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on VII. 9. Galatea. See on VII. 37. These verses are from the 11th Idyl of Theocritus, and are a part of the address of Polyphemus the Cyclops to the sea-nymph Galatea, who was beloved by him. Quis est nam; by tmesis for quisnam est. A. & S. 323. 4 (5). — 40. Purpureum. See on V. 38. Circum; merely denoting proximity, like "about." A. & S. 279. 10 (ƒ). — 42. Umbracula: = a bower. 43. Feriant. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4.-44. Quid, quae: = what (do you say of those verses), which; how (about those verses), which. 45. Numeros the measures, the tune. Si-tenerem if I only had the words. Here the conditional clause is not logically connected with the other, but with something understood; e. g. it might be, numeros memini, et carmen ipsum revocarem, si verba tenerem. Cf. Gr. 512. —46. Daphni. Daphnis is addressed as the representative of the shepherds who watch the stars for agricultural purposes. Cf. G. I. 204 foll. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 235, R. 11. Antiquos (long known) is transferred from signorum (constellations) to ortus. —47. Dionaei Dionean, descendant of Dione. The Julian gens was derived from Iulus, the son of Aeneas, who was the son of Venus, daughter of Dione. Cf. A. I. 286. Processit = has risen. Astrum; the comet which appeared after the death of Julius Caesar. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 47. —48. Quo segetes. The Julian star is to be the farmer's star, as Julius in V. 79 is the farmer's god, and Octavianus also (G. I. 24 foll). Quo by whose agency, influence. Gauderent is best rendered by the future. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 1 (a) and (b). Frugibus. Gr. 414 and 2. A, & S. 247. I (2).—49. Duceret... colorem = shall derive color; i. e. shall ripen. 50. Insere piros; for this propitious star shall make them fruitful for many generations. — 51. Fert=aufert. Cf. V. 34. Animum = animi vires, memoriam. His memory failing him, he suddenly stops and sorrowfully adds, omnia fert aetas, etc.— - 52. Puerum. Gr. 363. 3. A. & S. 204, R. 1 (a). — 53. Oblita. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 162. 17 (a). Mihi. Gr. 388. II. A. & S. 225. II.—54. Lupi priores. The ancient Italians believed that a man meeting a wolf and not catching its eye first would be struck dumb. - 55. Satis referet... saepe will repeat often enough. 56. Caussando amores= by feigning excuses thou puttest off for a long time (the gratification of) my desire; i. e. to hear you sing. - 57. Tibi = for thee; i. e. that you may be the better heard. Stratum laid smooth. -58. Ventosi murmuris = of windy murmur; for venti
- 59. Hinc
- via from this very point is half our way (to the town). Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 62. Bianoris. Bianor, or Ocnus, was a son of Tiberis and Manto, and built the town of Mantua, which he called after his mother. -61. Stringunt; i. e. for fodder. 62. Tamen notwithstanding; referring to a thought
not expressed; though we do stop, we shall, notwithstanding, reach the town betimes. - 63. Colligat. Gr. 492. 4. 1). A. & S. 262, R. 7. The night is said to gather the rain, because as night comes on the clouds often gather, a prelude of rain. Ante = before (we get there). 64. Licet usque. eamus we may go right on; i. e. without A. & S. 262, R. 4. Laedit
stopping. Gr. 493. 2.
tires, wearies. -65. Hoc... fasce of this burden; meaning the kids, which may have been carried in some sort of bundle. He intends that Moeris shall be the first to sing. Gr. 425. 2. A. & S. 251. - 66. Plura. See on V. 19. Puer. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (1). Instat = is urgent; i. e. the carrying of the kids to his new master. –67. Ipse; Menalcas.
THE GEORGICS. BOOK I.
THE name Georgics (Georgica) is Greek, Tewpyiká, and means "agricultural affairs." The title Georgicon is the Greek genitive plural of georgica. The poem is divided into four books, of which the first treats of agriculture, the second, of the cultivation of vines and trees, the third, of raising cattle, and the fourth, of the management of bees. For a history of the Georgics, see the Life of Virgil.
