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The Lady Penrhyn, now in the river, will receive all the female 1787 convicts now in Newgate under sentence of transportation, and her commander, with Mr. Richardson, will enter into the bonds the latter will contract.
There will be a further list sent to you, I hope, to-day, of other The Scarconvicts now in the hulks who are to be sent to the ship Scar- boroug.. borough at Portsmouth, to be conveyed from thence to the intended settlement at Botany Bay, and which will include all that are to go out in the first convoy. I am, &c.,
ARTICLES to be provided, purchase of stock, &c., for the intended
settlement at Botany Bay.* The wine to be procured from the Cape de Verd Islands must Wine. be paid for in bills of exchange. Live stock and grain to be procured at the Cape of Good Hope Livo stock
and grain. must be paid for in the same manner.
At Java and all the Molucca Islands, from whence black cattle, Cattle and goats, and hogs are to be procured, a Dutch factor resides, who is hogs. the only European usually on the island. By a compact between the Raja and the Dutch, the factor controuls the whole of the commerce, and it is probable that he will not permit any trade A bribe with foreigners until he is bribed. About £10, in addition to necessary. some English beer (perhaps a few dozen), will satisfy him. Ducats to the amount of £50 will be sufficient for this purpose, with two or three casks of beer.
The cattle, hogs, and goats are to be obtained from the natives Barter. for cutlasses and firearms, and it is supposed that 200 musquets and the same number of cutlasses would purchase a sufficient quantity. Those arms might be taken from the Ordnance Department, as a great number of them are now in store, daily decreasing in value.
As there will most likely be occasion to keep up an intercourse Trade with with the Society Islands, from whence, indeed, various supplies the islands. may be obtained, about £150 laid out in small hatchets, some of them made in the Otaheite fashion, glass beads (chiefly white), pocket looking-glasses, nails and gimlets, and a few real red feathers; will answer that purpose.
ADMIRALTY WARRANT FOR CAPTAIN COLLINS AS JUDGE-ADVOCATE, WHEREAS we have thought fit to appoint you to officiate as JudgeAdvocate to the detachment of his Majesty's marine forces ordered to proceed to Botany Bay, on the coast of New South Wales, for the protection of the settlement intended to be formed at that place, you are hereby authorized and directed to officiate as Judge-Advocate accordingly at all such courts-martial as shall be Judge
Advocate. * No date or signature.
there held for the trial of any officers, non-commiss'd officers, or
J. L. GOWER.
George R. WHEREAS a contract has been entered into for transporting to New South Wales, or some other of the islands adjacent, the several convicts now in your custody on board the hulks in the river Thames whose names are contained in the list hereunto annexed* : Our will and pleasure is that you forthwith do deliver over to the contractors, Mr. William Richards, shipbroker, and Mr. Duncan Sinclair, master of the transport ship called the Alexander, the said convicts whose names are specified in the said list, in order that they may be transported to the said coast of New South Wales, or some one or other of the islands adjacent, on board the said ship Alexander, for the terms of years for which said convicts are severally sentenced or ordered to be transported. And for so doing this shall be your warrant. Given at our Court at St. James's, the third day of January, 1787, in the twenty-seventh year of our reign. To our trusty and well-beloved Duncan Campbell, Esq., Superintendant of the Convicts on the river Thames. By his Majesty's command,
The Alexander's convicts.
SECRETARY STEPHENS TO THE NAVY BOARD.
Admiralty, 4 Jan'ry, 1787.
* The list is not attached to the warrant in the Record Office.
at the time of Lieut. Shortland's* return with the troops from 1787 Halifax, and an agent being requisite for superintending the 4 Jan same, you appointed him, as being conversant in the business, to
Lieut. take charge of the said ships, I am commanded by their Lord- Shortland. ships to acquaint you that they have no objection to Lt. Shortland's being employed to superintend these transports, but that you should have obtained their Lordships' permission before you app'd him to that employment.
I am, &c.,
Governor PhilLIP TO UNDER SECRETARY NEPEAN. Sir,
(London] Jan. 4, 1787. As it has been found necessary to add additional securities Alterations to the hatchways and to alter the handcuffs on board the Alex- to transander, the same will be necessary to be done on board the different ships as they arrive at Portsmouth, consequently orders should be sent down to that port, to inform your office, or the Navy Board, when such alterations are made, otherwise the convicts may be sent from town before the ships are ready to receive them.
I likewise beg leave to observe that the number of scythes (only Scythes, 6), of razors (only 5 dozen), and the quantity of buck and small shoers, and shot (only two hundred pounds) now ordered is very insufficient, and that 20 scythes, 12 dozen of razors (at 12s. a dozen), and 515. [! cwt.) of small shot, chiefly buck, in addition to the above, is very necessary.
