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has men of her own thoroughly trained in medicine and in in the other sciences, the Chinese language will be employed in the government colleges. Of that there can be no doubt. At present is is a question of whether it is better to make the student do the work of getting sufficient English to grasp the technicalities of medicine, and after he has obtained the training, be unable to transmit what he has learned to his countrymen who do not understand English, because he has no technical terms; or, to make the teacher learn Chinese and create a literature in medicine with the help, of course, of Chinese teachers, who see that the style is correct. In our own college we require the students to have some knowledge of English and to continue the study of both that and classical Chinese throughout their course unless excused for special proficiency. The aim is to make English a secondary language as students in this country have German and French for collateral reading and I believe that we are anticipating the condition that will prevail in nearly all schools a few years hence, when those who wish to study in a foreign language will seek also the greater facilities of some foreign land.
For more than fifty years Chinese have been going to the West for medical training. So far as I can find any record the first to take a degree was Dr. Wang Fen, who graduated at Edinborough in 1857. He offered his services to the London Missionary Society and was in charge of the hospital of the Medical Missionary Society in Canton for a number of years. Since then a number of Chinese have studied both in Europe and America. With the great influx of Chinese students since 1900 and especially since the migrations to America that have resulted from the return of the Boxer indemnity by the United States, the number has increased. At the present time the bureau supervising students has a record of seven now studying medicine, two sanitary engineering and one sanitary chemistry.
Finally, where does western medicine stand today in the estimate of the Chinese? That depends on the precise moment at which you speak. The change that is going on in China at present is stupendous. It is safe to say that the
officials and upper classes have come into close contact with western ideas and culture more in the last decade than in the preceding century and that the last year has meant more in progress than the preceding ten. It is needless to say that if the Chinese government had known a tithe of what it does now, the Boxer delusion would have been impossible. There are still old officials who did not learn anything from that convulsion but are wondering what all the recent fuss is about. There are others who are revising their opinions. Let me quote from the address of Hsi Liang, viceroy of Manchuria at the opening of the International Plague Conference in Mukden in April, 1911:
We Chinese have for a long time believed in an ancient system of medical practice, which the experience of centuries has found to be serviceable for many ailments, but the lessons taught by this epidemic, which until three or four months ago had been unknown in China, have been great, and have compelled several of us to revise our former ideas of this valuable branch of knowledge. We feel that the progress of medical science must go hand in hand with the advancement of learning, and that if railways, telegraphs, electric light and other modern inventions are indispensable to the material welfare of this country, we should also make use of the wonderful resources of western medicine for the benefit of the people. I trust and believe too, that modern medicine and especially sanitary science will in future receive more attention in this country than it has hitherto done, and we shall be better prepared to deal with similar epidemics when they arise. My great regret is that as many as 40,000 lives have been lost in these Provinces, especially including those of some of our foreign doctors, whose unselfish devotion to duty and the welfare of our people I shall always remember.
At the first graduation exercises of the Union Medical College in Peking in April 1911, the Privy Councillor Na T'ung gave the principal address. He said in part:
There is abundant proof that neglect of the laws of sanitation and absence of proper medical care have brought about more deaths of officers and men in the fiercest of modern warfare than the destructive power of the terrible weapons of war. What is true in times of war is no less true in the times of peace. We have just had an illustration in the pneumonic plague which raged so fiercely in Manchuria. In fighting against the plague -and the battle was a splendid one-the government found that it did not have a sufficient number of doctors available to do the
work and a call for volunteers was issued. Among others, several professors and students of your college responded and at once left for Harbin, where the plague was seen in its worst form. Leaving self and family out of consideration, they thought only of the good they could do, and as doctors they remembered that their duty and ambition was to fight disease and death: And it is this spirit, I believe, should inspire you throughout your lives, the spirit of service and sacrifice.