The subject of the First Book is the tillage of the ground with a view to crops, chiefly corn. The mention of the uncertainty of the weather at different times of the year leads the poet to give a list of the signs of a storm and of fair weather, which he abridges from the Diosemeia of Aratus. From this he passes to the signs of the polit. ical storm which had broken over Rome, and shows that external nature had been no less eloquent there, while he prays that Octavianus Caesar may yet be spared to save society.
I. General subject of the whole poem; viz.: Agriculture, Book I.; Vines and Trees, Book II.; Cattle, Book III.; Bees, Book IV.; (lines 1-4.)
II. Invocation of gods, and of Caesar (5 - 42).
III. Opening of subject proper. Preparations for sowing: I. Period at which to commence ploughing (43 – 49). 2. Nature of climate, character of soil, and most suitable modes of cultivation, to be ascertained (50-62).
3. Minute directions as to the manner and time of ploughing particular kinds of soil (63-70).
4. Means of refreshing the soil (71-93).
5. Modes of pulverizing the soil (94-99).
IV. Operations succeeding sowing:
1. Rendering the soil fine (100-105).
2. Irrigation of crops (106-110).
3. Checking of luxuriant growth (111-113).
4 Drawing off excessive moisture (114-117).
5. Drawbacks and annoyances to which the husbandman
is subject the means of preventing or of remedying them (118-159).
V. Agricultural implements and appliances (160-186).
VI. Indications of the yield of the ensuing harvest, and artificial means of increasing fruitfulness of seed (187-203). VII. Proper season for sowing different seeds to be decided by observation of the heavenly bodies; explanation of the seasons (204-256).
VIII. How the husbandman is to employ his leisure time; what days are lucky or unlucky for certain transactions; and what operations should be done by night or by day in preference (157-310).
IX. The weather:
1. Storms of particular seasons (311-334).
2. Means of guarding against them (335-350).
3. Prognostics of change of weather (351-463).
X. Political changes even foretold by heavenly bodies; the death of Julius Caesar; its prognostics, its accompaniments,
and its consequences (464-514).
what may make corn-fields productive; lit. joyous. Compare Psalms, lxv. 13. The sense is substantially the same, if we render segetes corn, crops," and lactas "abundant." Quo sidere under what constellation, at what season of the year. Gr. 426 and 1. A. & S. 253 and N. 1.-2. Vertere; i. e. to plough. Cf. v. 147. Maecenas (C. Cilnius), the great friend and close confidant of Augustus, the enlightened patron of literature and art, had first suggested this poem, and to him it is naturally inscribed. See Life of Virgil. - 3. Qui — pecori=what sort of treatment (attention, care) may he requisite for preserving the flock; i. e. for keeping up the stock. Gr. 564. A. & S. 275 III. R. 2 and (1). Z. 664. Pecori means small cattle, as sheep and goats, and is opposed to boum. - 4. Apibus; sc. habendis from the preceding habendo. Experientia; of the bee-keeper, not of the bees.
5. Hinc from this point of time, now. Vos; subject of ferte in v. 11. 6. Lumina; i. e. Sol et Luna. Labentem; denoting the noiseless pace of time. Coelo along the sky. Gr. 422. 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3.-7. Liber. See on E. VII. 58. Alma is derived from alo. Proprie sunt alma quae alunt, ut lac, nutrix, Ceres, et alia; inde quaecumque bona, benefica, utilia, jucunda et grata sunt. Hence this adj. is used of the cattle and the fields; of the sun and the light; of water; of nurses; and of the gods. Ceres. See on Ov. M. V. 341 and 343. Siif, since, so surely as. So frequently in adjurations. It introduces the reason why the prayer should be granted. — 8. Chaoniam. See on IX. 13. Glandem mast, acorns; the food of man till he was taught agriculture by Ceres. Arista. Gr. 416. 2. A. & S. 252, R. 5.-9. Pocula... Acheloia cups of water. Achelous, the river flowing between Aetolia and Acarnania, was said to be the oldest of all rivers, and consequently is often used by the poets for water in general. Uvis=vino. Gr. 705. II.; 385. 5. A. & S. 324. 2; 245, R. 1. — 10. Praesentia. See on Ov. M. III. 658. Cf. E. I. 42. Fauni; rural deities, represented as half men and half goats. - 11. Ferte... pedem (sc. huc): come hither, come to my aid. Fauni. The repetition of Fauni serves as a kind of correction of the previous verse, where they alone were mentioned. Dryades. See on E. V. 59.