I have likewise to request that you will please to inform me in Superintenwhat manner those people are to be paid who superintend the dentictor convicts in their various occupations, for some people there must be named for that purpose, and no one will undertake this business without some reward, tho' it may be very small, being held out to them, as likewise those who must be employed in issuing the daily provisions—these people cannot well be taken from the garrison—I think they may from the ship.
The knowing what provisions, cloathing, &c., are on board the different ships is very necessary, as I find there are some things put on board the transports by the agent that cannot possibly remain there. I therefore beg that I may have the account as soon as it can possibly be given. Several of the staff have requested that I would once more Advance for
the staff. apply to you for a twelvemonth's advance, as they find themselves much distress'd in fitting for the voyage, and the uncertainty of
Lieut. John Shortland. He subsequently became Master and Commander in the Navy. His eldest son, John Shortland, went out to New South Wales with Governor Phillip, as midshipman of the Sirius, and was on board that vessel when she was wrecked at Norfolk Island. He went back to England with Capt. Hunter, and returned with him to Port Jackson in 1795, as First Lieutenant of the Reliance. In 1797 he discovered Hunter River. He was made Commander in 1800.
Copied from the Letter-book at the Admiralty, in which the initials, instead of the name in full, are frequently given.
which makes their agents unwilling to advance the sum they find absolutely necessary to set out—and they feel it the more as the officers of marines have now received a year's advance. Indeed, I doubt if one or two of the assistant surgeons will be able to leave town without the advance.
I have, &c.,
SECRETARY STEPHENS TO THE NAVY BOARD.
Admiralty, 11th Jan'y, 1787.
GOVERNOR PHILLIP TO UNDER SECRETARY NEPEAN.
[London] Jan. 11, 1787. By letters from Lieut. Shortland and the surgeon's assistant on board the Alexander, I find that 184 men are put on board
that ship, and 56 women on board the Lady Penrhyn, that there Overcrowd. are amongst the men several unable to help themselves, and that ing of transports.
no kind of surgeon's instruments have been put on board that ship or any of the transports. You will, sir, permit me to observe that it will be very difficult to prevent the most fatal sickness amongst men so closely confined ; that on board that ship which is to receive 210 convicts there is not a space left for them to move in sufficiently large for 40 men to be in motion at the same time, nor is it safe to permit any number of men to be on deck
while the ship remains so near the land. Removal to
On this consideration, I hope that you will order the AlexSpithead.
ander and Lady Penrhyn to join his Majesty's ship Sirius immediately, and proceed to Spithead, where more liberty may be allowed the convicts than can be done with safety in the river, and those that are wanting to compleat the number to be sent out in those ships may be sent round to Portsmouth with the other convicts, for the most fatal consequences may be expected if the
full number is kept on board any length of time before we sail. Surgical You will, I presume, see the necessity of ordering some surgeon's instruments required. instruments to be sent on board the ships that carry the convicts
—and I do hope that no more will be embarked till the ships are 1787 ready to sail, and which they cannot be for a week after they get 11 Jan, to Spithead.
I have, &c.,
Admiralty, 16 Jan’ry, 1787.
I am, &c.,
Admiralty, 18 Jan’ry, 1787. Having laid before my Lords Commiss’rs of the Admiralty a letter from Mr. Rose, Secretary to the Lords Commr's of the Treasury, desiring that directions may be given to the captain of the ship which is to conduct to Botany Bay the ships taken up to proceed with convicts to that place, to take care that no unnecessary delay happens on the passage thither, or in sending No the ships from thence after the convicts are landed, and that he unnecessary uses his best endeavours to enable them to reach China by the 1st Jan'ry, 1788, as they must otherwise be continued in pay
till the return to Deptford, I am commanded by their Lordships to send you the enclosed copy of the said letter, * and to desire you will lay the same before Lord Sydney, they not thinking themselves at liberty to give any directions to Capt. Phillip for his proceedings after his arrival at Botany Bay. I am, &c.,
P.S. SUPERINTENDENT CAMPBELL TO UNDER SECRETARY NEPEAN. My Dear Sir,
Adelphi, 29 Jan., 1787. It cost me some time to find out a paper which would enable me to answer your letter effectually, t and which I have this moment laid my hand on, which caused my delay in answering yours sooner.
It appears by a calculation I made for the information of the Trans. House of Commons some years since that upon an average of prormation seven years, viz., from 1769 to 1775, both inclusive, I transported England 547 convicts annually from London, Midx., Bucks, and the four counties of the Home Circuit, and that 117 of these transports were women. I always looked upon the number from the other parts of the kingdom to be equal to what was transported by me. With regard, &c.,
Dun. CAMPBELL, • Ante, p. 25. † The letter to which this is a reply is not available.