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d. To furnish the republic an example of education at its best, which undoubtedly would be largely imitated.

This is necessary that China may be enabled and induced to provide for the proper education of the Chinese.

2. Such a system will require:

a. Schools ranging all the way from the kindergarten to the university.

b. That each school shall be true to its grade name, with its courses of study and work carefully adjusted to the other schools of the system, the ability of the young people who attend, and the preparation needful to make the most out of their probable environment.

c. Teachers specially prepared, of tried efficiency, carefully adjusted, and adequately supported, with special and comprehensive revision for training native teachers, and supplying them with thorough supervision.

3. As necessary to the development and maintenance of such a system of Christian education, it seems necessary that: a. The primary schools should be denominational, the middle schools usually so, and the colleges not infrequently so. b. Usually the colleges, and possibly in almost every case the universities, should be interdenominational.

c. The Christian schools of higher grade should not be unduly multiplied, nor near enough to compete with each other; say four, five, or six Christian universities located at the great strategic centers would be as many as should be attempted; each central to a large constituency, supplemented by a sufficient number of strong denominational or interdenominational colleges to supply it with thoroughly prepared students for its technical schools and graduate work.

d. Each college should have its preparatory schools closely affiliated, of adequate number and quality to supply it with thoroughly prepared students, and each of the preparatory schools should be similarly related to a number of primary schools.

If, out of every two hundred who enter our primary schools, in the United States, only one on the average graduates from a first-class college, we may not expect a much larger proportion, for some time at least, in China, and it will require a

comprehensive and well organized system of primary and preparatory schools to supply proper patronage for the colleges and universities.

This statement is neither academic nor wholly idealistic. A consideration of the development of Christian education as recorded in China during the past three or four years, will make it clear that the dominating trend is toward great, interdenominational universities, located at a few strategic centers, having denominational or interdenominational colleges, preparatory schools, and primary schools within a definite area, closely articulated; with interdenominational educational associations, and adequate supervision to maintain the standards and coördinations; to council, and in some cases, regulate and determine the location, grades, and efficiency of the schools.

It means much that the problems are being so carefully studied and clearly defined; that all movements seem to be synthetic, and that overlapping, harmful competition, and wasteful, undirected experimentation is being limited.

The constructive results are also noteworthy, and the future is radiant with hope.

The West China Union University is a recent development of Christian education in China and registers its trend. It is situated at Chengtu, a city of about 450,000 inhabitants, the capital of Szechwan, the largest, most populous, most productive province in China, with about the same area and twice the population of France. Chengtu is one of the six most important cities in the republic, a great literary, educational, and military center; and is strategically located to the three great provinces of west China which are geographically separated from the rest of the republic and contain about one-fourth of China's area and population.

In November, 1905, representatives of the eight missions engaged in educational work in west China were called together and they started plans which in October, 1906, resulted in the organization of the West China Christian Educational Union. This association is a compact and efficient body, which outlines the curricula, conducts the examinations, confers the certificates, and in general oversees the primary

and secondary educational work of all the Protestant missions in west China.

It was natural for those who were unitedly doing such thorough and systematic primary and preparatory work to desire enlarged and advanced opportunities, and during the Centennial Conference held at Shanghai in 1907 the missionaries in attendance from west China held three meetings to discuss plans for the extension of their educational system.

In 1908, a representative committee was appointed and reported in favor of establishing a union university for west China, under interdenominational control, and the proposition had the endorsement of practically all the missionaries in that field. When referred to the home boards for their approval, four boards-The Friends' Foreign Missionary Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the General Board of Missions of the Methodist Church of Canada, the American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, and the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States of America-endorsed the project, "provided a plan of coöperation can be devised which will be acceptable to the coöperating bodies." Two other mission boards commended the project, but felt they could not financially coöperate.

After much consultation and correspondence the establishment of the university was unanimously authorized, under conditions satisfactory alike to the home boards and the missionaries in the field. It is thus international and interdenominational.

For some time about one hundred students had been studying at the Union Preparatory School, a number of whom were ready for college work.

So eager were the missionaries to meet the urgent demand and so confident were they that what should be done could and would be done that the West China Union University was begun and a class of ten students received for college grade work on Chinese New Year, March 11, 1910, though the joint committee of the four bodies which have coöperated in establishing the university did not meet to draft the constitution in its final shape until June, 1910, when they con

vened in London, England, just after the Edinburgh Conference.

The control on the educational side of the university is vested in a senate composed largely of instructors, together with other representatives of the coöperating bodies. The senate determines the curricula, conducts the examinations, grants degrees, and has general charge of all university affairs in the field.

The ultimate control is vested in a board of governors resident in the home lands and composed of three representatives of each of the coöperating mission boards, and others, not exceeding eight, selected by these. The board of governors holds and controls all the real estate, funded capital, and other property of the university.

The revolution which resulted in the establishment of the republic temporarily interrupted the work of the university. All foreigners were required to leave Chengtu and were not able to return for several months, but the institution reopened in good shape in September last with the first two classes of college grade.

The medical department is in process of organization and will include three general hospitals, two of which have recently been completed, and $25,000, gold, is in hand for the building of the third; $25,000, gold, has been provided for the medical school building and one of the coöperating boards has set apart two instructors for that work.

The Union Theological School for the four coöperating missions, though not an organic part of the university as yet, is doing successful work and is closely related to it.

The normal department has held a prominent place in the purpose and work of the university plans from its inception. The China Emergency Appeal Committee, of London, has made a grant of $4500, gold, for this department, and drawings are being prepared for the normal building. Five missions have been represented in its student body.

Two university men familiar with the language and having successful experience in educational work in west China have been at home for special training, are under appointment

and will sail within a few weeks to strengthen the educational department.

Plans are being projected to increase the two regular summer schools for teachers to five, to be held annually at convenient centers. The university extension courses, with lantern slides, will be enlarged. The development of the normal school for primary teachers, and the opening of a teachers' college for secondary teachers are provided for.

The superintendent of the primary and middle schools is to sail in January. He is also secretary of the West China Educational Union, and a member of the faculty of the teachers' department, and his influence in these various relations will greatly strengthen the unity of the work.

There are 7000 students in the 240 primary and middle schools connected with the various missions under the 355 missionaries in west China. These are included in the system and closely articulated through the West China Educational Union. They are following the same curricula, carefully graded and arranged as far as possible in harmony with the government courses of study, but including religious instruction; taking the same examinations conducted by the Educational Union; and passed from grade to grade by certificates issued by that body; and they are under the strong Christian influence of men and women who have gone out from home primarily to teach the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, and whose lives are a daily witness to the power of their message. This comprehensive system of unified activities will secure the supply of students for the Colleges, Technical Schools, and graduate work of the university, and assure a demand for their graduates.


The four participating missions support ten foreigners, graduates of western colleges and universities, who are teaching in the departments of the university as members of the faculty (at an average salary of, say, $1250), $12,250; an educational secretary whose work is a part of the normal department of the university is supported at an annual cost, including traveling expenses, of $1750; last year each of the

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