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ENGLAND. Atheneum :-"These ballads are spirited and stirring : such are 'The Fall of Harald Hardrada,'Old Benbow,' Marston Moor,' and 'Corporal John,' the soldier's name for the famous Duke of Marlborough, which is a specially good ballad. Queen Eleanor's Vengeance' is a vividly told story. Coming to more modern times, 'The Deeds of Wellington,

Inkerman,' and Balaklava' are excellently well said and sung. As a book of ballads, Interesting to all who have British blood in their veins, Dr. Bennett's eontribution will be welcome. Dr. Bennett's Ballads will leave a strong impression on the memory of those who read them."

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of Baliol, and being under the necessity of con.

tinuing the French war with two armies, a CONTENTS.-No 262.

southern in Gascony and a northern in Flanders, NOTES :-Parliamentary Writ of 25 Edward - The found himself with an exhausted treasury, and Husband -"Gallop"- - Dear knows" - Olney, 5–* Scrog- demanded

a fifth from the clergy. moggling"-"Yaw" Mrs. Baddeley-"Gert "Great- This demand was, in view at once of the gravity Butler and Tennyson—" Yedo"-Shakspeare and the Book of the king's necessities and of the enormous and of Wisdom, 6.

rapidly increasing wealth of the Church, a moderate QUERIBS :-William Hiseland-Everle: Gysburne-Water

bury - Thomas Proclus Taylor - Edward 11.-Petworth demand, But the Primate Winchelsey and the Gaol - Col. H. Slaughter – Stained Glass, 7-Flixton, Pope Boniface VIII. regarded the position of the Burial-place of Capel LofftNelson Reliont

. Manglese king as a favourableone to promulgate the monstrous Kenelm Digby, 8-London Directories—“Sones carnall” claim that Church property should pay no taxes to - Vergilius-Authors Wanted, 9.

the king, but to the Pope alone, REPLIES :-Galleries in Church Porches, 9-"God save the

To this end Winohelsey produced the celebrated king," 10 - Compound Adjective - Lord Monson-Substituted Portraits -- Sheep-stealer Hanged -- Astrological Bull by Boniface, known as “ Clericis

Laicos," forSignatures, 11-Church wardens-Joseph Miller-** Forest bidding the clergy to grant to laymen any part of Cloth"-Peter of Colechurch-Squib, 12-The Giaour'

the revenue of their benefices without the permisSaxon Pedigree_Robin and Dead Child-Cunobelinus or Cymbeline Fighting like devils,” &c.,

13 - Stephen sion of the Holy See. In Convocation this Duck="Jolly"-Lines on Oxford and Cambridge, 14-a attitude was supported with the dictum that of Religion-Pitt_Club. 15-Accents in French – Anec obedience was due to their spiritual lord and to dotes of Books'-Fovilla-Simon Grynæus, 16-Laurence their temporal, but most to the spiritual: to wbich Sir John Jervis, 17—Louis Philippe-Duke of Cloucester latter they ingenuously offered to submit the point -The Man of Ghent - Early Newspapers, 18-Authors at issue. Wanted, 19.

King Edward, thus involved both at home and NOTES ON BOOKS :-Chalmers's ' A Scots Mediæval Archi- abroad in the greatest difficulties, rose at this

tect" - Atkinson's Calendar of State Papers relating to crisis to the height of his magnificent career. He Ireland' - Earle's 'Colonial Days' - Whitaker's Almanack'- Naval and Military Trophies,' Part IV.

proceeded to outlaw the whole clergy, saying, in

effect, that if they would not obey the law they Notions to Correspondents.

should take no benefit of the law. The Chief

Justice, at Westminster, publicly announced in the Notes.

plainest terms the position taken by the king.

