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HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
AUG 2 2 1956
HARVARDIJNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
MONROE GUTMAN LIBRARY
Journal of Education
conveniently located does not appear, unless
Suggestions to Teachers.-A Sense of Justice.--For
TEACHERS will be much interested in the
article on "Coördination of Studies," in the
Two Problems in University Extension. The
make all parts of it help and support each
ELSEWHERE in this number attention is HAS not the time fully come for taking steps
high school grade in this State? It is very low,
necessary while the high schools of the State
- need of creating local centers of secondary
education. But the time of this weakness and
deficiency has passed. We have now nearly
them. This plan has been tried with success made up of the schools of larger cities, which
self-complacency of some of our cities--and CONCERNING the attitude of the Catholic superintendents. church towards the public schools the mission of Monsignor Satolli to this country promises
A NEW DEPARTURE. to help to a better understanding. As legate Sup't Patzer, of Manitowoc county, has seof the Pope he has said, “ The Holy See, far cured from the county board of his county, an from condemning or treating with in
in- appropriation which will enable him to employ difference the
public schools, desires from six to ten teachers, and pay them $2.50 rather that, by the joint action of civil and a day and expenses each, not more than four ecclesiastical authority, there should be public days, to conduct examinations under the schools in every State," and recommends three course of study for common schools. plans, to be followed according to circum- We suppose that this means that candidates stances: catechism classes for Catholic chil- for promotion and for graduation, will be gathdren in the school house, but out of school ered at one or two central points in each town, hours; or in other buildings where this is and will be examined by the examiners on necessary; or parochial schools with such aids written questions prepared by the county sufor Catholic children in the public schools. perintendent, with perhaps also an oral examThis seems to be a rational solution of the ination. question. As the Catholic World says: "If Certainly in some counties there have been the Church were opposed to the public found teachers who could not be trusted to schools she could not consistently allow her examine their own pupils for graduation, and members to teach therein. There would be even if they could be trusted, the honest difmore sin in allowing Catholic teachers to of- ferences in marking are so great as to make a ficer and promote the public schools than in diploma based on each teacher's examination allowing Catholic children to attend them. If of his own pupils of very little value. these institutions were godless, damnable, It is well known that an examination by a contaminating and destructive of morals, it stranger is more severe upon a class than an would be a greater crime to let Catholic examination by their own teacher, supposing teachers continue agents of the system than to each to be intrinsically equivalent, merely tolerate Catholic children becoming victims because the pupils are accustomed to their thereof."
own teacher's modes of thought and expresAs was to be expected, Dr. Rice's Forum sion. So that it will not be surprising if the articles are stirring quite a breeze. Education number who pass these examinations shall be uses hard words in its indignation over the less than under the old way. Such a fact will doctor who has “abandoned physicking his not necessarily be any reflection upon the patients" and turned, after a study of German teacher. pedagogy, to “diagnose the condition” of We should be glad to see this process of American schools and administer purgatives, employing a few of the best teachers as assistsedatives or tonics, even if necessary, heroic ant county superintendents carried further, and treatment with appropriate surgery;" and "has that it might lead to a system of town inspectvirtually slandered the true educational pub- ors appointed from among the teachers. The lic, nowhere more intelligent, progressive and weakness of the county superintendent sysdetermined than in"-Cincinnati. The Public tem is that from the number of schools and School Journal, on the other hand, says: their scattered location, the inspection is nec“His report of the Indianapolis schools fails essarily infrequent and unsatisfactory. At in completeness, in that he has not pointed least two or three visits of a half day each in out some defects that are obvious to a man a term ought to be given. But the work of a without his bias who knows them." However, county superintendent needs to be supple"Dr. Rice's comparison of the schools of Cin- mented by town inspectors to accomplish this, cinnati and Buffalo, as the Board of Educa- and give country schools anything like the intion in the former city and the superintendent spection that city schools receive. W.
