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4. Showers on ... Meant literally, referring to an Eastern coronation ceremony in which the prince was showered with pearls and gold dust.
5. Merit. (?) 6. Bad. (?) 6-8. And, from despair thus high. What does this mean? 11-42. What are Satan's purposes in this speech ?
11-14. What is his excuse for calling them “ Deities of Heaven"
"? 18. Just right. Observe the effect of “just." 42. Who can advise, may speak. Does this include all ? 44. Why “strongest and fiercest” ? See note on 392, B. I.
51-105. My sentence. Show how Moloch's speech bears out his character as a personification of one of the Seven Deadly Sins.
Make an outline of Moloch's speech, and study it as an example of persuasion.
67. Black fire. (?)
69. Tartarean. Of Tartarus, the lowest of the regions of Hades.
73. Bethink them. What is the object of " bethink" ? Drench. Draught or drink. 74. Forgetful lake. See note on “ Oblivious pool," B. I., 266.
Why does Milton say that “in our proper motion, we ascend” ? See line 81, B. II.
113. Could make the worse appear the better reason. This was said of the Greek Sophists in the time of Socrates.
119–225. Study this as an answer to Moloch's speech. Make an outline of this speech. What is Belial's predominant characteristic ?
131-134. Image this.
229-283. Outline this speech and compare it with those of Moloch and Beliai. Which makes the strongest argument ? Does argument or desire win the day ? What is the motive in the advice of each ?
284-290. Murmur. Students who have had the Æneid or Tiad should find and produce in class the passages similar to this.
310-378. Thrones. Make an outline of this speech. Compare the arguments with those of the previous speakers.
345–378. Enterprise. Note how Beëlzebub echoes and emphasizes his chief's hinted plan given in lines 850–656, B. I.
Note carefully how the new race of Man here becomes an important factor in the scheme of the poem.
390-416. The plan has now been exposed : study Satan's method of making himself its executor, B. II., 430-466. What other might have volunteered ?
410. Isle. What Isle?
418. Suspense. Here an adjective. See Webster's International Dictionary.
438–444. Void profound. A great void in Chaos outside the gates of Hell. See B. II., 932-933; also Fig. 4, p. xxxi.
457. Intend. Attend to matters at home.
506. Stygian council. Example of ascription, by Milton and other early English writers, of classical names to the Christian Hell.
506–513. Image this. Globe. (?) Emblazonry. (?) Horrent. (?)
514. Cry. Call out, as does a herald.
533–535. Troubled sky. See Julius Cæsar, Act II., sc. 2, lines 19 and 20.
539. Typhean. See note on B. I., 199. As a personification of volcanic energy, Typhon hurled rocks against the sky.
542-545. Alcides. Hercules. See death of Hercules in classical dictionary, mythology, or encyclopædia.
Places named may be found on Map of Classical References, P. Xxxvii.
559. Providence, foreknowledge, etc. Subjects upon which large volumes were written by early theologians. Does Milton give his own opinion in B. II., 565 ?
576–614. Infernal rivers. See Chart of Hell, p. xxix. See also mythology, or Encyc. Brit., Index. The poem itself, however, gives a complete characterization of the four rivers of Hell. The name of each in Greek signifies the characteristic given it by Milton.
592. Serbonian bog. See International Dictionary, Stand ard Dictionary, or any encyclopædia. See Map of Egypt and Arabia, p. xxxix.
593. Damiata. Ancient city near the site of old Pelusium. See Map of Egypt and Arabia, p. xxxix. Many editors have identified Damiata with the modern Damietta at the eastern mouth of the Nile. A careful study of a good map of ancient Egypt in connection with this passage of the poem will show the impossi. bility of identifying Damiata with the modern Damietta ; for a march between Damietta and Mt. Casius would have been impossible at any time in history, as the sea deeply indents Egypt to the east of Damietta. Besides, Pelusium was the city from which the Egyptians commenced their eastward marches, and toward which invading armies directed their marches.
Mount Casius. A sand hill on the Mediterranean coast, north of the center of the Serbonian bog. See Map of Egypt and Arabia, p. xxxix.
611. Medusa. See dictionary or encyclopædia. 614. Tantalus. See dictionary or encyclopædia.
628. Gorgons, hydras, chimeras. See dictionary or ency. clopædia
629–1065. In the study of these lines, nothing should draw the pupil away from the use of his imagination. Notes and references often serve to do this. Study, not about the poem, but the poem. Imagine Satan as he “shaves with level wing the deep,” etc.
638. Bengala. Poetical form of Bengal, in India.
Ternate and Tidore. Two of the Spice Islands, or Moluccas, in the East Indies. Imagine the sailing of the ships as compared with Satan's flight.
641. Wide Ethiopian to the Cape. Through the Indian Ocean to the Cape of Good Hope.
655. Cerberean. See dictionary.
661. Calabria. Once the name of that part of Italy opposite Sicily.
Trinacria. The coast of Sicily opposite Italy.
662. Night-hag. " From the Scandinavian mythology, in which night-hags, riding through the air, and requiring infant blood for their incantations, are common, and Lapland is their favorite region." - Masson.
708. A comet. Considered as an omen of war and pestilence. Keep this in mind in imagining this comparison.
709. Ophiuchus. A huge constellation in the northern hemisphere. Otherwise called Serpentarius. Study the comparison.
716. Caspian. Caspian Sea, noted for terrific thunder-storms. Let this conception aid in imagining the combatants.