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17 March

1787 use your endeavours to get the mistake rectified, as you know that 14 March. the preservation of their health is of the utmost consequence on the present occasion.

I have, &c.,

R. Ross.

Admiralty, 17 March, 1787. Having communicated to my Lords Comm’rs of the Admity your letter of yesterday's date, informing them of the arrival of the two convict ships from Plymouth, of the Cynet (Cygnet), sloop, having made the signal for sailing, and of Captain Hunter, of the Sirius, having applied to you to know what to do with respect to the eleven men sick on shore, should he go to sea, having very little reason to expect their return to their duty, and requesting, therefore, that you may know their Lordships' pleasure thereon, and whether you are to consider the Supply, tender, in the same

situation; and, in return, I am comm'd by their Lordships to Sick men to signify their direction to you to cause the men sent sick on shore

from the said ship and tender to be discharged, and to endeavour charged.

to supply their places by volunteers from the guard-ship, agreeable to what is contained in my letter to you of the 26th of last month.

I am, &c.,


be dis

18 March,


Antiscorbutics necessary.

Dear Sir,

[London] March 18th, 1787.
A letter which I have received from the surgeon states
the situation of the convicts to be such that I am under the
necessity of requesting you to lay their case before Lord Sydney,
that directions may be given to the Commissioners of the Navy
for ordering lighters from Portsmouth yard to the Alexander, to
receive the convicts while the ship is cleaned and smoaked, and
tho' I have so often solicited that essence of malt or some anti-
scorbutic be allowed, I cannot help once more repeating the
necessity of it; and, putting the convicts out of the question,
which humanity forbids, the sending of the marines that are on
board the transports such a voyage as they are going, in a worse
state than ever troops were sent out of the Kingdom, even to the
nearest garrison (for taking off the tonnage for the provisions
of stores, they have not one ton and a half a man) cannot, I

am certain, be the intention of his Majesty's Ministers, yet it is visioning. absolutely the case, and I have repeatedly stated this fact. Fresh

meat for all the convicts and wine for the sick I was informed had been ordered in consequence of the representation I made as soon as the ships got round to Portsmouth, but the sick only have fresh meat. Wine, at the discretion of the surgeon,


very necessary for the sick, as the convicts are not allowed anything more than water.

* A private letter.

Bad pro

1787 The necessity of making one of the transports an hospital ship is obvious, and, I think, cannot be deferred. The Friendship, as having the smallest number of convicts on board, I propose for that purpose. The giving cloaths to those convicts who have been embarked Convicts'

clothing. at Plymouth is so very necessary that I have ordered it to be done, and presume the Navy Board will replace the clothing, but as there are more convicts to be sent on board the different ships, unless orders are being given for their being washed and cloathed on their leaving the prison or the hulks, all that we may do will be to no purpose.

These complaints, my dear sir, do not come unexpected, nor Danger were they unavoidable. I foresaw them from the beginning, and ahead. repeatedly pointed them out, when they might have been so easily prevented, at a very small expense, and with little trouble to those who have had the conducting of this business. At present the evils complained of may be redressed, and the intentions of Government by this expedition answered. But if now neglected, it may be too late hereafter, and we may expect to see the seamen belonging to the transports run from the ships to avoid a fatal distemper, and may be refused entrance into a foreign port.

The situation in which the magistrates sent the women on the women board the Lady Penrhyn, stamps them with infamy—tho' almost ill-clothed

and filthy. naked, and so very filthy, that nothing but clothing them could have prevented them from perishing, and which could not be done in time to prevent a fever, which is still on board that ship, and where there are many venereal complaints, that must spread in spite of every precaution I may take hereafter, and will be fatal to themselves. There is a necessity for doing something for the young man who is on board that ship as surgeon, or I fear that their we shall lose him, and then a hundred women will be left without condition. any assistance, several of them with child. Let me repeat my desire that orders immediately may be given to increase the convict allowance of bread. 16 # of bread for 42 days is very little. To supply all the convicts with fresh meat while they remain Fresh meat

and wine. at Portsmouth, the sick with some small quantity of wine. Lighters to be ordered to attend the Alexander while that Care of the

convicts. ship is smoaked, &c. To wash and cloath the convicts that are still to be sent down before they are put on board the transports, and to have one of the transports ordered to serve as an hospital ship.

This is a long letter, but it is my duty to repeat complaints, that may be redressed, and which I am certain you desire equally with myself.

I remain, &c.,


22 March,

Portable soup for Sirius.

23 March



Admiralty, 20th Mar., 1787. Having communicated to my Lords Comm’rs of the Adm'ty

your letter of the 16th inst., enclosing a copy of one from the The Supply. master and surgeon of the Supply, armed tender, relative to the

alterations which Lt. Ball, the commander, had caused to be made in the accommodation provided for them, I am commanded by their Lordships to acquaint you that they have signified to Lt. Ball their disapprobation thereof, and ordered him to cause the accommodation for those officers to be restored to the state in which they were fitted under your

direction.* I am, &c.,


[London] Thursday morning, 22nd March, 1787. CAPTAIN Phillip presents his compliments to Mr. Stephens, and as it is probable the ship’s company will be on salt provisions for some months after they arrive on the coast of New South Wales, will be glad of two hundred pounds of portable soup, in addition to the fifty pounds already supply'd. I am, &c.,


Admiralty, 23 March, 1787.
Having communicated to my Lords Comm’rs of the
Adm'ty your letter of yesterday's date, enclosing one from

Captain Gower, of the Salisbury, requesting a month's leave Lieut. Riou. of absence for Lt. Riou, † of the said ship, to attend his

private affairs, and informing their Lordships of your having ordered Captain Hunter, of the Sirius, and Lieutenant Ball, of the Supply, tender, to discharge the men they had put sick on shore, and that they are now completing their complements from their guard-ships, I am, in return, comm'd by their Lordships to acquaint you that they are pleased to permit you to give Lieut.

