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him with reverential deference. When every other Protestant in the county had been driven from his home, the English bishop was permitted to remain unmolested.

At the request of the chiefs of the insurgents in the district, he drew up for them a Remonstrance addressed to Government, and in this document the grievances of which they complained are enumerated. The good will entertained towards Bedell was highly useful to the Protestants of his neighbourhood. “Not only his house and all the outbuildings, but the church and churchyard were full of people,” says his biographer; "and many, that a few days before lived in great ease and much plenty, were now glad of a heap of straw or hay to lie upon, and of some boiled wheat to support nature."'2 Swiney, the Romish Bishop of Kilmore, sought permission to live in the episcopal residence, under the pretence of protecting its Protestant occupant and his family from violence; but Bedell, in a letter still extant, modestly declined the offer. “I am sensible,” says he, "reverend brother, of your civility in offering to protect me, by your presence, in the midst of this tumult; and upon the like occasion I would not be wanting to do the like charitable office to you ; but there are many things that hinder me from making use of the favour you now offer me. My house is strait, and contains a great number of miserable people of all ranks and ages, and of both sexes, that have fled hither as to a sanctuary-besides that some of them are sick, among whom my own son is one. But that which is beyond all the rest is the difference of our way of worship—I do not say of our religion-for I have ever thought and published it in my writings, that we have one common Christian religion. Under our present miseries, we comfort ourselves with the reading of the Holy Scriptures, with daily prayers, which we offer up to God in our vulgar tongue, and with the singing of Psalms; and, since we find so little truth among men, we rely on the truth of God, and on his assistance. These things would offend your company, if not your

1 This Remonstrance may be found in Moore's Hist. of Ireland, iv. 223-5 ; and in Burnet's Bedell, pp. 143.5. Dublin, 1736.

Burnet's Bedell, p. 140.

self; nor could others be hindered, who would pretend that they came to see you, if you were among us; and under that colour, those murderers would break in upon us, who after robbing us of all that belongs to us, would, in conclusion, think they did God service by our slaughter. For my own part, I am resolved to trust to the divine protection. To a Christian and a bishop, now almost seventy, no death for the cause of Christ can be bitter; on the contrary, nothing is more desirable."1 For nearly two months after the breaking out of the rebellion, Bedell remained in his residence uninjured ; but the rebels became dissatisfied because he continued to afford protection to so many of his co-religionists; and as he refused to drive away these refugees, he was at length removed to Cloughouter Castle, in Lough Erne, where he was kept about three weeks in confinement. An exchange of prisoners then took place; and, though still obliged to stay in the country, he was permitted to enjoy comparative liberty. His end was now fast approaching; and he died of ague, on the 7th of February, 1642.

The dying prelate had expressed a wish to be buried beside his deceased wife in the churchyard of Kilmore: but the place was now in the possession of the rebels; and it was necessary to obtain leave for the interment from Swiney, the Romish Bishop. This Popish dignitary—who was a miserable sot—had immediately after the removal of Bedell to Loughouter Castle, entered on the occupation of the episcopal mansion. When the messengers sent to ask permission for the funeral reached Kilmore, they found him lying surrounded with filth, in a state of drunken stupor. They at length managed to awake

1 This letter, dated November 11th, 1641, may be found in the original in Burnett's Bedell, pp. 192-3; and in Clogy, pp. 188-90. It supplies proof that a massacre had already taken place in Ulster,

9 Burnet's Bedell, pp. 156.

3 Swiney was Roman Catholic Bishop of Kilmore from A.D. 1630 to A.D. 1669. Brady's Irish Reform, pp. 69, 70. Clogy states that Bedell had entertained the brother of this Bishop at his house, converted him “from Jesuitism to Christianity,” and “preferred ” bim “to a way of livelihood,” p. 188.

4 The story is told by Mr. Clogy, Bedell's son-in-law, who was one of the persons sent to make the request, and who here reports what he saw on the occasion. “We found him," says he, “lying upon a bulster so drunk with

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him, and to make him understand their application. The poor wretch at first objected, saying that the churchyard was holy ground, and that it could not be defiled by the body of a heretic; but a little persuasion elicited his consent. “The Irish,” says his biographer, “did Bedell unusual honours at his burial; for the chief of the rebels gathered their forces together, and with them, accompanied his body . . . to the churchyard of Kilmore in great solemnity. ... The Irish discharged a volley of shot at his interment, and cried out in Latin, Requiescat in pace ultimus Anglorum,—May the last of the English rest in peace,'—for they had often said that, as they esteemed him the best of the English bishops, so he should be the last that should be left among them."1 A Popish priest, who was present, is said to have exclaimed as the body was committed to the grave, “Would to God that my soul were with Bedell.” 2

The history of Bedell is instructive: as it shows how a wise and gracious Christian pastor could win the hearts of men who were little better than untamed savages. The Bishop of Kilmore had done more than any other prelate in the land to enlighten and reclaim Romanists; he was endowed more largely with the spirit of an earnest evangelist than even the learned and amiable Ussher; and yet the rude Irish admired his genuine excellence, loved him when living, and honoured him when dead. The way of evangelical charity, so beautifully exemplified by Bedell, is the true way to the Irish heart. Party spirit is of the earth, earthy; and party demonstrations can only produce irritation and foster prejudice; but the truth, when spoken in love and illustrated by the light of a holy life, cannot fail, sooner or later, to make a happy impression.