All this happened at the end of 1296 and the THE PARLIAMENTARY WRIT OF 25 EDWARD I. beginning of 1297, the date of this writ of sum

The writ of summons, dated 26 January, mons. If the king proposed to call a Parliament 25 Edward I. (1296/7), for a Parliament to meet it is in the highest degree probable that the intenat Salisbury, is invested with much interest from tion was to take counsel with the temporality the fact that Francis Townsend,

Windsor Herald, concerning this Ball and the obduracy of the quoting, as it appears, Jobo Vincent, raised a clergy. Their obduracy was, however, of no long doubt as to the regularity of this writ.

standing, as the clergy soon fell away from WinThe manner in which this doubt originated is chelsey to make their peace with the king and very clearly set forth, in his 'Historic Peerage,' resume their allegiance. Many bad thus been inby William Courthope, Somerset, who gives with lawed before the end of the summer

, which may great fulness and perspicacity many details con- explain the facts noticed by Courthope, that various nected with the writ, and he adds critical remarks clerics were summoned later in the year. which indicate that he was much impressed by the The precise nature of the meeting at Salisbury doubt raised; all of which may be found, as any has also been questioned, and it has been doubted one familiar with his valuable work knows under whether this was a Parliament at all, inde" Fitz-John."

pendently of the validity of the writ of summons The essence of the objection which has been thus to it. Courthope quotes authorities for the date of taken to this writ is that it is addressed to the assembly as Sunday, the feast of St. Matthew the temporality only, and ignores the whole body of Apostle, which be expands as 21 September, peers spiritual, not a single bishop or abbot being 25 Edw. I., 1297, and in a foot-note remarks included ; and dealing for the present with this that 21 September that year fell on a Saturday. point only, it is not a little strange that Courthope, This discrepancy might have suggested an error, in his very careful statement of the case, makes no even if the unusually long notice of nearly allusion to the unusual circumstances of the eight months bad raised no surprise. The source ecclesiastical party at this particular time.

of the confusion, however, presents no great These circumstances are well known. King difficulty. Edward having returned from the campaign in The writ doubtless summoned the Parliament Scotland, the sacking of Berwick and the capture to meet on the feast of St. Matthias (not Mat

may be

thew) the Apostle, viz., 24 February, 1296/7, at Drury Lane, and also the extracts from the which was a Sunday that year. The Parliament Ami des Lois and the Rédacteur in reference to a duly met on that date, and though little is French invasion of England, are all very interestknown of its deliberations, the Earls of Norfolk ing; but to readers of to-day the advertisements and Hereford then refused to lead the campaign will offer the greatest amount of attraction. George in Gascopy, on the ground that the king was Washington, Pitt, and Fox are not nearly so much not going thither in person ; and it was on this part and parcel of the old world as lotteries and occasion that the supposed punning allusion to patent cures for king's evil. Bigot's name occurred. King Edward himself

The advertisements number sixty-five, and the was still at Salisbury on 7 Marcb, when the most remarkable one of all heads the first column. Archbishop Winchelsey had audience there to In large type we have the announcement of an discuss the situation, and on this occasion, it " extraordinary large reptile which seems, a modus vivendi was arranged.

inspected with the greatest pleasure at 422, Reasonable consideration of these plain facts Oxford Street. The bite of this “largest and leads to the opinion that there was a Parliament most beautiful rattlesnake " ever imported into at Salisbury in response to the writ of summons this country "is attended with immediate disin question ; that those who were omitted from solution, but the owner of this pleasant companion the summons were outlaws, and had conse- does not offer practical demonstrations of its power. quently no right to receive writs ; that this There are four lottery advertisements, the special Parliament discussed the Bull and the general claims of each of which are urged with all the flowery situation; that King Edward, having taken eloquence of the quack and the cheap-jack. Patent counsel and beard the views of the lords tem-medicine advertisements take a very important poral, subsequently came to an informal under place in the paper, and the income from these must standing, for the existence of which there is have been considerable. They range from Dr. good evidence, with the prime mover in the James's analeptic pill to nostrums for scald heads, matter, Archbishop Winchelsoy; and that the and wind up with Dr. Solander's “Sanative Engsupposed Parliament at Salisbury of 21 Septem-lish Tea," for "nervous, bilious, consumptive, and ber, 1297, at which date the king was in relaxed constitutions," in packets at 2s. 9d., and in Flanders, is a myth arising from a mistake very canisters at 108. 6d. each. The fact that it was in easily to be made.