Riou the leave of absence desired, but that it was not their Sick men dis. intention the sick men should have been discharged from the charged pre- Sirius and Supply, and other men appointed to supply their places,

nor did they apprehend you would have given orders for that purpose, until the said ship and tender had received their sailing orders.

I am, &c.,


Admiralty, 29th March, 1787. Having laid before my Lords Comm’rs of the Admiralty your letter of the 27th inst., informing them of the sailing of the Winchelsea from Spithead, and enclosing a letter which you had received from Lieut. Ball, commanding his Majesty's armed * Post, p. 61.

† Afterwards commander of the Guardian.

29 March,

tender Supply, desiring, for the reasons therein stated, that an 1787
enquiry may be made into his conduct respecting the victualling 29 March.
the said tender, I am commanded by their Lordships to return Victwalling
you the said letter herewith, and to signify their direction to you the Supply.
to take to your assistance some of the captains of the ships under
your command, and to cause a particular enquiry to be made into
what is therein represented, reporting to me, for their Lordships'
information, how the same shall appear to be judged necessary.
I am, &c.,


Admiralty, 2nd April, 1787. 2 April. My Lords Comm’rs of the Admiralty having directed Captain Hunter, of his Majesty's ship the Sirius, to make enquiry concerning the alterations made in the apartments of the master and surgeon of the Supply, tender, whose complaint thereof you enclosed to their Lordships in your letter of the 16th ult., I am comm'd to send you a copy of Captain Hunter's letter in answer thereto, and to aquaint you that my Lords have directed him to A groundreprimand the master and surgeon for having made so groundless less charge. a charge against the lieutenant of the Supply* I am &c.,



The master of the supe



Admiralty, 3rd April, 1787. 3 April. Having laid before my Lords Comm’rs of the Adm'ty the report of the captains who, in consequence of their Lordships' directions to you in my letter of the 29th ult., you assembled to enquire into the conduct of Lieut. Ball, commanding his Majesty's armed tender the Supply, respecting the victualling the said tender, I am commanded to acquaint you that their Lordships have 2 sent a copy thereof to the Navy Board, for their information, and ply superas they deem the master an improper person to be continued in the tender, they have directed them to appoint a proper person to supercede him. I am, &c.,

Phillip's Commission.†
Arthur Phillip Esqre

Governor of New South Wales.
George the Third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France 2 April.

and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c. to our right trusty and
well-beloved Councillor Edward Lord Thurlow Baron Thurlow

our Chancellor of Great Britain greeting :-WEE will and command that under our Great Seal of Great Britain Letters (remaining in your custody) you cause these our letters to be made patent. * Ante, p 60.

Phillip was appointed Governor of New South Wales 12th October 1786, when a commission, briefly worded, was signed. Ante, p. 24.

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New South

1787 forth patent in form following : George the Third by the Grace of 2 April God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the

Faith &c.
To our trusty and well-belored ARTHUR Phillip Esquire.

Wee reposing especial trust and confidence in the prudence courage and loyalty of you the said Arthur Phillip of our especial grace certain knowledge and meer motion have thought fit to constitute and appoint and by these presents do constitute and

appoint you the said Phillip to be our Captain-General and Governor of Governor-in-Chief in and over our territory called New South " Wales extending from the Northern Cape or extremiiy of the coast

called Cape York in the latitude of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes south to the southern extremity of the said territory of

New South Wales or South Cape in the latitude of forty-three Limits of the degrees thirty-nine minutes south and of all the country inland territory.

westward as far as the one hundred and thirty-fifth degree of east longitude reckoning from the meridian of Greenwich including all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean within the latitudes aforesaid of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes south and fortythree degrees and thirty-nine minutes south and of all towns garrisons castles forts and all other fortifications or other military works which may be hereafter erected upon the said territory or any of the said islands.

And Wee do hereby require and command you to do and execute The Gover. all things in due manner that shall belong to your said command guided by and trust Wee have reposed in you according to the several powers

and directions granted or appointed you by this present Commisinstructions. sion and the instructions and authorities herewith given to you or

by such further powers instructions and authorities as shall at any time hereafter be granted or appointed you under our signet and sign manual or by our order in our Privy Council

And our will and pleasure is that you the said Arthur Phillip

after the publication of these our letters patent do in the first To take the

place take the oaths appointed to be taken by an Act passed in
the first year of the reign of King George the First intituled
“An Act for the further security of his Majesty's person and
Government and the succession of the Crown in the heirs of the
late Princess Sophia being Protestants and for extinguishing the
hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales and his open and secret
abettors” as altered and explained by an Act passed in the sixth
year of our reign intituled “ An Act for altering the oath of
abjuration and the assurance and for amending so much of an
Act of the seventh year of her late Majesty Queen Anne intituled
“An Act for the improvement of the Union of the two Kingdoms
as after the time therein limitted requires the delivery of certain
lists and copies therein mentioned to persons indicted of High
Treason or misprision of Treason.”

nor to be

his commission and


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