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the apotheosis of Daphnis. They praise each other and exchange gifts. The original Daphnis was a Sicilian hero, and his name occurs frequently in the ancient Pastorals. It is supposed that this Eclogue was written B. C. 42, in which year public rejoicings throughout Italy were ordered to celebrate the deification of Julius Caesar, the month. of July being also named after him. According to this conjecture, which is not improbable, Virgil celebrates Caesar under the name of Daphnis, though not carrying the resemblance through all its features.
1. Boni = skilled. Calamos-leves in playing on the slender pipe; lit. the slender reeds; i. e. of which the pipe was constructed. See on III. 25. Cf. Ov. M. XI. 161. Inflare and dicere depend upon boni. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. 1. Similar Grecisms abound in Virgil. Cf. IV. 54, dicere, and A. VI. 165, ciere. See also on Hor. C. I. 1. 18. - 3. Corylis. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2; or 245. II. 2. —4. Major; sc. natu. — 5. Zephyris motantibus (Sc. eas); whence the uncertainty of the shade. 6. Adspice, ut followed by the indicative calls attention to the fact of the action or state expressed by the verb; by the subjunctive, to the manner in which it is performed. Indicative: See! how the wild vine has overspread the cave! Subjunctive: See how the wild vine, etc. Cf. IV. 52. 7. Racemis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 8. Tibi certat. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2 and (b). Menalcas compliments Mopsus as they walk towards the cave, intimating that Amyntas alone dared to contend with him in playing on the pipe. - 9. Quid-certet what if the same should strive. Mopsus is not pleased with the allusion to Amyntas, and sneers at his vanity.-10. Phyllidis ignes = love for Phyllis. These genitives are all objective. — 11. Jurgia Codri = invectives against Codrus. 12. Tityrus; probably a servant of one of the others.-13. Immo haec. Menalcas had suggested several subjects, but Mopsus prefers to sing some verses which he had lately inscribed on the bark of a tree.-14. Modulans notavi setting them to music I noted down the alternations (of the flute and voice). See on III. 22. He inscribed his verses and then set them to music, inscribing that also. 15. Tu—Amyntas. He still feels the mention of Amyntas, and says, derisively: After you have heard my song, then, if you will, bid Amyntas to contend with me. -16-18. Menalcas reassures him.-19. Plura may be taken as the object of desine, though in translating it is better to render it, "to say more." 20. Daphnim. See Introduction. Funere = morte. -21. Nymphis; sc. fuistis. — 23. Atque . atque = et... et. Crudelia; the predicate accusative. Gr. 373. 3. A. & S. 230, N. 3. Mater; Venus, the reputed mother of the gens Julia. — 25. Nulla nec... nec. Gr. 585. 2. A. & S. 277, R. 5 (a). — 26.
Libavit... attigit tasted... touched; much less drink or eat. Graminis herbam; herba being the generic, and gramen the specific term, as in herba frumenti. — 27. Daphni. Gr. 94 I (2). A. & S. 81, R. Poenos; i. e. African. Cf. Hor. C. I. 22. 15, 16. - 28. Loquuntur declare, testify; like coryli testes, v. 21. 29. Et etiam. Armenias; since Armenia abounded in ti
gers. Curru. Gr. 116. 4 (3). A. & S. 89. 3. Daphnis teaching the swains the rites of Bacchus is an emblem of the civil reforms of Caesar.-30. Inducere = to introduce. 31. Foliis hastas;
Gr. 390. 2.
- 32. Arbori
i. e. the thyrsus. See on Ov. M. III. 667 and XI. 9. bus; on which the vine is trained. 34. Tu-tuis; sc. sic eras. A. & S. 227, R. 4. Tulerunt = abstulerunt, — 35, Ipsa... ipse. By these words Pales and Apollo are set in opposition to te; i. e. such was their grief at Daphnis's death, that they themselves left the rural abodes of men. The baneful results of their departure are described in the following lines. Pales was a Roman divinity of flocks and shepherds. Apollo, one of the great divinities of the Greeks, was, according to Homer, the son of Zeus and Leto. The powers ascribed to him are apparently of different kinds, but all are connected with one another, and may be said to be only ramifications of one and the same. They are the following: :-I. He is the god who punishes and destroys the wicked and overbearing; 2. The god who affords help and wards off evil; 3. The god of prophecy; 4. The god of song and music; 5. The god who protects the flocks and cattle; 6. The god who delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constitutions. It is as the rural god of flocks and cattle that he is here mentioned. -36. Grandia. Large grains were selected for seed. — 37. Infelix = infecundum; i. e. useless for food. Avenae wild oats; which were nothing but weeds. Cf. G. I. 154.—38. Molli is opposed to the sharp and prickly thistle and Christ's-thorn, a prickly shrub common in the south of Italy. Purpureo. Purpureus is applied not only to purple or red, but to any bright color. 39. Spinis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 40. Spargite . . . umbras. From IX. 19, 20 it would seem that foliis should be interpreted "flowers" (florentibus herbis), and umbras "trees (viridi umbra). The meaning will then be, sow the turf with flowers, and plant trees beside (overshadowing) the fountains. Tombs were often built near fountains and surrounded with trees. 41. Talia refers to what follows as well as to what precedes. Mandat - Daphnis is parenthetical. - 42. Carmen the (following) poetic inscription. — 43. Daphnis silvis I am Daphnis (who dwelt) in the woods; i. e. who led the life of a shepherd. —45. Tale quale. Gr. 438. 4; 441. A. & S. 204, R. 9; 205, R. 7 (2). —47. Sitim. Gr. 85. III. 2. A. & S.
