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von Mansfeldt, celebrated for her beauty, and with her husband persecuted for their Reformed religion; whilst Protestantism was only venturing to acquire its rights, and whilst the Church of Rome hunted the heroes of the Reformation, and sought to entangle in her snares, that they might be made the prey and spoil of the oppressor.

In those mountains, and among their precipitous and inaccessible crags, amongst their untracked and almost inextricable labyrinths, amongst their dens as hiding-places, the holy men of God concealed themselves until the time of liberty came, and they were enabled to stand forth bearing the banner of the cross, and proclaiming the truth in all its simplicity, and in its love and power.

In the Drachenfels are monuments to heroism, and fragments of remote antiquity commemorating the residence of men who chose their lofty abode that they might soon espy and easily plunder the merchants' treasure. The name is from Drachen, in German signifying dragon, and fel, signifying a cave or rock. The Dragon Rock in which is a cave, where dwelt men perhaps as monstrous as dragons. The name of it is associated with Siegfreid the hero of the Niebelungen Lay ; and the other mountains are called by their position-"berg" signifying mountain. The Seven Mountains are considered the beginning of the picturesque scenery of the Rhine ; and beautiful they are, indeed. It was there I first saw the vineries of the Continent. You see every patch of ground laid out in the most careful culture : you have the vineplant growing in all its rich luxuriance, hanging out its fringed and elegant leaves, and its promising buds; or when the time of the vintage is near, exhibiting the fruit in all its rich variety of cluster and of colour; you have every patch of ground up to the top of these bergs, just as if they were the board that you call the draught-board, squared, cut and fitted exactly for the place; and the stock, or pole, that is employed to uphold the vine-plants,

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giving a sort of monotony for the time to the scene ; but by-and-by they are so richly clad, they are so beautifully coloured and diversified, that you fancy yourself in something like a paradisiacal state. The growth of the vine is one of the richest, one of the most verdant and beautiful exhibitions of vegetation that you can contemplate with your eye, and where the sun's rays come to rest upon this rich soil, upon the banks of the Rhine, you have every sort or hue of vegetation, wheat growing in abundance, all the kinds of grain prized by the husbandman springing almost spontaneously. For the vine-bed nothing is required but just to gather the earth; they do not need to manure, or separate from it the stones ; so that you would wonder where the plants could derive vegetable moisture. In these places this plant grows with all the richness that you can imagine, and thousands and millions of pounds are made every year from the produce of the grapes that grow on the banks of the Rhine ; every kind of wine, the richest, the lightest, the most sparkling, and that which they call champagne, (though a pernicious and irritating beverage to the sedentary and studious, *) all produced, in order that they may bring the greatest revenue fro the land.

• Of Schiller it is said, “ Often was the light seen at night streaming from the window, and the curious might even catch a glimpse of his tall shadowy figure, walking to and fro in his chamber; now halting to write down the verses which he first declaimed aloud, or to support the overstrained physical power with the fatal excitements. . . . It was his custom to have placed on the table not only strong coffee and chocolate, but champagne, and the far more irritating and pernicious wines of the Rhine. Thus would he labour the night through, till sleep, or rather exhaustion, came on in the morning." A German commentator notes that the Rhenish wines would only be “ more irritating and pernicious” if the champagne was genuine-but not so if the champagne was manufactured in Germany ;-sparkling poison, which no man since Mithridates could drink habitually and live long.

CHAPTER IV.

The cities on the Rhine-Trade of middle ages-Monastic insti

tutions-Feudal powers-Mercantile democracy.

THERE were a few sketches or allusions which I deferred from

my last Lecture in reference to the region over which we cast our rapid survey. Though minute and subordinate, they serve to fill up the back-ground, and give a colouring and impression to the tout ensemble of the scene, characteristic of the region. I will recur to these with brevity, so as not to abridge the space required for other localities.

