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Medical Association, in 1850, predicted that it would probably come to be regarded as the most valuable original work yet published in America.

BLACKALL, JOHN. 1771-1860.

In his "Observations on the Nature and Cure of Dropsies," first published in London (1813), Blackall showed the association of dropsy with albuminuria, the most important contribution to renal pathology before the work of Bright. (Albumin had been discovered in urine,

in 1750, by Cotunius.)



In this volume of his "Reports of Medical Cases" (1827) Bright showed that in some cases of dropsy with albuminuria a peculiar alteration of the kidney was present. Next to Laennec's discoveries in thoracic disease this was perhaps the most important discovery made in medicine in the first half of the nineteenth century. Before Bright's time examination of the kidneys was not regularly made at autopsies. BEAUMONT, WILLIAM. November 21, 1785-April 25, 1853.

The first edition of the great work on "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion," Pittsburgh, 1833. Open to show one of the illustrations of the opening into the stomach of Alexis Saint Martin.


"Traité de la Spédalskhed ou Éléphantiasis des Grecs," 1848.

The accurate scientific knowledge of leprosy began with this celebrated work published at the expense of the Norwegian government and based on examinations of leper foci in all parts of Europe at a time when many famous physicians believed leprosy to be extinct.

HUXHAM, JOHN. 1692-1768.

A translation of the Latin edition of 1752, published in 1758 or 1759, of the "Observations on Air and Epedemic Disease." Open at the celebrated account of "Slow Nervous Fever," one of the earliest recognizable descriptions of typhoid. He was the inventor of Huxham's Tincture of Cinchona (Comp.)


In the "Traité de la Fièvre Entéro-mêsentérique" (1813), Petit and Serres showed the constant presence of characteristic lesions in the lower part of the ileum and in the mesenteric glands; described the course of the lesions; asserted they were the cause and not the effect of the fever and that the process was due to the introduction of a foreign material.

LOUIS' work on "Typhoid Fever."

The second (1841) edition, in which the final touches were given to the determination of typhoid fever, the work of the American pupils of Louis being acknowledged.

SMITH, NATHAN. 1762-1830.

Founder and for many years faculty (sic!) of Dartmouth Medical College; Professor of Medicine at Yale.

His "Essay on Typhous Fever" is "like a fresh breeze from the sea amid the dreary writing of most of his contemporaries. Never before had the symptoms of typhoid fever been so clearly and accurately pictured." (Welch). "It does not follow," says the author, "that a patient should take medicine because he has the disease."

BARTLETT, ELISHA. 1804-1855.

"History, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Typhoid and Typhus Fever," 1842.

"One of the most notable of contributions of American physicians to the subject. * * * written with great clearness, in logical order, he shows in every page an accurate acquaintance with the literature of the day, and a knowledge also of that best of books, the book of nature. One of the most successful medical works issued."-(Osler). MACCULLOCH, JOHN. 1773-1835.

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Physician, geologist, et cetera. American reprint of the "Essay on Malaria," first published in 1827.

In this work the term malaria was first introduced into medical literature, and both its use and abuse, the latter not yet extinct as a cover for diagnostic ignorance, began then. The word had long been in popular use in Italy, and was occasionally applied by nonmedical English writers before Macculloch, as: Horace Walpole, 1740; Charlotte Smith, 1801; J. Forsyth, 1813; Byron, 1821.



Copy of the "Medical Reports on the Effects of Water," first published in 1797. Currie sought to establish three rules of practice in the treatment of fevers: (1) In the early stages cold water should be poured over the body. (2) In the later stages the patient should be bathed in tepid water. (3) In all stages abundant potations of cold. water were recommended. This was the first large series of medical observations in which clinical thermometry was systematically used.



"Das Verhalten der Eigenwärme in Krankheiten." (Second edition, 1870).

The first systematic study of clinical thermometry. Little has been added to it and still less changed. Scattered observations on body temperature were made from the time of Sanctorius (died 1636), especially by Boerhaave, de Haen (who showed that the temperature is elevated in the cold stage of fevers, and in chills), John Hunter, James Currie and by others. Wunderlich was the first to get accurate and frequent readings of the temperature, and the book is based on the study of twenty-five thousand cases and many millions of single observations.


"Die Wasserbehandlung der typhosen Fieber."

The second (1877) edition of the work that led to the modern. treatment of typhoid fever by the cold bath.

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THE experiments of Calmette and Breton with tubercle bacilli killed by heat demonstrate that repeated ingestion of the organisms hastens the death of tuberculous subjects in similar manner as does the continuous employment of minute doses of tuberculin. The discovery is a powerful argument against the use of milk obtained from animals. which manifest even the remotest tendency toward tuberculosis. While the results of ingestion of dead tuberculous material are more deleterious to consumptives, normal persons are by no means immune to its action. The authors conclude that under no circumstances should the milk of tuberculous animals, even though sterilized, be consumed by persons afflicted with consumption.


ON the morning of April 18, San Francisco was visited by a frightful disaster which laid the beautiful city in ruins and rendered thousands of people destitute and homeless. Possibly no siesmic disturbance ever wreaked such complete distruction on the Western Hemisphere, and, although the list of dead, which is comparatively small, has probably been overestimated, the bodily ills which are destined to result from earthquake and holocaust will doubtless visit a large proportion of the population, while the number of fatalities indirectly attributable to the catastrophe cannot be predicted. Many women endured the ordeal of childbirth unassisted by medical attendance, and scores of premature births, precipitated by fright and exposure, are reported. Physicians, hampered by entire loss of medical equipment, labored heroically to aid suffering humanity, but with the dearth of food and clothing, their efforts were almost futile, and undoubtedly many perished before a food supply could be established. The country has responded grandly to the calls for monetary assistance-a sum of magnitudinous proportions having already been contributed, and if the rise of other devastated cities may be taken as a criterion San Francisco will shortly regain its condition of hygienic and esthetic equilibrium.