use“ by several most noble and elevated of the The great probability that this writ produced nobility" was to be taken as an indisputable proof a Parliament has an important bearing on the of its efficacy, but a few abridged testimonials from regularity of the writ itself; especially so since smaller fry, such as a corn-obandler, an apothecary, those were present who would have been glad to &c., are given. Mr. Moberly Bell's face would be take exception to the legality of the summons an interesting study if some of these advertisements if they could have done 80; and, duly regarded were now brought to him for insertion in the in all its bearings and its peculiar circumstances, Times. the validity of this writ of 26 January, 25 Edw. I.,

From a literary point of view, the most interest. notwithstanding the opinions of the eminent authoring advertisement in the paper relates to "An rities named, seems to be more easily defended Asylum of Genius (where complete justice will be than opposed.


done to Literary works, and money occasionally advanced to the authors themselves, to advertise

them)," which was just opened at 137, Fleet Street. THE TIMES, 9 NOVEMBER, 1796. Here we have one of the earliest appeals the The facsimile reprint of the Times of the above vanity of the amateur scribbler. Among the pubdate is in many respects exceedingly interesting. lications of this philanthropic institution were 'A It is of the 3,736th number, and it appeared simul. Cat o' Nine Tails,' by the Nine Muses, at the low taneously with the 30,043rd number. A greater price of fourpence, and 'A Guide Spiritual and contrast between the four-page sheet of 1796 and Temporal,' which contained “a variety of matter the sixteen-page issue of 1896 it would be impos- that comes home to men's hearts," and which may sible to instance. Of course the great interest of have been bad for one shilling. the issue of 9 November, 1796, lies in the Auctioneers' advertisements, for which the newsannouncement of Washington's resignation of the papers of the day keenly competed, occupy nearly Presidency of the United States--a piece of the whole of one page, Messrs. Skinner, Dyke & information which then occupied seven weeks in Skinner holding most of their sales at Garraway's transmission, whereas now news travels the same Coffee House, the great mart of the day, their distance in about seven minutes. The intimation offices being in Aldersgate Street, whilst Mr. that “Mr. Fox will dine at Guildhall as well as Christie's sales were chiefly conducted at his great Mr. Pitt"; that Mr. Kemble and Mrs. Siddons room in Pall Mall, No. 125, adjoining the house in were playing the leading roles in Richard III.' which Gainsborough set up his studio when he

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arrived in London from Bath in 1774. The ad us try the largest first. Cassell's 'Encyclopædic' vertisements of Skinner, Dyke & Skinner, and says, British, of or pertaining to Britain.' James Christie are for the most part of country Well, that is no use, because we have no definition estates, of little general interest now; but at this of Britain, wbich, like British, is the point ; period both firms were about equally well known besides, Haydn told us Britain was merged into as auctioneers of pictures and objects of art. England.

But quite the most interesting reflection which Well, now Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary,' 1882. will be forced upon one in connexion with this It simply copies Cassell's, or vice versa. Now then, facsimile is the exceedingly easy duties of the Nuttall (an edition of about 1880): “British, editor of a daily newspaper in 1796 as compared pertaining to Britain, or Great Britain, or its with those a century later. A pair of scissors, a pot inhabitants"; but in another edition, 1893, the of paste and one of beer were apparently the chief Rev. James Wood, the editor, seems to have had weapons of the editor of 1796, supplemented by an bis suspicions, for he has left out the words occasional paragraph or two written all out of his “Britain or," unless this was simply done without own head." In this particular issue of the Times reflection, to make it shorter. there are fifty-two lines of the editor's own com- So that an Irishman, a Frenchman, a German, position—the sum total of its original matter. or Chinese, if he is “an inhabitant,” is a Britisher, There were in 1796 po early newspaper trains to which of course cannot be, for å man born in catch, no leader-writers to supervise, no sporting England must be an Englisher, one born in intelligence to overlook, no slaving from 3 P.M. Wales a Welsber, &c. until 4 A.M. What a Golden Age for editors of Let us try Percy Smith's most useful 'Glossary daily newspapers !

