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.14 וְאַנְמוֹן יוֹם אֶחָך : זָקֵן
וּנְשׂוּא־פָנִים הוּא הָרִאשׁ et Prophetae, falsa docentes, sunt וְנָבִיא מוֹרֶה־שֶׁקֶר הוּא ,15 הַזָנָב: וַיִהְיוּ מְאַשְׁרֵי הָעָם־
הַזֶּה מַתְעִים וּמְאֲשָׁרָיו .16 מְבָלָעָם: עַל־כֵּן עַל־
בַּחוּרָיו לֹא־יִשְׂמַח אֲדֹנָי וְאֶת־יְרֹמָיו וְאֶת־אַלְמְנוֹתָיו et pupillorum snorum et viduarum לֹא יְרַחֵם כִּי כָלוֹ חָנֵף וּמֵרָע וְכָל־פֶה דְּבֵר נְבָלָה ,nam omnes impiict malefactores
לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ בְּכָל־זאת וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה:
[Seniores et honorati sunt caput,
, cauda.] Sunt ducentes populum hunc se
ducentes, et dụcti eorum pereuntes. Idcirco de juvenibus suis non
suarum non miserebitur;
et omnis os loquitur scelesta.
In omni hoc non cessat ira ejus, et adhuc manus ejus extensa.
they do not seek Jehovah of hosts.
the branch and the rush in one day.
and the prophets that teach falsehood, they are tbe tail.] 15. They that lead this people, lead them astray,
and they that are led by them perish. 16. Therefore over their young men the Lord will not rejoice,
and on their orphans and their widows he will not bave
For all this his anger is not turned away,
ENODATION OF THE LETTER. Ver. 12-16. Second stanza. The people, notwithstanding the calamities it has experienced, does not see the hand of the Judge who punishes them, nor turn itself to him. The corruption of the people is general, proceeding from the leaders them
selves; wherefore the Lord will destroy both the nobles and the populace.
- Nj is often construed with Ty, which properly means until [usque ad], and thence, simply, to [ad]: as Ch. xix. 22, Deut. iv. 30, Ps. Ixv. 3.
- 1297, the article and the suffix used together, which is an exception to the grammatical rule.
Ver. 13. This sentence is a sequel to the former, expressing its consequences ; like ver. 10.— The head and the tail, a proverbial phrase, used here and ch. xix. 15, Deut. xxviii. 13, 44. The leader in any affair is called the head; they who only follow, and are themselves of no consideration, are called the tail. The same sense results from the other metaphor, taken from the vegetable kingdom (see ch. xix. 15), in which a branch of the noble palm-tree is contrasted with the low rush that grows in marshy places.-If this verse be compared with the third and fourth stanzas, it will evidently appear that such threatenings are not to be interpreted literally, and in the strictest sense; for the Prophet afterwards threatens with new punishments the very persons who are here said to be cut off. We are not, however, to suppose, on this account, that the stanzas should be transposed, or that the last is spurious.
Ver. 14. There are many and most weighty reasons for regarding this verse as a gloss, added by some ancient possessor of this oracle to explain the proverbial phrase head and tail. (1.) It is scarcely credible that the prophet in the midst of a poetical discourse, should so prosaically have explained a proverbial phrase, in itself so easy of comprehension, and one which must have been quite familiar to all the families from the stock of Shem, whilst he left without explanation the more difficult phrase, palm and rush. (2.) The explication appears to be false. According to the use of the kindred dialects and parallel passages, the heud and tail, like the palm and rush, can hardly signify any thing else, than the higher and lower ranks of people; especially as, according to ver. 15, 16, the whole people was to suffer punishment. Yet disregarding the plain contrast, the author of the gloss explains the tail to be the false prophets; which seems to discover him to have lived at a very ancient period, while the conflict with false prophets still existed, whom he wished to stigmatize as the dregs of the people. A similar apposition occurs ch. xxix. 10, where the (true) prophets are called the eyes and heads of the people. (3.) The style of this verse betrays it to be a gloss, in the word 8:16-that is; an expression which in Hebrew' and Arabic is prefixed when a gloss is introduced. The case is altogether different when a true explanation of any matter, and one necessary to be known, is added by an historical writer, as in Gen. xiv. 7, 8, 17, xxiii. 19, xxxv. 19, Deut. iv. 48. (4.) This verse interrupts the rythmical plan of the oracle, according to which each stanza consists of four verses, whereas this, on the other hand, contains five.