It was observed, during the course of the rebellion, that those of the insurgents, most under the influence of Ultra

usque-baugh-having defiled all the room with his filthiness-that when Dr. Dillon [a Roman Catholic who accompanied them] came in, and kneeled before him, as their Popish manner is, he was not able to stretch forth his hand towards him ; but a friar that stood by took up the drunken hand and laid it upon the Popish head that came to assist us in our request.”--Clogy's Memoir, p. 228.

· Burnet's Bedell, p. 169; Clogy, p. 230.

? Reid, i. 338 ; Curry's Historical and Critical Review, p. 191. Dublin, 1810. The name of the priest is said to have been Edmund Farilly. VOL. II.

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montane principles, were also the most implacable and reckless. The darkest shade of superstition was connected with the deadliest ferocity. In December, 1641, an alliance was formed between the native Irish of Ulster and the AngloIrish of the Pale ; this union soon led to a combination of almost all the Romanists of the kingdom; and for ten years Popery reigned without a rival over the greater part of the country. But, throughout all this period, those troops of the Confederacy known to be most zealous for the power of the sovereign Pontiff-particularly those from the northern province—were most noted for their inhumanity and ignorance. It should not, however, be forgotten that the annals of the great Rebellion record many cases in which the kindliness of Irish sympathy triumphed over the brutal dictates of bigotry and intolerance. The mother of Sir Phelim O'Neill saved not a few of the Protestants, who would otherwise have been butchered by her son and his relentless followers; and another of his near relatives protested bitterly against his infamous proceedings. Many of the Romish clergy instigated the mob to deeds of violence, and stained their own hands with blood ;3 but some of them acted very differently. John De Burgo, afterwards Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam, did his utmost to check the dreadful excesses of his countrymen. A priest, named Daly, was obliged to escape from among the

i “The Nuncio himself could not but own that no Tartars ever committed worse ravages than the soldiers of O'Neill (Owen Roe) did ; and pretended to be much offended by the scandal which they brought upon himself by styling themselves the Nuncio's soldiers, whereby they had made the Pope's name so odious among the inhabitants of Meath, that they had recourse to the very Puritans for protection.”_CARTE's Ormonde, i. 575. 2 Examination of Dr. Maxwell. Cox, ii., appendix x., p. 47.

See also an account of the kindness of Lord and Lady Muskerry in Warner, i. 156. See also Stuart's Armagh, p. 372.

3 See a horrible account of the wholesale barbarity and villany of a priest named McGuire in Lord Somers's Tracts, v. 619. See there also other cases of the same character, pp. 615, 618.

* O'Conor's Hist. Address, part i., p. 178. De Burgo was a member of the Clanricarde family,

“the most noble in Connaught of the Anglo-Hibernian race. - Ibid. p. 176. Malachy O'Kelly was now R. C. Archbishop of Tuam. He was killed in battle near Sligo on the 26th of October, 1645. De Burgo succeeded him in 1647

rebels, because he had the courage to preach against murder;? and another priest saved Dr. Pullen, the Protestant Dean of Clonfert, as well as his wife and children, from destruction.2 Two benevolent Franciscans in Cashel hid, under the altar in their chapel, a number of the adherents of the Reformed faith, who, but for this act of kindness, might have fallen a sacrifice to the fury of the rabble.3

It was not to be expected that, amidst scenes of carnage, the Protestants would always exhibit the forgiveness and forbearance befitting their holy faith. Most of them were rough adventurers or soldiers-not habitually acting from the highest and purest motives—and they were often provoked to frightful deeds of reprisal. Sir Charles Coote, the commander of the English troops in Leinster, sadly stained his reputation by his cruelty to the insurgents. Sir William St. Leger, Lord President of Munster, also punished them with barbarous severity:5 In some cases the English soldiers slaughtered even women and children without mercy. The Lords Justices themselves, by their orders, encouraged such atrocities. In a communication addressed to the Earl of Ormond, dated Dublin, 23rd of February, 1642, they tell him to “endeavour with his Majesty's forces, to wound, kill, slay, and destroy, by all the ways and means he may, all the rebels, and their adherents and relievers; and burn, spoil, waste, consume, destroy, and demolish all the places, towns, and houses, where the said rebels are, or have been relieved and harboured, and all the corn and hay there, and kill and destroy all the men therein habiting able to bear arms."? Sir Phelim O'Neill himself could

1 Cox, ii., appendix x., p. 47.
9 Carte's Ormonde, i. 267 ; Cotton's Fasti, iv. 15.
3 Carte's Ormonde, i. 267.

* Leland, iii. 146 ; Warner, i. 134, 150, 182. Coote, who was a man of singular bravery, was himself soon cut off. He was slain at' Trim on the 7th of May, 1642. Leland, iii. 170. Meehan's Confederation of Kilkenny, p. 31. Dublin, 1846.

6 Leland, iii. 154. It is noteworthy that St. Leger, as well as Coote, was soon cut off. He died on the 2nd of July, 1642. His death, it is said, was brought on by grief arising from the deserted condition in which he found himself placed. Carte, i. 341.

6 Leland, iii. 172.

? See this order in the collection of letters appended to Carte's Ormonde, vol. iii., p. 61. London, 1735.

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