Within the year 1911, the Chinese government twice sought the coöperation of the Union Medical College in Peking when their own resources were insufficient. The first was in the case of the epidemic in pneumonic plague in Manchuria referred to by Na T'ung and the second was during the revolution. The imperial army medical corps was altogether inadequate for the task and desired the Medical College to coöperate. The reply was in the affirmative provided a Red Cross Society could be organized and that the imperial government would apply the rules of the Geneva Convention to the treatment of wounded rebels. It took a month of the time of the most active hostilities before they could be persuaded to do so, but in the end these civilized rules prevailed and three companies with nine teachers and about forty students went to the front. Aside from this and the efforts of other Red Cross Societies in China whereever there were medical missionaries their hospitals if required were filled with wounded. On the rebel side there was little army medical corps work but several organizations including the Red Cross Society in Shanghai sent companies to the scene of hostilities. The public service during these two visitations of pestilence and war has aided greatly in showing the officials in China what western medicine is by actual demonstration. After the plague one heard on every side among officials of the necessity of reform in medical education and in supervision of public health. There is no question but that the new government will move rapidly in this direction and that the institutions now at work and many others will be needed to coöperate with those that the government will establish to train physicians and public health officers for new China.
A PERSONAL ESTIMATE OF THE CHARACTER OF THE LATE EMPRESS DOWAGER, TZE-HSI
By Katharine A. Carl, Painter of the Portrait of the Late Empress Dowager
I must first apologize for giving you but a gossipy talk, reminiscent of the dynasty that has passed and not touching upon things of import to China of today. Though the object of this conference, to which Clarke University has convened us, is to bring us to a better knowledge and appreciation of the Chinese, while we thrill at the recital of the struggles of the young republic to make itself worthy, I think all who are interested in China of today, even the ardent young republicans themselves, cannot fail to find some interest, to feel some pride in the great Empress Tze-Hsi who so long presided over the destinies of China, who, Manchu as she was, loving her own and full of the prejudices of her race. I found a patriotic Chinese, really loving and fully conscious of her great responsibilities toward China, deeply inbued with the idea of China's integrity, her right to retainher national entity at all costs and her power to work out her own salvation.
I had the honor of painting her majesty's portraits and of living with her during the eleven months necessary for the work. I was, during this time, brought into the close and quasi-intimate association that generally exists between the painter and his sitter, however august, and I learned to admire the Empress Dowager sincerely. I found her a charming woman ever fascinating and elusive, a perfect hostess, always thoughtful and considerate, a witty conversationalist, a clever painter, a womanly woman full of intelligence and charm; besides admiring in her those qualities of statesmanship, that executive power which the world at large has acknowledged.
Interesting as she was from the artist's standpoint, with her well poised head, her flashing eye, her noble nose, her regal bearing enhanced by imperial vestments and splendid jewels: her character, her vivid personality soon charmed me more than her exterior, and psychologically she was as interesting a study as she was artistically.
As the first question I am invariably asked about my experience is China is "How did you come to paint the Empress Dowager's portrait?" I will leave the interesting personality of my august sitter for the moment, and begin by telling you all I know about this. I visited Peking a few days after my arrival in China and at a dinner my first evening there, a secretary of the French legation in Peking (whom I had known in Paris) from his place at table, some distance from mine, asked me if I was not going "to paint the portrait of the Empress Dowager while I was in Peking." I laughlingly replied I was was perfectly willing to do so, but feared "willingness" would not carry me far towards its accomplishment, that my ambition at that time had not soared higher than hoping to have the opportunity of seeing the great woman! He insisted that being a woman and a painter of some little reputation were "qualifications" and that it was not so improbable. He then appealed to Sir Robert Hart asking him if it were not "probable." Sir Robert seemed more annoyed than interested and put a stop to the conversation by saying, "Miss Carl has not come to China to paint anyone's portrait." Later in the evening when I was alone with him, Sir Robert referred to the conversation by saying. "It seems strange Monsieur who has been in China ten years doesn't know Chinese emperors and empresses are never painted from life. After their deaths a more or less imaginary likeness from memory is made of them, but should the Empress Dowager set aside all traditions, as she is capable of doing, it would never be in favor of a foreigner." As he was so earnest about it I laughingly assured him I had no intention of taking Monsieur au serieux, that I should not pursue the Empress Dowager into the mysterious fastnesses of the forbidden city and demand to paint her portrait, nor should I even