Ver. 15. This is not to be explained of the false prophets, but, like the parallel passage, ch. iii. 12, of the nobles, who seduced the people.
Ver. 16. D'7na, Young men, are the younge soldiers: chap. xxxi. 8, xviii. 21 (comp. 7975), Ps. cx. 3). The very word sau, which properly means to bereave of children, is used simply for the slaying of the young warriors, in Deut. xxxii. 25, Sam. i. 20, Jer. xv. 7. Orphans and widows are mentioned for the indigent and destitute among the people, who are contrasted with the '772, the stout, the hale, and the active. The sense then is, The young warriors, in whom Jehovah formerly rejoiced, he now delivers to be slain in battle: on the widows and orphans who formerly were his care, he has mercy no longer.-In, a profane impious person: 7747), foolishness, for impiety : see ch. xxxii
. 6. They sin both in words and deeds.
INTERNAL Sense. Ver. 13, 14. Jehovah will cut off from Israel the head and the tail, the branch and the rush: the aged and the honoured, he is the head, but the prophet, the teacher of a lie, he is the tail. These words mean, that all intelligence and wisdom would perish, and all the science of truth. The head signifies intelligence and wisdom, therefore it is said, the aged and the honoured is the head, for the aged signifies the intelligence of truth, and the honoured the wisdom of good : but the tail signifies the sensual scientific principle, which is the ultimate of intelligence and wisdom; and when this is not conjoined with spiritual intelligence, it becomes a false scientific, or, a scientific applied to confirm falses, which is the sensual scientific, such as belongs to the sensual man, who sees nothing from the understanding : hence it is that the prophet who teacheth a lie is called the tail: for a prophet signifies the doctrine of truth, and hence the science of truth; but in this case the doctrine is the science of the false, for a lie signifies the false, by applying scientifics from the literal sense of the Word to the confirmation of falses., A. L. n. 559.-To cut off the head and the tail, in the spiritual sense, is to cut off good and truth; for the subject is the church, which, when devastated, the head signifies evil, and the tail, the false. The head signifies good: 80 does an old man. A prophet is one who teaches truth, thus, abstractedly,
truth. In the opposite sense, therefore, the head denotes evil: so do the i aged and the honoured who commit it: and the tail denotes the false;
so does the prophet, whence he is called the prophet of a lie, for a lie is what is false. A. C. 10,071.-Since it is maintained throughout the Christain Church that imputation depends upon God's free pleasure, coupled with this abominable conceit, that God does not attend to the actions of man's life, but only to the faith inscribed on the interiors of his mind; and since the whole system of modern theology depends upon this very doctrine of imputation, just as a long chain hangs from the hook to which it is affixed, or as the body with all its members is dependent on the head; the words of Isaiah, ch. ix. 13, 14, are fulfilled. T.C.R. n. 628.
.II[. Ardet, sicut ignis, malitia, qui sentem et veprem consumit, et incendit implexa silvæ,
tuum exardescit terra, populus evadit quasi cibus ignis, alter alteri non parcet.