-12. Munera; i. e. corn, wine, herds, flocks, trees. The deities thus far mentioned preside over the subjects of the first two books; those next invoked, over the subjects of the last two books. Tu.....et cultor; sc. ferie pedem. Cui= at whose command. Prima = primum; i. e. it was the first horse created. Neptune produced the first horse by a stroke of his trident. See on v. 18.-14. Neptune; the son of Saturnus and Ops, and chief deity of the sea. He is represented as carrying the trident, or threepronged spear. Amphitrite was his queen. Cf. A. I. 124 foll. Cultor nemorum guardian of woodland pastures. Cultor is by some taken here as = incola. The reference is to Aristaeus, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, and the guardian of flocks and pastures. Cui implies that the process goes on for him, because he is its patron and author, thus denoting causation indirectly. Pinguia= luxuriant. Ceae. After the death of his son Actaeon, Aristaeus retired to Ceos, or Cea (now Zea), one of the Cyclades, not far from Attica, where he delivered the inhabitants from a destructive drought by erecting an altar to Zeus. -15 Ter centum; a definite for an indefinite number. Tondent; the present suggesting that the god is still guardian of the island. — 16. Ipse expresses marked emphasis; even thou too, who art usually so loath to leave thy own Arcadia See on E. IV. 58. Saltus, same as nemorum in v. 14. Lycaei, Maenala; mountains in Arcadia, the former the birthplace of Pan
the latter his favorite haunt. Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. I. and 1. Si; same as in v. 7. Tibi...curae. Gr. 390. A. & S. 227.-18. Adsis. Gr. 487; 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Tegeaee Tegean, god of Tegea. Pan is so called, from Tegea, a city in Arcadia, where he was specially worshipped. Minerva; daughter of Jupiter, said to have sprung from his forehead completely armed. She was goddess of wisdom, war, and the liberal arts, the guardian and helper of heroes, and presiding goddess of Athens. When the dispute arose between Neptune and Minerva as to which of them should have the honor of naming Athens, the gods decided that it should receive its name from the one who should bestow upon man the most useful gift. Neptune then created the horse, and Minerva called forth the olive-tree, for which the honor was conferred upon her. Hence she is called oleae inventrix.-19. Puer; Triptolemus, of Eleusis, the son of Celeus. He was the favorite of Ceres, and the inventor of the plough.-20. Ab radice = torn up by the root; i. e. root and all. Silvane; an old Roman god of agriculture, cattle, boundaries, and forests. He was usually represented as bearing a young cypress plant. - 21. Studium; sc. est. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. Quibus. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Tueri. Gr. 549. A. & S. 209, R. 3 (5). — 22. Novas.. fruges = young plants. Non ullo semine which grow without cultivation; lit. having no seed; opposed to satis in the next line. Cf. sine semine. Ov. M. I. 108. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 24. Adeo= especially. Sint habitura. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.—25. Concilia the assembly, company. The plural is poetic. Cf. E. I. 6, 7. Invisere = to oversee, superintend. Invisere and curam both have the same grammatical relation to velis. A change in the construction from a verb to a noun, and from a noun to a verb, is not uncommon. Cf. E. V. 46, 47. — 26. Maximus orbis (sc. terrarum) the entire earth; i. e. the inhabitants. 27. Auctorem potentem = as the giver of increase to its productions, and the lord of its changeful seasons. - 28. Cingens; sc. orbis. A fine image, representing the whole human race as uniting to crown Caesar with a myrtle wreath. Materna... myrto. The myrtle was sacred to Venus. See on E. VII. 62 and IX. 47.-29. An - maris = whether thou art to come as (i. e. art to be = futurus sis) the god of the unmeasured sea. -30. Numina. See on concilia, v. 25. Thule; the extreme northern point of legendary travel. Some regard it as one of the Shetland Islands, others as Iceland, others as Norway, others still as Jutland.-31. Generum. Gr. 373. A. & S. 230, R. 2. Tethys. See on Ov. M. II. 69. She was the mother of the Oceanides. See on E. V. 75. Omnibus undis; i. e. the whole sovereignty of the sea. In heroic times, parents used to give large