79. 2. Restinguere is the subject of est understood. Gr. 549. A. & S. 202. 6. III. 5, R. 2. -48. Sed voce; i. e. sed, quod majus est, voce. Non (nec) solum . . sed etiam implies simple enumeration, and makes no distinction in point of force between the two members, but non (nec) solum . . . sed implies comparison, and makes the latter member the stronger. Magistrum. Some critics refer this word to Daphnis; others, to some shepherd who had taught Mopsus music. We prefer the latter view. 49. Alter ab illo = secundus post illum. — 50. Haec... nostra; sc. carmina. Quocumque modo as well as I can; lit. in whatever way. 51. Tollemus ad astra =I will praise to the skies. Some think it means, "I will celebrate his ascent to heaven," referring to the apotheosis of Julius Caesar; but this sense would rather require in astra, though ad is used in the sense of in, A. I. 259. — 52. Daphnin. Gr. 93. 2. A. & S. 8o. Ex. I. 53. Sit. II. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Tali... munere favor.-54. Puer; Daphnis.
Gr. 485; 486.
than such a
per se. Cantari. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. 1 and (b); 264, N. 6. Ista. Gr. 450. A. & S. 207, R. 25. — 55. Stimicon; the fictitious name of some shepherd. - 56. The apotheosis of Daphnis begins here, consisting of twentyfive lines; the same number as in the lament of Mopsus. Candidus = in his (divine) beauty. Olympi; a mountain 9,700 feet high, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thessalia. From its great height it was considered the seat of the gods; hence it is often employed by the poets to denote heaven. -58. All nature, animate and inanimate, rejoices at his apotheosis, as it had mourned at his death. Cetera rura = fields. Cetera, because rus includes woods, as well as woods and pastures. -59. Pana. See on IV. 58. Dryadas puellas Dryad maids. See on v. 75. Gr. 98. A. & S. 85, Ex. 2; 205, R. 11 (a). — 61. Bonus = benignus, as often of gods. Cf. v. 65. Otia. See on I. 6. 62. Ipsi; i. e. etiam, adeo. See on I. 39. 63. Intonsi = unshorn; i. e. uncleared (of trees). See on Ov. M. XI. 158. — 64. Deus — Menalca = that (Daphnis of ours is) a god, a god, Menalcas! This is what the rocks and trees utter. - 65. Bonus felixque kind and propitious. Cf. A. 1. 330. Sis. Gr. 487; 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Aras. Gr. 381. A. & S. 238. 2.66. Tibi... Phoebo; sc. positas, exstructas, or the like. Daphni. Gr. 94. 1 and (2). A. & S. 81, R. Duas altaria = two high ones. Ara is the generic term for an altar; altare (from altus, high), the specific kind of altar on which victims were offered to the superior deities. Daphnis, as a hero, has only libations of milk, oil, and wine offered to him, not victims. Duas agrees with aras understood, to which altaria is in apposition. Phoebo. Apollo is mentioned because the birthday of Julius Caesar, which, after his deifisa
tion, was celebrated with annual rites, fell on the same day (the 12th of July) as the festival in honor of Apollo (Ludi Apollinares). But as the Sibylline books forbade the rites of any other god to be celebrated at the same time with those of Apollo, the birthday was kept on the preceding day. — 67, 68. Bina; i. e. two for each altar; duos, two in all, the crater being larger, from which the pocula might be replenished. Besides the birthday festival, v. 66, two others are promised annually to Daphnis; and it is probable that Virgil intends to rank Caesar among the Lares worshipped in April, when the harvest began, and at the close of the vintage in autumn. To the former refer novo lacte and messes; to the latter, olivi and frigus. On both he is to offer libations of wine. Olivi; poetical for olei. 69. In primis especially. Convivia, the banquets after the sacrifices. Baccho vino. ·71. Vina ... Ariusia. The wine from Ariusia, in the island of Chios, is here called a new kind of nectar (novum nectar), because recently introduced and esteemed very choice. Calathis from wine cups. -72. Mihi; sc. sacra facienti, while sacrificing. Lyctius Lyctian; from Lyctus, an ancient town in