W. ROBERTS. of Terms and Phrases,' 1889. No. Like Nuttall, Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham Common, it gives " British gum," and " British seas," and

Britisb ship,”“one owned by a British subject,"

but no definition, BRITISH.

Well, Dr. Browers 'Phrase and Fable 'hardly I am writing aboat Everard Digby, the author ever fails one. He gives some interesting informaof . De Arte Natandi,' the first book published in tion about the British lion, but not what I want, England on swimming in the year 1687, and I though under "Britain" we get near it, for bé wanted to say (of course with pride) that he was says Great Britain consists of Britannia prima an Englishman pare and simple, and not a (England), Britannia secunda (Wales), and North Britisher. That is, be lived before the union of Britain (Scotland). The natives of these countries, England and Scotland, when James I. came to the I apprehend, are all Britishers when they act throne. At least that is my notion of a Britisher.* in concert ; but I want a book that tells me

I have a bad habit now of looking out for the exactly. One more chance : Wharton's Law accepted (or rather dictionary), meaning of words Lexicon.' No. It defines "bridge," and " brief," to see if I am right-a bad habit, because, as and “British Columbia," but plain British " you will be seen by the following observations, it are supposed to know. almost invariably leads one into endless searches, that take up time. So let us see what the authori. must wait until I can go to a library. In the mean

Having exhausted my books, it is clear that I ties say about British, and, as I have a bad memory time I may remark that I never use the word for dates, what was the date of this so-called union. British if English will do. If I am abroad I

Ab! Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates' is sure to call everything English-whether Scotch, Welsb, give me both under “ British.” No. All sorts of British institutions and British Museum. Under it to the country it belongs to if possible, or

or Irish-if I am proud of it; but if bad I assign * Britain” we are told the kingdom merged into repudiate it as not English. Sometimes the result that of England 874; but that is a British or is curious, as in talking of one of the magnificent Britain that I am not concerning myself with ships which you know are built in Scotland and DOW. Under “England" we get the date of hail, say, from Glasgow. An Englishman abroad James VI.'s accession to the English throne, 1603 ; is proud of her, so, in reply to what country, she bat no explanation of British. Most of the

belongs to, "la bello Havraise " is informed she is institutions called British are not British at all, English. You cannot go into details, and say, but parely English, unless the fact of Scotsmen well, probably she is built in Scotland by Irishmen coming to England, remaining permanently there, and much of the materials and inventions are from and joining these institutions makes them British. England. What would a Scotsman answer? Would

Ah! I see it is the English dictionary I must be reply British ("Breeteesh"), or Anglais, or go to ; but it is Sunday, and I bave very few. Let Écossais ?

At Marseilles there is a tradesman who has Though writton some months ago, this note may be taken in some sort as a reply to that entitled Great

“ British butcher" painted over his shop. This Britain or England' (gld S. x. 456).

always puzzled me, even before I looked up this

Let us

question, because I thought a man must be either nothing of the kind is to be found ;* but under an Englishman or a Scotsman, unless spoken of "Great Britain” we are told it is divided into collectively, such as in the navy or army, when, of three parts—England, Scotland, and Wales. course, English, Scotch, and Welsh are properly The Gazetteer of the British Isles,' edited by spoken of as British. He was, perhaps, acquainted John Bartholomew, Edin. (1893 ?), gives no with Scotch prejudices, and thought to catch definition of British, Britain, nor British Isles, Scots as well as Englisb.

