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and there is credible evidence that one thousand in all perished there in the same manner. Timid and superstitious survivors were long afterwards struck with terror as they approached the spot; and imagined that they saw the bodies of the martyred Protestants floating on the water. The roads were covered with fugitives-many of them almost in a state of nudity-fleeing for their lives to Dublin or some other place of security.

The Presbyterian pastors had already been driven from the country by High Church intolerance, and were thus graciously preserved from destruction. Many of the best of the Presbyterian colonists, by the same wonderful providence, were placed beyond the reach of the rebels. But the fury of the insurgents fell, with frightful violence, on the episcopal clergy.4 In one district of Ulster, thirty Protestant ministers were murdered. A still greater number, who escaped the sword, died in circumstances of extreme wretchedness. The rebels displayed alike their ignorance and profanity by their treatment of the Word of God. The Bible, when found by them, was torn to pieces, and trampled in the mire. “ This book," they exclaimed, “has bred all the quarrel.”? Strange, indeed,

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1 Temple's History of the Irish Rebellion, pp. 142, 192, 193. Cork, 1766. Roman Catholic writers have a very simple method of getting rid of the evidence in such cases. They ignore contemporary testimony, reject the statements of such well-informed authorities as Temple and Borlase, and refuse to believe the depo. sitions in Trinity College Library. Curry declares that should " these thirty-two volumes of original depositions, with all their dates, be made public,” there would still be “a just and invincible bar to their being credited by any candid or intelligent reader."--Hist. Memoirs, p. 65; fourth edition. Dublin, 1770. It is not strange that Roman Catholic bishops are so much opposed to the study of history as a branch of general education.

Many of these tales of apparitions were told, not by the Protestants, but by the rebels. See Temple, pp. 193, 194, 205. Warner and others have strangely overlooked this fact.

3 Hume's History of England, chap. lv. “ Their hatred to the English . . extended even to the poor cattle-many thousands of which they destroyed with the most senseless and lingering tortures, merely for being English.”—WARNER, i. 106. 4 Reid, i. 329.

5 Ibid. i. 331. Ibid. i. 331. The names of many of the ministers put to death are there given by Reid.

“They have torn it in pieces, kicked it up and down, treading it under foot, with leaping thereon ; they causing a bag-pipe to play the while, laying also the that men who professed to walk in the ways of Patrick, Columbkille, and Columbanus, should have exhibited such hatred to the Holy Scriptures! But they thus only followed the teaching of their present spiritual instructors, and proved how far they had apostatized from the faith of the ancient saints of Ireland.

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The loss of life occasioned by the Irish Rebellion has been very variously estimated. Some have ventured to assert, in the face of the plainest evidence, that there was no massacre at all:1 whilst others have absurdly maintained that the number of the murdered amounted to hundreds of thousands." We do not, perhaps, greatly err if we set down the Protestants who perished by violence, within a year after the commencement of the insurrection, at little less than forty thousand.3 It so happened that two opposite parties at

leaves in the kennel, leaping and trampling thereupon, saying, “A plague on it, this book hath bred all the quarrel,' hoping within three weeks all the Bibles in Ireland should be so used or worse, and that none should be left in the kingdom ; and while two Bibles were in burning, saying, that it was hell-fire that was burning, wishing they had all the Bibles of Christendom that they might use them so. The Remonstrance of the Poor Despoiled and Distressed Ministers of the Gospel in Ireland, presented to the English House of Commons in March 1642, and ordered to be printed by them on the 21st of that month. The facts stated in this Remon. strance are all attested by evidence given on oath appended to it. See Lord Somers's Tracts, vol. v., p. 519. London, 1811.

1 Curry, in his Historical Memoirs of the Irish Rebellion in the year 1641, has endeavoured to show that “few or no murders' were committed at the outbreak of the rebellion ; and Haverty asserts that "nothing can be more unjust and false than to describe the outbreak of this war as a massacre.”Hist. of Ireland, p. 521. It may be truly said, in reply, that nothing can exceed the impudence and falsehood of such statements.

