Rare Earth Elements: A New Approach to the Nexus of Supply, Demand and Use: Exemplified along the Use of Neodymium in Permanent Magnets
Springer Science & Business Media, 14. feb. 2013 - 157 sider
This thesis deals with Rare Earth Elements (REE), especially with neodymium used in permanent magnets, from a very scientific basis by providing basic research data. Despite the fact that REE are newsworthy and very important elements for a considerable bandwidth of todays’ technologies, accompanied by the monopolistic supply-situation and Chinese politics, there are inexplicable data discrepancies about REE which have been recognized frequently but usually have not been addressed accordingly. So this analysis started with the hypothesis that the four application areas, namely computer hard disk drives (HDD), mobile phones, wind turbines and e-mobility (automotive traction), account for about 80% of the global annual neodymium-demand. The research methodology was a laboratory analysis of the composition of used magnets for HDDs and mobile phones and a literature and official report analysis of wind turbine and automotive neodymium use. The result was amazing and the hypothesis had to be withdrawn as these four areas only account for about 20% of neodymium use. This result raises some questions concerning actual use and thus potential recycling options.
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2 Rare Earth Elements What and Where They Are
3 The Way to the Chinese Predominance A Key for Understanding the REE Issue
4 Numbers About Rare Earth Elements in the Scientific Literature
5 Rare Earth Elements in the Magnets Application Field
6 Scales and Relations Analysis of REPM Use with Emphasis on the Years from 2000 to 2010
7 The Geography of the REE
8 Conclusion The REE and the Real Problem
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abundance Accessed 11 Nov actually alloys analysis annual production Annual report applications areas asynchronous average based permanent magnets basic bastnaesite capacity car sales cerium chemical China China rare Chinese companies composition data sets Data source demand deposits detailed difﬁcult direct drive e-mobility efﬁciency ENERCON environmental estimated export quota ﬁeld ﬁgures ﬁnally ﬁrst further research Gamesa given global production Goldwind HDDs hybrid car IMCOA individual REE industry issue Kingsnorth lanthanum lutetium Lynas magnet weight manufacturers materials Maxtor Minerals yearbook mobile phones monazite motor MW turbine neodymium numbers offshore oxide potential problem production data quantities Rare Earth Elements recycling REE production reliable REPM REPMG Retrieved Roskill samples Samsung scientiﬁc Seagate share Siemens bar Study/report terbium topic USGS veriﬁed Vestas Western Digital wind energy wind power wind turbines WTGs Yttrium Zepf