I need not search further, as they are all about The French do not take to the word “British,"* the same ; but, lastly, let us see what an American probably because they have Anglais," which says. Lippincott's" Gazetteer of the World, formerly, I believe, included all English-speaking Philadelphia, 1880, under “British Empire,” refers people; but of late years Americans have travelled to Great Britain, where it says : Great Britain or in such numbers that it does not now include Britain is England, Wales, and Scotland, but the them.

“British Isles are the United Kingdom of Great I have referred above to the “ so-called union,” Britain and Ireland." This is not large enough, What kind of a union is it when each country has however; it should have added the isles of Guernsey, separate laws ? For legal matters Scotland is as Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, for incidentally I may much a foreign country as France ; for you cannot say that the legislature found it pecessary to serve an English process in Scotland or France define British Islands, and in all Acts of Parlia.. without leave of a judge. It is much better than ment passed after 31 Dec., 1889, those words meanı it was some years ago, when a Scotsman could the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, and come to England, run up large bills, return to the Isle of Man (Stroud's 'Judicial Dictionary," Scotland, and flip bis fingers at his creditors. It is 1890). It would thus appear that the editor of the same with Ireland; and yet, though we never Nuttall was not right in leaving out “ Britain or." conquered Scotland, we always pretend we did The whole thing seems to show that they none Ireland. It is not much of a conquest of a country of them know much about, or at all events are not when it still keeps its own laws. Of course, the thoroughly certain about the matter. above instance is only supposition—"make believe," suppose à man born in Ireland, or, better still, as the children say—no one would suspect either instead of supposing I will give an actual case, Scotsmen or Irishmen of doing such a dishonest that of a valiant soldier who served his country thing.

faithfully for twenty years-John Leahy, taken An English judgment solemnly pronounced by from his own account in his 'Art of Swimming,' the most powerful lord we have is mere waste- 1875. He is a Corker, having been born in the paper in Scotland or Ireland, until it has gone county of Cork, where at the age of through the required legal process to make it worth enlisted in our army (“our” neatly avoids English: anything in those two countries respectively. and British), and is brought to England, where he

The Union I have been referring to is that of is forth with attached to a Scotch regiment, 78th the accession of James I.; but I need not say that Highlanders, and for the rest of his military career: this was only a union of the two crowns, the poses before the natives of India as a Scotsmanı "real" (?) union was not until the Act of 5 Anne, (I presume in Scots dress). He comes back to C. 8, 1 May, 1707; the latter is as much a sbam England, where he remains, an Irishman stil) (?). as the former, so far as the law is concerned. though if he met any of those Indian natives they

Probably one must not expect any explanation of would, of course, look upon him as a Scotsman im & word from gazetteers—at all events, if you did England. In 1868 he joined the Eton College you would not get it ; still it is worth while seeing Rifle Corps, when we find, from his book above wbat they have to say.

referred to, he had left off the Highland dress, I have the tenth edition, 1797, of R. Brooke's as he is represented teaching the college boys 'General Gazetteer'; it does not give British at swimming, in layman's costume.t all. In a subsequent new edition, 1869, we are informed in the preface that the "first edition

* I thought I must have made some mistake, so I was issued to British readers” in 1762. Under referred to an experienced literary friend, who con: “ British America" we are told that “this extensive firmed me, with the observation that "there was hardly territory will be found under ton heads, under the a page of any of our books of reference that could be head of “British Empire.” Under that heading relied on.” I have thought this, but felt that people in

glass houses must not throw stones, and prefer to let:

some one else say it. * Nor do the English; they use the word more + I use the word “costume" in its ordinary sense! generally of late years, in consequence of a kind of bere; it does not mean none, as it does at our swimming boycotting threat from the Scotch-at least, so I have entertainments, where it means not a costume, but a beon informed. There was a long discussion in the tight-fitting body and double drawers, made according to Times some years ago, and the Scotch writers told us the laws of the Amateur Swimming Association. I am that if we did not use the term British they would leave quite prepared to find, in a few years’time, that the word off building our ships.

will be solely applied in this latter meaning. The swim

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