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a pecuniary mulct on such occasions as leaving candles or fires in circumstances inferring danger to buildings or materials; or on failure in the usual habits of cleanliness and respect: or on quarrelsome behaviour, and the using improper language; no reasonable person would wish to interfere. But although the money-levy in these cases may be kept up, it seems unwise to devote it to that which generally ensures the use of improper language, quarrelling, want of personal cleanliness, and the peril of accidents. The interests of education, improvement, and comfort might be subserved by the application of fines in a way at complete variance with the ordinary manner. And it is a pleasure to be able to state that this salutary change, in the dedication of drink fines in workshops, is now in progress throughout the kingdom.

It is well known, however, after all, that if the fines were not payable in drink, they would seldom be inflicted.

CHAPTER XIV.

ENGLISH USAGES—continued.

Plasterers-Furniture Brokers—Dock Porters-Lumpers and Ballast Men

Tally System - Plumbers — Coach-Harness Platers — Cotton Spinners — Wages, payment of -- Printers - Plating Trade - Fishermeu - Colliers Bookbinders—Millwrights-Stable-Yard— Coal-carrying Trade – Domestic Servants - Paper Stainers — Leather Japanners - Public-house UsagesGlass Makers-and Twelve other Trades-Racing Stables-Tramp.

Plasterers.The apprentice footing is 30s. The master gives 15s, and the men back with 2s. each. Loosing is 20s.; master also gives 10s. ; journeymen back with 2s.; the other apprentices with 1s. each. Christmas-boxes, average 10s., are claimed from the limekiln, lath maker, slate and flag merchant. Plasterers working at gentlemen's houses frequently get drink allowance, with unhappy results; this is intended for diet or refreshment, under the usual national mistake on that subject. The meetings of the trade's club is held at a public-house, with the ordinary accompaniment of copious drinking.

Furniture Brokers.—To men attending auctions 10s. is given, with backing of 6d. each ; at the end of a sale 7s.6d. is given for the men to drink; the same for the women employed.

ng sales liquor is given to bidders,—this is a qu hable practice on other than temperate grounds. The above par

ticulars may be local, but there is reason to believe there is much unnecessary drinking at auctions throughout England.

Dock Porters (in the sea-ports). Footing 2s. 6d.; the men each a glass round. The warehousemen in some cases must be treated (mugged) or the workman may be in danger of being put away. It is a general practice here to pay wages within a public-house with which the payer has some connexion; and he who drinks most, in some cases gets most work, though the worst workman. An informant knew of a porter who, on the pay-night, had drunk, or spent in treating, all his weekly wages, except 28. 3d. : he was called a clever fellow by the foreman who employed him, and he received work again on the Monday following. Another man who had only spent two pints was not called again. This foreman was also a publican.

Lumpers, Trimmers, and Ballast-men (in the sea-ports). Many masters among these are publicans; and the most unprincipled tyranny is exercised in compelling men to drink, before work will be granted to them.

The Tally System.—" The system of obtaining goods by small weekly payments prevails to a considerable extent amongst the humbler classes of the community.

“ It has been often remarked, that there is scarcely any system of fraud or oppression which is not carried on, to a considerable degree, through the instrumentality of strong drink. This instrument many an experienced tallyman is careful to employ. Having found, in the locality in which he wishes to establish himself, some respectable old lady, who is on terms of intimacy with her female neighbours, and who, withal, is somewhat fond of a 'wee drop' of 'Cream of the Valley;' he favours her with a call; gratifies her own propensity; makes her some little present from his pack; and intimates that he shall often throw her in a remnant of print, or an odd bit of flannel, provided she will use her influence with her female friends to recommend him as a man who has 6 astonishing bargains,' and with whom 'immediate payment is no object.' The bond is sealed in a glass of gin, and it is agreed that her apartment shall be the grand show-room to which her female neighbours shall be invited, to see 'some of the most beautiful things, which are almost given away.'

“On the day appointed, the bait is set, not forgetting a drop of good gin. The old decoy bird is sent out; the women are invited just to step in for a moment. It is in vain that they plead business, or inability to purchase : “there can be

no harm in just looking, and you needn't buy unless you like.' One and another, attracted and impelled by curiosity, enters; a glass of gin is pressed on their acceptance; a piece of gaudy chintz is held against one of them—the elderly lady declaring it to be one of the handsomest things she ever clapt eyes on! The poor woman to whose skirt it is applied, hesitatingly wonders what it is a yard ?' 'As cheap as dirt to you,' is the prompt reply; "and if you haven't got the money now, I'll trust you.' Thus encouraged, and the potent spirit beginning to inspire her, she becomes a little talkative; and a little 'blarney' on the part of the salesman induces her to have the quantity for a dress cut off, on the payment of sixpence or a shilling down, and the understanding that a similar sum is to be paid weekly, till the whole debt is liquidated. Another is induced, on the same terms, to take a pair of stays; a shawl takes the fancy of a third, and so on; each bargain being wetted with a drop of gin.