The Bridge of Boats at Cologne was the first of these interesting and convenient structures, which I particularly examined, as the means of transit and communication between the opposite banks of the Rhine. This bridge traverses the stream without any unpleasant motion or feeling of insecurity, and conducts the passengers from one side of the river to the other, in all weathers, as safely as if it were a structure of the most solid stone and the firmest masonry. It is wholly composed of a series of boats, which are moored to anchors or incorrodible fixtures in the bed of the river, and are held in their relative position by chain-cables. Along this bridge of boats, which is 1,400 feet long, carriages, even artillery of the heaviest metal, are conducted with the greatest readiness, whilst the people of the neighbourhood make the bridge a sort of promenade, where they have the advantage of retirement

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from the dust and filth of the town, of friendly and neighbourly converse, of seeing and being seen, and also of breathing the salubrious and refreshing air from the river; not merely a recreation or an indulgence for the luxurious, but I should consider it a thing necessary for life or enjoyment, as a respite from the air of the city; which you will remember required more than the waters of the Rhine to wash down its impurities, and seemed to have suggested to the happy discoverer the distillation of Eau de Cologne. Perhaps in no part of the world has any city acquired such a kind of celebrity on account of the filthy atmosphere which pervades its streets : I did not wonder to behold its citizens, male and female, resorting in trooping multitudes to the promenade of the bridge. On the opposite side of the river is a small suburb called Deutz. The pleasure parties of the citizens find this suburb an agreeable change from their own rancid atmosphere. I wonder they do not seek improvement by a permanent residence. I crossed over and traversed its streets ; sauntered through the green lanes of its environs ; bought some fruit in its marketplace; went round its bulwarks, for it also is fortified as a tête du pont; and examined the temporary domiciles of a very strong military force which is kept there : the corps is chiefly a mounted artillery depôt. It is inviting, and yet revolting to the lover of his species, inasmuch as you see how the men are separated from the world, in order that they may be nurtured for the trade of war.

The magazines are well stored with the ammunition of the soldier, while the mechanical automata are fed, and trained in the most approved arts of destruction, the butchery of human drudges. For other purposes I have no sympathy with it, though Constantine the Great built here a castle, and gave éclat to the place. On the river-banks, opward from this point, vineyards of the most regular arrangement begin to open upon the view. The traveller in a first visit thinks of the scriptural associations with the vineyards of Palestine; looks for the lodges of the keepers ; and remembers Zion when left as a cottage in a vineyard ;" inquires for the wine-cellars, which were for the increase of the vineyards; and wishes to ascertain the meaning of “the cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi."

I ought more particularly, perhaps, to give you from my first impressions a more distinct description of the Rhenish vineyards. They are, in many instances, composed of terraces built upon walls, perhaps as deep as eight or ten feet the front of the terrace; while the earth which is gathered inside of these walls, may perhaps not spread over a surface much more than ten feet as a whole, that is ten feet in depth ; the length may be much more. Its soil is often forced:-an accumulation by the industry and perseverance of the husbandman, from the lower parts of the adjacent district, carried up in baskets upon the heads or shoulders of males and females, the humble and assiduous labourers being themselves the proprietors or the tenants of the vineyards : and should it happen that there is any severe fall of rain, it frequently occurs that the soil is washed down, that the plants are rooted up, and that even the walls give way, and the vine-dresser has the work of its reconstruction to do again. These vineyards are not composed of large massive trees; the vine is a plant, it cannot be called a tree. The wood of the vine-tree is unsightly and worthless as is that of the bramble, and its branch is not to be named among the trees of the forest. The pungency of the prophet's rebuke to Israel, who is compared to a vine, is most severe, when he demands, “ Shall wood be taken thereof to do any work ? or will men take a pin of it to hang any vessel thereon ? Behold it is cast into the fire for fuel ; the fire devoureth both the ends of it, and the midst of it is burned. Is it meet for any

work ? behold, when it was whole it could be made fit for no work." Were the vine left without support, it would creep along upon the ground, being from its tendril and

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