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Between this and the German tale the likeness is confined to the one leading idea of greatness achieved by accident and a run of good luck. We turn now to a class of stories which have little, or nothing, in

with the epic poems of the Aryan nations, but which exhibit a series of incidents in striking parallelism with those of the corresponding Teutonic stories. These incidents are in themselves so strange, and the result is brought about by turns so unexpected, that the idea of their independent development among separated tribes who had carried away nothing but some leading notion becomes a wild extravagance. Whatever the consequences may be, the conclusion seems irresistible that these stories had been wrought out with some fulness of detail while these tribes or nations still continued to form a single people. semblances between them may perhaps bring down the time of separation to a comparatively late period; but the geographical position of Hindoo and German tribes must still throw that time back to an indefinitely distant past, and close as the parallelism may be, the differences of detail and colouring are such that we cannot suppose these Aryan emigrants to have carried away with them to their several homes more than the leading incidents grafted on the leading idea. The fidelity with which the Hindoo and the German tales adhere to this framework is indeed astonishing.

One of the most remarkable of these concidences is furnished by the story of the Dog and the Sparrow in Grimm's collection as compared with an episode in the Wanderings of Vicram Maharajah. In both a bird vows to bring about the ruin of a human being; in both the bird is the helper and avenger of the innocent

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But presently the sparrow contrived to force out te vrk from the bung- hole of one of the casks in the wargo, and all the wine ran out on the ground.

Ah me, I am a poor man now,' cried the carter when ke waw it. Sist poor enough yet, said the sparrow,

she perched on the head of one of the horses and pocked out his eye. The carter in his iage took up him butchet to kill the bird, but instead of it he hit him horne, which fell down dead. So it fared with the second cask and the two remaining horses. Leaving him wuyon on the road, the carter found his way home, und bemoaned the loss of his wine and horses. “Ah, my husband," she replied, and what a wicked bird Turn one

to this house; she has brought with her All the birds in the world, and there they sit among

corn and are cating every ear of it.' | 111 pooror than ever,' said the man as he beheld the huvoo. "Still not poor enough, carrier; it shall OOM you your lifo,' said the bird, as she flew away. By and by the sparrow appeared at the window - sill, and uttorod the same words, and the carrier hurling hin lixo ut it broke the window - frame in two. Every

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other piece of furniture in the house was demolished as he vainly attempted to hit the bird. At length he caught her, and his wife asked if she should kill her. No,' said he, that were too merciful; she shall die much more horribly, for I will eat her.' So saying, he swallowed her whole; but she began to flutter about in his stomach, and presently came again into his mouth, and cried out, Carrier, it shall cost you your life. Thereupon the handed the axe to his wife, saying, “Kill me the wretch dead in my mouth." His wife took it and aimed a blow, but missing her mark, struck her husband on the head and killed him. Then the sparrow flew away, and was never there again.

In the Hindoo story the bird is a parrot, and the dog's place is taken by a poor wood-cutter, from whom a dancing-girl attemps to extort a large sum of money by deliberate falsehood. The girl thus represents the carter, and at once the framework of the tale is provided ; but the method by which the sparrow wreaks her vengeance on the man is thoroughly awkward and unartistio when compared with the simple scheme which brings about the ruin of the nautch - woman. She, like the carrier, is rich; but she cannot resist the temptation of making more money by claiming from the wood-cutter the dowry which she said that he had promised to pay on marrying her, the dowry aud the marriage being alike purely imaginary. The rajah, being called togive judgment in the case, determines to abide by the decision of a parrot famed for his wisdom, and belonging to a merchant in the town. When the wood-cutter had given his version of the matter, the parrot bade Champa Ranee, the nautch-girl, tell her story. After hearing

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it, he asked where the house was to which her husband had taken her. Far away in the jungles,' was the reply. And how long ago ?' The day was named; twenty witnesses proved that Champa was at the time in the city; and the parrot gave judgment for the woodcutter against the nautch - girl, as the sparrow had befriended the dog against the carter. Great was the praise bestowed on the wise parrot, but the incensed nautch - girl said; “Be assured I will get you in my power; and when I do, I will bite off your head.'

Then follows the vow of the parrot, answering to the oath of the sparrow; but he has no need to repeat it. "Try your worst, madam,' said he, “but in return I tell you this; I will like to make you a beggar. Your house shall be, by your own orders, laid even with the ground, and you for grief and rage shall kill yourself. Time goes on, and the nautch-girl, summoned to the merchant's house, dances so well that he asks her to name her own reward; and the price which she demands is the parrot. Taking the bird home, she ordered her servants to cook it for her supper, first cutting off its head and bringing it to her grilled that she might eat it before tasting any other dish. The parrot is accordingly plucked, but while the servant goes to fetch water wherein to boil him, the bird, who had pretended to be dead and thus escaped having his neck wrung, slips into a hole let into the wall for carrying off the kitchen sewage. In this dilemma the maid grilled a chicken's head and placed it before the Ranee, who, as she ate it, said:

s“Ah, pretty Polly, so here's the end of you. This is the brain that thought so cunningly, ard devised my overthrow; this is the tongue that spoke against me; this is

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the throat through which came the threatening words. Aha, who is right now, I wonder?” ?

With some little fear the parrot heard her words, for the loss of his wingfeathers had left him unable to fly; but at length he contrived to find his a neighbouring. temple and to perch behind the idol. It was the favourite god of Champa Ranee, who in her abject fear of death had long besought him to translate her to heaven without the process of dying. So when she next came to offer her wonted supplication, the parrot spoke, and the nautch-girl at once took its words for the utterances of the god.

6 "Champa Ranee, nautch-girl, your prayer is heard. This is what you must do; sell all you possess and give the money to the poor; you must also give money to all your servants and dismiss them. Level also your house to the ground, that you may be wholly separated from earth. Then you will be fit for heaven, and you may come, having done all I command you, on this day week to this place, and you shall be transported thither body and soul."')

The infatuated woman did as she was bidden, and after destroying her house and giving away all her goods she went at the time fixed, and sitting at the edge of a well outside the temple, explained to the assembled people that they

Would soon see her caught up to heaven, and thus her departure from the world would be more celebrated than her doings whilst in it. All the people listened eagerly to her words, for they believed her inspired; and to see her ascension the whole city had come out, with hundreds and hundreds of strangers and travellers, princes, merchants, and nobles, from far and near, all full of expectation and curiosity.

Then as they waited, a fluttering of little wings was heard, and a parrot flew over Champa Ranee's head, calling out, “ Nautch - girl, nautch - girl, what have you done?”

2 English Essays III.

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