It is by a proper development of the superinWe have called attention recently to the tendency that a career in educational work may growing importance of the school superintend- be opened up to young men of talent. Good ent. This is due to the new conception of his high school positions become naturally more duties now prevalent. He is no longer a mere and more difficult to attain without adequate business manager; much less is he a mere sta- preparation and experience. Beyond them tistician, whose place is behind his desk and properly lies the superintendency, with greater whose business is to collate reports and look responsibilities, higher remuneration and thereafter the red tape of the system. Rather he is fore still more exigent demands for native the educational expert, who is to determine power and thorough preparation on the part the character and life of the schools, to guide, of aspirants.
S. instruct and judge the teachers, and to see to it that the most rational ends are sought and
THE NEW TESTS OF SCHOOL WORK. sought by the best means. The study of ped- President Eliot's paper in the Forum, “In agogy is at length beginning to bear definite What the Public School has Failed,” is very fruit. It is making more and more clear what suggestive reading.
suggestive reading. The point of view comthese rational ends are, and raising up a body mends itself at once.
This is not scholastic, of competent critics who are capable of judg- but practical, and estimates the school as an ing whether they are attained, and how well instrumentality for creating an intelligent and the means employed are adjusted to the attain- capable citizenship. He is impressed with the ment of them. Thus in every criticism of city unrest, discontent, superstition and lack of systems it is the superintendent primarily who practical wisdom apparent in American life. is under fire, since serious general defects are The schools have not remedied these things, obviously due either to his ignorance or to his chiefly for the reason, as it seems to the inefficiency. When Dr. Rice shows us, as he writer, that they have failed to develop a radoes in late numbers of the Forum, the ridicu- tional habit of mind, have not indeed clearly lously wooden work of some of the St. Louis conceived as yet that this is their high misschools, or the jejune and effete teaching in sion. He proceeds to show in some detail some of those of Cincinnati, it is impossible how the cultivation of habits of observation, not to ask, what of the city superintendents? of accuracy, and of clear expression as the The critic kindly points out the great difficul- means of securing clear thought, might be ties to be overcome in the effort to introduce carried on in the schools and lead to a great reform; he knows well the baneful influence of improvement in our citizenship. With all the ward politician in determining the appoint- this we are in hearty sympathy. It is emiment of teachers, and he understands how dif- nently desirable that teachers and superinficult it is to rid the schools of incompetents tendents should continually look upon school who are retained in their places by inflexible work from this point of view. And that custom and local prejudices. But still one means that we must give over the habit of asks, what of the superintendent? It is one of judging it by externals, such as formal order his prime duties to fight these evils. He ought and military movement, or by merely scholasnot only to know the defects, but also to con- tic standards, such as are tested by class-marktend vigorously with them. He must work in ings and examinations, and bring ourselves to the system to improve it by elevating the estimating its effects on character, both moral ideals and increasing the knowledge of his and intellectual. Just here it is necessary to teachers; and without the system, by making guard against the insidious error of the pure those in authority understand the defects, and, disciplinarian. He maintains that training is if need be, by arousing public sentiment to the chief object of school work, but conceives support measures of reform. His position is a training in an abstract fashion, so that, for exdifficult and arduous one. The logic of the ample, the mathematics and the classics are case calls for a large increase of his authority, his favorite instruments.
He fails to recogthat a fuller measure of responsibility may rest nize that these studies are apt to develop an
As in municipal government, so in aloofness from practical affairs, a scholastic school affairs, we have erred by dividing au- and abstract habit of thought, which thwarts thority and thus weakening responsibility. completely the ends in view. Pupils must be But the remedy is at hand. The first step led not only to think and express themselves towards it is the development of genuine edu- clearly, but also to think and express themselves cational experts, men not only of broad culture clearly about things. This phrase again is misand administrative ability, but of thorough leading, because of its constant use by the special knowledge and technical experience. advocates of purely scientific studies. The