the island of Crete. The proper names here are those of imaginary shepherds. -73. Saltantes imitabitur. Forb. says, Saltabit Satyrorum more; i. e. in a rude manner. Saty. ros; a species of rustic divinity, attendants of Bacchus, of human form, with ears and tail of a goat. In character they were frolicsome, and given to animal enjoyment. -75. Nymphis; a numerous class of inferior female divinities. They belonged to the Greek rather than to the Roman religion, and were believed to dwell on earth in groves, on the summits of mountains, in rivers, streams, glens, and grottos. The following are some of the principal classes mentioned in Latin poetry: 1. Nereides, sea-nymphs; 2. Oreades, mountain-nymphs; 3. Napaeae, dell-nymphs ; 4. Dryades, wood-nymphs; 5. Naiades, waternymphs; and 6. Hamadryades, tree-nymphs, who were born and died together with the trees which had been their abode. Lustrabimus agros = we shall lustrate the fields. For a description of this lustratio (purification by sacrifice), see on Ambarvalia, III. 76. — 77. Rore cicadae. The ancients supposed that the cicada lived on dew. It is of the cricket tribe, and sits on the trees in summer, chirping away the whole day long. -78. Repeated A. I. 609. — 79. Baccho Cererique. Bacchus and Ceres are mentioned, as being the chief patrons of husbandmen. - 80. Damnabis - votis = thou also wilt bind (them; i. e. the agricolae who shall make vows to thee) by their vows; i. e. to keep their vows by granting their prayers. Gr. 410. 5. 3). A. & S. 217, R. 3 (b). — 82. Venientis= rising. 85. Nos. Gr. 367. 2. 1). A. & S. 209, R. 1 (b). Ante
first: i. e. before I receive anything from you. Cf. v. 81. Ci
cuta. See on III. 25. — 86. Nos. Gr. 446. 2.
A. & S. 209, R. 7 (b). Menalcas appears to represent Virgil himself. Formosum Alexim Corydon ardently loved the beautiful Alexis; a part of the first line of the 2d Eclogue, which is omitted in this selection. A. & S. 231. Alexim. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). — 88. Quum
Meliboei. Cf. III. 1.
- 89. Non tulit; i. e. did not get. Et
although. et tamen or quamquam. may be now.
in those days; i. e. whatever he See on cantari, v. 54. —90. Formosum -aere, Keightley says: The crook was usually made of olive-wood, which was knotty, and was often adorned with brass rings or studs. Paribus may refer to the regularity in the position of the natural knots.
THIS is another singing-match between Corydon and Thyrsis, with Daphnis as umpire. Unlike those in Eclogues III. and V., it ends decisively in the defeat of Thyrsis. The story is told by Meliboeus, who was not present until the terms of the contest had been agreed on, so that of them we hear nothing.
The scenery is, as usual, confused. Arcadian shepherds are made to sing in the neighborhood of the Mincius, while neither the ilex (v. 1), the pine (v. 24), the chestnut (v. 53), nor the flocks of goats (v. 7), would seem to belong to Mantua.
After an introduction of twenty verses, the style is amoebean (see Introduction to Eclogue III.), the rivals singing four verses each and constantly changing the subject.
1. Arguta=murmuring. Cf. Longfellow : "the murmuring pines and the hemlocks."-2. Unum; sc. locum.—3. Distentas; sc. ubera. —4. Florentes aetatibus in the bloom of their age, in their prime. Actatibus; the plural used poetically, each being made to have his own aetas. Arcades; either Arcadians by birth or Arcadians in musical skill. Gr. 624. 3. 1). A. & S. 300. Ex. 2 (d). — 5. Cantare... respondere. See on V. 1. Respondere refers to the amoebean style of singing.-6. Huc; i. e. towards the place where they were sitting. Mihi... caper Gr. my he-goat. 398. 5. A. &. S. 211, R. 5 (1). Cf. caper tibi, v. 9. Defendo; i. e. by putting straw about them. The time must be the early spring, when the night frost often bit the tender plants in the north of Italy. The present tense, for vivacity.-7. Vir husband, leader. Ipse implies that he was followed by the rest of the flock; hence et haedi, v. 9. Deerraverat Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. 1 and (1). Atque;