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this, we do not deny; and that landlords paying a heavy rent, and advancing capital for public accommodation, and affording certain special benefits to the commercial room, ought to be fairly remunerated, is mere justice; and it is undoubted that in the present state of things the remuneration consists, in part, of the profits on liquor, and on an hypothesis that a considerable quantity must be consumed by every traveller. But how long ought such a state of things to exist in an enlightened nation ?-a state not only inconvenient and vexatious, but pernicious in all its bearings ; destructive of personal freedom and comfort, of time, of intellectual attainment, and in some cases of morals and piety. One might venture to think, that half an hour's discussion at a meeting of a few respectable gentlemen in the line, in some of the large towns, might settle this affair to the satisfaction of guests and landlords, and of all who have any claim to have their interests consulted.

Shoemakers.-As this class of artificers work much in their own apartments, there are fewer settled usages than in some others. A journeyman's footing is however claimed; it is generally 28. 6d. with 6d. of backing. A gallon of ale is allowed by the master of the shop as way-goose, at lighting candles in the fall of the year; the men add to this.

The master, or the leather-merchant or cutter, allows something for drink on the 25th October, St. Crispin's day, and at Christmas. The trades society meet in a public-house, and the room is paid by the drink used; this is 3d. apiece, or it may be a pint by each member, whether present or not; of course, the fewer who attend, it is to them the better cheer.” It is seldom, I have understood, that any of this trade work on Monday; it is, therefore, (in present fashion) made much a drinking day; and this circumstance stands in stead of the want of a multiplicity of other usages. Bets are generally made in drink; and not unfrequently, under pretence of real business, a movement is made to call a meeting of the trade club, which will as a matter of course ensure a drink; some suppositious encroachment on the part of a master is vamped up for the mere purpose of having the council of the trade called together, and having a spree.”

Putters Ort, (an upper class of workmen in the manufacturing districts.)—These have a great deal in their


and it were to be wished that some of them were less influential in promoting drinking usage. Such of them as love ale, I have been informed, are very often “mugged" by the operatives

for work, especially in times when there is a scarcity. The following is nearly verbatim the statement of an informant.

“ Hawkins and Jobson were one day standing in the street idle, in a melancholy taking, condoling one another in the best way they could on the bad, miserable times, and the want of corduroys to cut (they were fustian cutters). They and their families were starving, and they had become hopeless. Suddenly Hawkins sees a man pass who was a putter out, as appeared afterwards : If,' exclaimed he, 'I had only threepence, just threepence this moment, I could get work. I have only three-halfpence; lend me, lend me what you can. They made up threepence between them. Hawkins ran like a racer, overtook the man, and accosted him ; 'Mr. So and So, how do you do? this is a fine day,' and so forth; and he finished by saying, “Wilt thou ha' a glass of room?' This was quickly agreed to; and the man entering into conversation, said, 'Well, Hawkins, notwithstanding the bad times, I suppose you have plenty of work—a man of your hands, eh?' None whatever, I am quite out,' replied Hawkins. Well, well, that's a pity; come, call to-day, I will give thee somewhat.' He did so, and got 40s. worth of work that afternoon."

There are few subjects which the operatives I have consulted on these and similar topics, are more earnest to have gentlemen understand, than the extensive evil that is done to themselves and to the employer by the system of “mugging "the foreman or putter out,

Inkleweavers.—At marriage, 5s. to drink is given by the bridegroom to the men of his own room, with backing of 1s. or 6d. New clothes are “ wetted.” New-year's gifts are claimed from the dyer, joiner, and bleacher; it runs from 78. 6d. to 11.

My informant in this trade made similar remarks to those above on the evils of the “ mugging system.” An overlooker, which term seems to have much the same meaning as putter out, or foreman, perhaps keeps a beer-shop. He is liable to be bribed by the workmen daily, hourly, continually. He puts the best briber or mugger on the highest wages; he has it in his power to raise or depress the wages of an individual in a variation of from 12s. to 11. 48. a-week; he abuses to the employer those who do not drink and treat, and attend his house. Any man who would thrive “must get thick with the

overlooker.'But this is at the risk of drunken habits, and the certainty of the most dangerous servility.

Hatters. The apprentice footing is general, though not universal. It is 1l.; sometimes the master pays two gallons of


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“binding ale.” The journeyman's footing seems to receive in this trade the name of "garnish. This is paid to be free of the shop, to constitute one a regular shopman. It runs from Is. 8d. to 58., with a backing by the rest of 2d. for every 1s. It is common in some shops to mug or bribe the foreman for work; the regulation sum is 2s. 6d. for each 25s. worth of work. At Christmas each man is expected to give )s. towards a general ca

It is begun to be collected in October from all indoor men that work on the premises. With regard to outdoor men, when they take their work within, and sit at a fire, or in a sheltered place with the indoor men, they must buy a father;" that is, must pay 1s. for drink four times in the year. Here we see the ingenuity of men in this country much addressed to schemes for procuring strong drink by every means. Another informant, stating the inconvenience in large establishments of no place being provided for shelter to outdoor men who are waiting for work, remarks, that they are greatly tempted to linger in a neighbouring public-house for mere protection from the weather, where, of course, they are liable to be allured to evil; he had seen 100 hands waiting for work in this predicament.