WHILE the results obtained in the domain of anesthesia have been varied, the operator has demonstrated wonderful achievements with the agents at present utilized to produce insensibility. However, the success of surgeons who have tested scopolamin-morphin anesthesia, the ease of its administration, and the cheapness of the products

bespeak the possible substitution of this anesthetic for chloroform and ether in the majority of operative cases. Scopolamin is obtained. from Scapolia Japonica by extraction, having been first isolated by Schmidt in 1890, and first used to produce anesthesia by Schneiderlin about five years ago. The combination is employed by hypodermically injecting one-sixty-fourth of a grain of scopolamin hydrobromate and one-sixth of a grain of morphin sulphate in fifteen minims of distilled water, four hours, two hours, and one hour before commencing the operation. Following the initial injection drowsiness ensues, and the second injection produces quite profound sleep. A third injection is sufficient to effect complete anesthesia for several hours, during which time the face is considerably flushed, the pulse slightly accelerated, respiration slow, and the skin dry and warm. While the subject may be aroused by loud talking or shaking, there is, during the period of wakefulness, absolute insensibility to pain. In obstetric practice this anesthetic is pronounced free from danger to either mother or child and there is no report of interference with contractions or modification of hemorrhage. The placidity with which the injection is tolerated. and its freedom from symptoms of vomiting, as well as thirst, together with other advantages already mentioned, render the medicament at possible succedaneum to prevalent means for effecting anesthesia.



The Michigan State Nurses' Association held its second annual meeting in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall, April 4, 5 and 6, 1906. James B. Angell, LL. D., president of the University of Michigan, delivered the address of welcome, and Doctor Beverly D. Harison, secretary of the Michigan State Board of Registration in Medicine, discoursed on the "State Registration of Nurses." Doctor Victor C. Vaughan, dean of the medical department of the University, contributed a paper on "Tuberculosis," while "A Neglected Field of Nursing-the County Almshouse," received attention from Mrs. Caroline Bartlett Crane. Doctor C. B. G. de Nancrède, professor of Surgery in the University, contributed a clinic at the hospital, which was well attended by the nurses. The social feature of the meeting contemplated a complimentary concert tendered by the faculty of the University School of Music, under the direction of Professor Albert A. Stanley, and a reception in Barbour Gymnasium given by the graduate nurses of Ann Arbor. The meeting was pronounced a profitable and pleasureable affair. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Miss Sarah E. Sly, Birmingham; first vicepresident, Mrs. L. E. Gretter, Harper Hospital, Detroit; second vicepresident, Miss

E. L. Parker, State School for the Blind, Lansing; treasurer, Miss Anna M. Coleman, Saginaw General Hospital, Saginaw; recording secretary, Miss Agnes Deans, Detroit; corresponding secretary, Miss Katherine Gifford, Grand Rapids.


ROBERT OGDEN DOREMUS, A. M., M. D., LL. D., of New York, died on March 22, 1906. Gotham was his native city, and at the corner of Broadway and Cortlandt street he first saw light in 1842. His father was one of the founders of the University of the City of New York, and from that institution the son was graduated both in arts and medicine. He began his medical career as assistant to Doctor John W. Draper in the Chemical Laboratory of the University Medical School. Later he spent considerable time studying chemistry and electrometallurgy in Paris. In 1848 he was appointed professor of chemistry in the New York College of Pharmacy, the laboratory of which institution he equipped conjointly with Charles Townsend Harris. Doctor Doremus was one of the founders of the New York Medical College, of the Long Island College Hospital, and of Bellevue Hospital Medical College, in all of which he filled the chair of chemistry. From 1853 to 1861 he was professor of natural history at the Free Academy (now the College of the City of New York), and later was appointed to the chair of chemistry and physics in the same institution. Through his endeavor the laboratory at Twenty-third street and Lexington avenue became a noted center of study, particularly with regard to electricity. He was the first toxicologic expert to be called in a murder case in New York—the trial of James Stephens for poisoning his wife, and his services led to improvements in the conduct of autopsies for the courts. For many years he was a well-known expert in criminal cases, and he is numbered among the first of the presidents of the Medicolegal Society. He was a member of the New York Medical Advisory Board, and assisted in the organization of the Municipal Department of Health, and the establishment of the Bureau of Chemistry conducted in connection therewith. In 1871 he was appointed president of a board for the examination of druggists for licenses to practice pharmacy. He inaugurated the chlorine system of disinfecting ships, and thus obviated the necessity for prolonged detentions at quarantine. The important invention of granulated, compressed gunpowder contemplates another of his achievements. This product was employed by the French in the Franco-Prussian War, its power greatly exceeding that of ordinary gunpowder. The excavation of Mont Cenis tunnel was also wrought by, this product. Doctor Doremus was interested in every department. of culture, and was especially prominent in musical circles, being one of the founders of the Philharmonic Society, of which he likewise officiated as president for some time. Several years ago he celebrated his golden wedding, but since then his wife has died, and four children survive him, Professor Charles A. Doremus being the oldest.

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