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This is denoted by the sign te, except in the third person singular, where it is changed to e: in this tense, as in the past, oo is used for the first personal pronoun, instead of te, because te being also the sign of the tense, the repetition would create confusion in the signification, tété meaning almost. In this tense it must also be noticed, that the third personal sign instead of being e is sometimes changed to ténne, and the pronoun ia omitted: but this is for the most part optional, (See rule 4 of the pronouns.)

Singular. Téoo a'loo.

I shall

go. Te ger a'loo.

Thou shall

go. E a'loo ia, (or ténne a'loo). He shall go.

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the deficiency both of a modal and temporal sign: it has the second person singular, and the first and second persons dual and plural. In the second person singular, the pronoun coy or subject of the verb comes after it; but in the first and second persons dual and plural, the pronouns tow and mo come before the verb, and the pronouns that distinguish the numbers follow the verb.

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Tow a'loo gito'wtoloo. Let us go, (you, I, &c.)
Mo a'loo gimo'to'loo. Go ye, (ye three or more).

The first person dual and plural of this mood cannot be used unless the person or persons spoken to are requested to include themselves also; as in the phrase tow aloo, let us go, the person spoken to is requested or ordered to go likewise; for in no other sense can the first person dual and plural be rationally used in this mood. With this exception, therefore, the imperative or precative mood consists, as it ought to do, of the second person only in each number; but even the first person dual and plural when the pronoun tow is used, cannot altogether be considered irrational. All other forms that may be conceived to belong to this mood must be expressed by the help of the subjunctive mood, discovering the object or purpose for which the command is made; according to these forms, as, make no noise that we may sleep, (i. e. let us sleep, using mow for the pronoun); let him go, (i. e. permit or grant that he may go), &c.


There is but one form in this mood, and that is denoted by the sign ger, and is applicable to any tense, as,

Ger te a'loo.
Ger ger a'loo.
Ger a'loo ia.


Ger mow a'loo gimo'wooa.
Ger tow a'loo gitowooa.
Ger mo a'loo gimo'ooa.
Ger now a'loo gino'wooa.


Ger mow aloo gimow to loo.
Ger tow a'loo gitow to'loo.
Ger mo a'loo gimoto'loo.
Ger now a'loo ginowto'loo.

It is not always necessary, however, in the Tonga verbs, to distinguish between the dual and plural numbers; for the indefinite plural, i. e. without the pronouns ending in odla and ta'loo, is often used : this is done when the former part of the sentence sufficiently indicates whether it is dual or plural; or where an uncertain number (two or more) is spoken of; or where precise accuracy is not required. An example of the verb without these dual and plural pronouns will be useful to bring into one view the simplicity of its construction: : we shall take the verb mo'he, to sleep.

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Ger te mo'he.
Ger ger mo'he.
Ger mohe ja.

Ger mow (or tovy) mohe.
Ger mo mo'he,
Ger now moshe.

The third person of the past tense may be changed from na mo'he ia, into nali mohe. The third person of the future may be changed from e mo'he ia, into ténne mo'he. If the dual number is required to be expressed, it must be done by the addition of the pronouns ending in oo'a ; if the plural, by those ending in to'loo.

In respect to that form of the verb usually called the infinitive mood, it must be acknowledged, that the Tonga verb has very little claim to a distinction of this kind: but with a view to shew how the infinitive mood in our own language is to be expressed in this, we shall make a few observations respecting it.

There are three points of view in which we may consider the infinitive mood of our own language, with regard to its translation into Tonga, viz. first, where object, scope, or purpose is signified: as, he came here to fight; I went there to sleep, &c.; i. e. for the purpose of fighting, of sleeping, &c.: secondly, where wish or desire is signified : as, I want to eat; I wish to die : thirdly, where the infinitive mood assumes still more evidently the nature of a noun, allowing (even in English) an adjective expressive of its quality : as, to sleep is refreshing; to die is awful.

In the first case, that is to say, where object, scope, or purpose is signified, the particle ger must be put before the

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