If a man use the tools of others, without leave, he is fined in drink sunis from 18. 6d. to 5s. If a man is accused of any misdemeanour, or professional irregularity, and has incurred thereby a drink-fine, a “gàrret-match " is called, being a tribunal consisting of seven shops. The accused pays 58. for drink, before the meeting can be summoned. He must, besides, abide the decision. If against him, he will probably have to pay 10s. 6d. to 1l. 18. for drink. Marriage is 58., with 6d. of backing. Birth of child 2s. 6d., with 3d. of backing. New clothes are wetted as follows :-Coat ale 18., full suit 5s.; other garments in proportion. A man pays ls. for drink on the anniversary of the day he was made a journeyman. There are various penalties for nonperformance of drinking usage. The last resort is the men “putting on their coats," that is, striking work against the recusant, and thus forcing the employer to dismiss him.

Carders in the cotton factory districts).—A journeyman has to

pay here for a rise in wages: the extra amount for the first week goes for drink to the men; thus from stripping to grinding a rise of wages is given. Marriage 28. 6d. for a man; 18. for a woman. At birth of child something is given. Some

linked at the pay-night, as formerly described. New clothes are expected be" wetted.” Informant had got a handkerchief inked, because he would not “wet it."

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Bricklayers in some places called brick-setters).- The apprentice footing is 10s. 6d., to which the master sometimes adds the same sum. The first time the apprentice makes an arch, he is charged 2s. to 58., to which the others add or “back."

On working to a line of bricks he pays 1s.; on getting a leather apron 18.; when setting bond 18.; first brick laying 20s.; with backing to all these. Loosing 20s., with a backing from men, and 20s. from master. The journeyman's footing is 28. 6d. each shop, with backing from the rest. Marriage 58., with backing. When the wife comes with her husband's breakfast the first time, 2s. Birth of child (“washing child's head, ”) if a girl 58., if a boy 2s. 6d., with backing. The

pay is generally either at a public-house, or the men are " linked,” as formerly described." New trowel is "wetted; and a beverage is paid for new clothes. The usual drink-fines towards personal cleanliness occur. A new apron requires to be stamped at the public-house. There is often a funeral collection on the death of a workman, part of which goes to drink. The owner of a building is considered to be bound to pay, money to the bricklayers for drink, at the successive periods of laying the first, second, and third floors. The rearing pint, at finishing a house, is, on the average, 50s., but one informant has seen it as high as 121.; it is given by the

If the owner, or his friend, or any visitor, try to lay a brick themselves, they thus incur a drink-fine to the men ; who endeavour to induce all visitors to do so.

Christmas-boxes are exacted from the fire-brick maker, common brick-maker, and lime-merchant: the average is 5s. This goes, according to rule, to the apprentices, but these are bound to take two journeymen with them, to help to drink it. One informant has seen a hand turned off by a master, who kept a public-house, because he had become a teetotaller. Another has seen men beaten for not paying a journey footing. But as apprentices sometimes form part of a master's family, they are not so harshly dealt with. The last resort for noncompliance, I am informed, would be a turn-out.

Calico GlazingThe apprentice footing is 10s., with backing of 1s. Loosing 30s. Journeyman's footing is 5s., with backing of 1s. Marriage the same. Christmas-boxes are claimed from the ticket-printer, ironmonger, coalmaster, and paper warehouse. Rag-money is given by the employer twice a-year. The usual penalties are the result of noncompliance with the usages.

Picken-makers (manufacturers of part of loom).— Apprentice


footing 2s. 6d.; at binding 5s., with backing of 6d. and 1s. Loosing ll., with backing of 1s. 6d. Journeyman's footing 28. 6d., with 6d. of backing. Marriage 58., birth 1s., both with backings. “Linked," in general, on Saturday night at pay. New tools and new clothes are “ wetted." The first sprig bit a man breaks, he forfeits 6d. for drink; for mislaying tools 3d., and the same for laying any thing on a forbidden bench. The master gives drink on Shrove Tuesday, and at new year. Way-goose is only occasional. A man's birth-day is optional. New-year drink is claimed from the wire-worker and skin-dealer, 5s. to 10s. There are the usual penalties.

Upholsterers.-A young man in this trade was peculiarly clever with his hands, but got into habits of drinking. Seriously considering his situation and prospects, he became teetotal. Having settled in a small town, a gentleman had a week's job of some difficulty, which he could get nobody to undertake; and applying to the young man in question, he judged from his answers that he was likely to do. He set him to work, and first of all ordered him a quantity of ale; this was declined, whereupon he fiercely asked if the workman was a teetotaller; and on hearing in the affirmative, ordered him forth of the premises. As the lad necessarily took up some time in packing up his tools, the gentleman had leisure to consider, and to recollect, that if the total-abstinence man was not permitted to do the job, it was not likely to be executed at all; he therefore smothered his resentment, gulped his antipathy to the hated extreme of sobriety, and declaring himself satisfied, after all, he permitted the teetotaller and his assistant to finish the work. Moreover, having seen the good results of temperance in the course of the undertaking, and its successful accomplishment, he announced his determination to give the man, extra, what the cost of regular daily drink would have been, and perhaps more; and accordingly he gave a written order on his shoemaker to give the bearer the best pair of shoes in his shop. This circumstance, further, began to weigh in the mind of the workman's assistant, who had been observant of the above details, and who had received no shoes, because he had drunk all that was offered to him. After several felicitous events, of a nature similarly favourable to teetotalism, the assistant finally embraced the plan, and, after some deliberation, signed the pledge.

Fines.-In regard to fines, it has been from time to time hinted that we have no quarrel with anything but the application of them. If masters or men find it expedient to establish

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