“ The various customers having retired with their respective bargains, Mr. Tallyman is careful to obtain from the elderly lady information respecting the husbands of his new acquaintances; their christian names; their wages; the places at which they are usually to be found; and every particular which may be considered necessary. For a week or two, or, it may be, for a inonth, the payments are regularly made; then there is an omission; then threats ensue; then the articles are sent to my uncle's '* to realize the needful, or if this be rendered impossible in consequence of the articles having been used up, an application is made to the husband, who for the first time, to his utter astonishment, hears that his wife has gone in debt.”+

Plumbers. — Apprentice footing 20s., loosing 50s. First jointing a water pipe 1s., first soldering pump joint 2s., casting first sheet of lead 28., first making pipe heads 2s. ; with a backing for all these. At death of one a collection is made, which is partly drunk.

Coach-Harness Platers.—Apprentice footing 28. 6d. : journeyman's the same, with backing of 6d. Weddings, christenings, and birth-days, 1s., each of these with backing. Journeyman's footing on shift of vice in the same shop ls. with backing:

Cotton Spinners.--Every spinner who gets a shop of work has to pay from 38. to 58., with a backing of 6d. each from the

* Pawned,

† London Temperance Intelligencer.

rest in that department. Every time he changes his wheel, from 1s. 6d. to 28. 6d. When a man first begins to spin, 10s. 6d. On marriage, 58. If he strike another man, 2s. 6d. All of these with backings. One informant has known thirty cottonmill girls drink ten pints of rum at one of their own footings. The inebriation of females in the present age is too seldom noticed even by temperance advocates.

As to Payment of Wages.—“We court,” says the Temperance Intelligencer, « special notice for the following evidence, by an eye-witness, viz. Mr. Fairbairn, of Leeds, who, when asked, "Are there not consequences to the employers themselves, as well as to the rate-payers, in connexion with the (drinking) habits of labourers, thus created ?' answered, One consequence of these habits is the loss of time at the commencement of the week, and the comparative inefficiency of the workmen when they do come. The workman who has been absent in consequence of drunkenness, comes to his work pale, emaciated, shattered, and unnerved. From my own observation in my own branch of manufacture, I should say that the quantity and quality of the work executed during the first day or so would be about one-fifth less than that obtainable from a steady and attentive workman.' The next inquiry was, “This deterioration, then, in a large number of workmen engaged in a manufactory, may be noted as an important item of saving for the consideration of a provident manufacturer ?' • Undoubtedly,' replied Mr. Fairbairn. "Another consideration for the master is, the fact that such workmen, the most idle and dissolute, are the most discontented, and are always the foremost in mischievous strikes and combinations.'

“ It was further asked, You have spoken of the consequences of making the public-house a place of payment; what are the comparative effects of making the payments at the counting-house ?' The reply was, “A considerable reduction of the evil. Payments to large numbers at the countinghouse is still, however, attended with much inconvenience and evil. The payment of the number of men employed at our works (between five and six hundred) would, as I have stated, occupy between two and three hours. This mode of payment, therefore, implies the keeping of a large crowd together during that time. During that time, appointments are made of meetings at public-houses to drink, that would not otherwise take place. It also generates discontent: it gives an opportunity, by assembling a crowd, for any discontented or mischievous person to operate upon a large mass of people.

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Formerly the business of my manufactory, and the welfare of the working people, were very seriously interrupted by strikes ; and I could not help observing the facilities which such meetings gave to such mischievous persons.'

« Mr. Fairbairn was then asked, What is the mode of payment which you have adopted ?' 'I send the clerk into each room in the manufactory immediately after the dinner-hour, and he pays each man individually. Each man is scarcely taken from his work half a minute. I may observe, that some masters, to save themselves trouble, so as to avoid the inconvenience of getting small change, will pay several men together. This again leads to the public-house, where the men commonly go to get change to divide the money amongst them; I therefore avoid paying any two men together, and subjecting them to temptation as well as to inconvenience and cost. Each of my workmen being paid in the shop, without the loss of a minute, may go at once directly home at the time when the work closes. He is thus afforded an opportunity of going at once to the market at an early hour, and is subjected to no factitious inducements to drink, disorder, improvidence, and destitution.'

“The next questions and answers are very interesting and important. What is the average time thus saved to each of the 550 workmen in your manufactory, as compared with the ordinary mode of payment?' • About an hour and a half, or half the three hours of payment.' Then, by this means, instead of bringing 550 persons to the one person, the pay clerk, sending that one person to the 550 persons, you save to them upwards of 800 hours of inconvenient waiting?' 'Just 80.' 'How many persons, on the average, have you absent from work on the Monday morning? Not more than from four to five, until eight o'clock in the morning; and on the return to work after dinner from one to two persons.', 'That is from one to two persons the entire day during the Monday, out of between five and six hundred work people ?' 'Yes.' • What number would have been absent on the Monday under the ordinary circumstances? 'About 30 per cent., or onethird, would be drunk on the Saturday night; and full 10 per cent. would not make their appearance until the Tuesday morning. Instead of only two absent during the whole of the day, I should have more than fifty ; or, in other words, more than fifty families not only distressed by what is spent in drink, but losing one-sixth of their earnings, and I as a master losing from their deteriorated work on the days when

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