.17 כִּי־בָעֲרָה כָאֵשׁ רִשְׁעָה שָׁמִיר וָשַׁיִת תּאכַל וַתְּצת
בְּסִבְרֵי הַיַעַר וַיִתְאַבְּכוּ .et sursum feruntur elatione fumi .18 גֵאוּת עָשָׁן: בְּעֶבְרַת יְהוָה -Prae excandestia Jehovae exerci
צְבָאוֹת גֶעְתּם אָרֶץ וַיְהִי
הָעָם כְּמַאֲבֹלֶת אֵשׁ אִישׁ .19 אֶל־אָחִיו לֹא יַחְמֹלוּ: וַיִנְדֹר ,Comedunt addextram, et esuriunt
וְרָעָב וַיֹּאכַל -vorant ad sinistrum, neque satu עַל־יָמִין וְרָעֵב
על־שְׂמאל וְלֹא שָׂבְעוּ אִישׁ .20 בְּשַׂר־זְרְעוֹ יאכַלְוּ: מְנַשֶׁה
אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם וְאֶפְרַיִם אֶת־ Manasse contra Ephraimum, et מְנַשֶׁה יַחְדָּו הֵמָּה עַל־ ,Ephraimus contra Manassen יְהוּדָה בְּכָל זאת לא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה:
rantur; quisque carnem brachii sui con
simul isti contra Jehndam.
In omni hoc non cessat ira ejus, et adhuc manus ejus extensa.
it consumeth the briar and the thorn,
and they are borne up with the rising of the smoke.
they will not spare one another.
they devour on the left, and are not satisfied;
they devour, every one, the flesh of his own arm.
For all this bis anger is not turned away,
ENODATION OF THE LETTOR. Third Stanza. The two first verses express metaphorically, what the two last repeat in direct terms. This is in the prophet's usual manner: comp. ch. i. 5, 6, 7, 22, 23, 25, 26, č. 12, et seq. iii. 2, 3, 14, 15. The people shall be destroyed by their own wickedness, breaking out in civil wars. This is first expressed by the metaphor of a fire, which, being kindled in the thickets and close-set parts of the forest, soon consures the whole (ver. 17, 18): Then is described the fury of various parties tearing each other to pieces. The figurative language now (ver. 18) passes into such as is plain and direct: the image of a fire is, indeed, still retained; but it now is represented as consuming the land and people, not, as before, the thickets of the forest
. In ch. xix. 1, et seq. also, the stirring up of civil wars is ascribed to Jehovah.
Ver. 1). The people are consumed by the fire of their own wickedness (comp. i. 31). The metaphor is taken from a thorn-brake and thicket of the forest on fire. For thorns denote impiety: Micah vii. 4: comp. Nah. i. 10, Ps. Iviii. 10: whence the destruction of the wicked is often compared to the burning-up of thorns and brambles; ch. xxxii. 12, Ps. cxviii 12. Thorns and brambles represent a dangerous army, below, ch. x. 17.- 209 nani and kindleth the thickets of the forest. 133 and 3', in Hiphil, is often construed with ) : but here the construction is like that of ? NPT, to make a slaughter among (the enemy), 2 Sam. xxiii. 10: whereas 172,7 without ? is to rout (the enemy): so here: maketh a conflagration [incendium efficit] Among the thickets of the forest. So also, 219, 2 Chron. xxviii. 9, Ps. lxxviii. 31. xin to bear something thence, Job. vii. 13, Num. xi. 17. to labour in any matter : 1728 na nun. Ex. v. 9, 1 Ks. ix. 23.–
MIX: 328m), that they may be rolled together (i. e. the thickets of the forest) with the ascent of the smoke: that is, that they may turn to smoke.-1998ņ, being ăxa£ noyópavor (a word that occurs but this once), is liable to difficulties. It probably is a kin to ja ole to be confused, to confound oneself, and is predicated here of convolved, circumvolved, and so ascending volumes of smoke. Thus the Vulgate,“
convolvetur superbia fumi” (shall be rolled together with the pride of smoke.) It seems related to 7777, which properly signifies he turns himself, he is turned, and is used Jud. vii, 13, for to roll himself; as intermediate to which comparison the Arabic
pax, a denominative from PZx, dust, and so may mean to turn to dust; and
may serve which
افک ,הִתְאַבֵּק It may also be the same as .הפך is equivalent to the Hebrew