usages, (see

persecution, nonconformity, mal-

Difficulty of introducing anti-usage,

Dinner parties, 232.
Dock or quay porters, 68, 149.

taking vessel in or out of, 31.
Domestic usages, 101 (see servants).
Donnybrook fair, 89.
Duel, case of, contrasted, 217.
Durham's opinion of drinking healths,



ges, 230.

Cattle, operators on, 42.
Chain cable manufacturers, 119.
Challenge to fight, drink fine, 130.
Chandlers, 91.
Chapel among printers, 91, 154.
Christenings (see baptisms).
Christmas boxes, 95, 120, et passim.

usages, 177.
Classification of British usages, 202.
Cloth cappers, 5.
Clubs, nightly, 46, 169.

trade, drinking fines, 78, 108,
et passim.

room rent in liquor, 80,
93, 118, 122.

allowances of liquor,

usages, 94, 129.
men, 101, 215. -
harness platers, 150.
spring makers, 131.

stage, parcel delivery, 101.
Coal carrying trade, 162.
Coalmen or colliers, 54, 86, 158.
Cobbing, 113, 120.
Colour, change of (calico printers), 10.
Collateral combination against usa-
Collop money, 175.
Colt, 88, 174
Combination, cases of successful, 15,

collateral, against usa-

power of, in anti-usage
operations, 23, 222.
Comparison of Irish and Scotch modes
of inebriation, 109.

Scots and English ditto,
112, 181.
Compulsion, inoral, 17.
Conclusion, remarks at, 234.
Connexion between joyful occasions

and liquor, 43.
Consultation dram, 41.
Contractors, 39.
Coopers, 5, 88, 123.
Coroner's jury, 180.
Cotton spinners, 9, 150.
Countenancing drinking in others,

Courtesy, connexion of, and strong
drink, 182–191, 224.

liquor the symbol of, here
only, 184, 208, 224.
Courtship, drinking usages of, 17, 18.
Courts of law, mock, (see Strong Beer

Coventry, being sent to, 5, 57, 80,

120, 218, et passim.
Cow, buying a, drink fine, 157.

Engineers (see millwrights and

England, drink usages of, remarks

on, 112, 180.
Enlisting shilling and allowance, 176.
Estimate, general, of our national

case, 234.
Expense of usages (see statistical).

ges, 230.


Fairing in drink, 174.
Farmers' usages, 29, 39.
Farm servants, hiring, 39, 169.
Farriers, 40.
Father, buying a, 145.
Fault-finding, fine, 132.
Female drinking, 3436, 197, 201,

205, 216.
Fighting, fine for, 139.
Fines, 147.
Fire, letting out, &c., 4, 79, 121.
Fishermen, 157 (see also herring

Flocker, 174.
Foreign nations, drinking usages of,

182, 191–198.
Foreman, one made a, 121.

practices of some of these,
115, 117, 166, 179.
Foundation pint, 38.
Founders (see ironfounders).
Freedom to drink or not to drink,

none in Great Britain, 3, 209.

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