2 It is but fair to inform the reader that the statement of Sir John Temple on this subject has often been misrepresented. His words are : “There being since the Rebellion first broke out unto the time of the Cessation made September 15th, 1643—which was not full two years after-above 300,000 British and Protestants cruelly murdered in cold blood, destroyed some other way, or expelled ord of their habitations . . besides those few which perished in the heat of fight during the war.Hist. of the Rebellion, p. 10. Those “expelled out of their habitations” were far more numerous than those murdered ; but still this calculation must be erroneous ; as at that time there were not 300,000 British Protestants in all Ireland. See p. 52, note (4) of this volume.

According to Sir William Petty (Political Anatomy, chap. iv.) “37,000 were massacred in the first year of the tumults.” Petty was a contemporary ; he was well acquainted with the whole country: he was conversant with calculations of

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different times had an interest in magnifying the slaughter. At an early period of the rebellion, the Roman Catholics sought to strike terror into the settlers by telling of the immense multitudes destroyed ; and, at a subsequent date, the Protestants endeavoured to justify the extensive forfeitures of property by exaggerating the butchery. It is clear that wholesale atrocities-rarely paralleled in the annals of crime—were now perpetrated all over Ireland, but especially in Ulster. The traditions of the country, the testimony of contemporary writers who possessed the best means of information, the proclamations of the government, the acts of

erroneous.

this kind ; and no man in the empire was more competent to form a correct estimate. Clarendon calculates that 40,000 or 50,000 perished. Warner, an English clergyman, who wrote upwards of a century ago, has formed a very low estimate. He states that “the numbers of people killed, upon positive evidence, collected in two years after the insurrection broke out, adding them all together, amounts only to 2,109 ; on the report of other Protestants, 1,619 more ; and, on the report of some of the rebels themselves, a further number of 300, the whole making 4,028. Besides these murders, there is . . . . evidence, on the report of others, of 8,000 killed by ill-usage."Hist., vol. ii., p. 9. The whole number would thus, according to Warner, amount to 12,028. Dr. Reid has shown that Warner's statements, relative to the depositions in Dublin College, are totally

See Hist. of Presb. Church in Ireland, vol. i. 340. * The friars justified their falsehoods by saying that “in all wars, rumours and lies served many times to as good purpose as arms."—WARNER, i. 79. A witness examined on oath, before commissioners appointed for the purpose, on the 22nd of April, 1642, deposed that “the account of the persons killed by the rebels from the time of the beginning of the Rebelion, October 23rd, 1641, unto the month of April following, was, as the priests weekly gave it in, in their several parishes, 105,000.”—TEMPLE, P. 164. According to the testimony of Dr. Maxwell, afterwards Bishop of Kilmore, “the rebels themselves told him that they murdered 954 in one morning in the County of Antrim.” Temple, p. 191. O'Mahony, an Irish Jesuit, in a work published in 1645, confessed that his party had then cut off 150,000 heretics. Reid, i. 338, note. Sir Phelim O'Neill reported that “he killed 600 English at Garvagh, in the County of Derry, and that he had left neither man, woman, nor child alive in the barony of Munterlony in County Tyrone.”—TEMPLE, p. 192.

* See an account of the murder of one hundred English at Shruel in Connaught. Hardiman’s History of Galway, p. 110, note. The Romish clergy were here the main instigators to rebellion. They excommunicated all who dared to oppose their wishes. Ibid. pp. 110, 111, 113, note. 3 Sir John Temple, says Warner, ".

"was Master of the Rolls and a Privy Councillor .... and the sense of what he suffered by the Insurrection . led him to aggravate the crimes and cruelties of the Irish.” Dr. Borlase the son of Sir John Borlase, one of the Lords Justices at that time, and seems to

was

the legislature, and the admissions of those who would have repelled the charge had it been capable of refutation, all point to the same conclusion. The declaration of Lord Castlehaven, a Roman Catholic peer, who was a prominent actor in many of the scenes of this stirring era, clearly attests the view taken by that nobleman of the whole proceeding. “As for the massacre that ensued,” says his Lordship, “it was certainly very barbarous and inhuman.? ... I thought fit to publish something, setting forth my own story,—not to excuse the rebellion, or those who were forced into it, as I was,-it having begun most bloodily on the English in that kingdom, in a time of settled peace, without the least occasion given.3

This horrid butchery has long been felt to be a dreadful stain on the reputation of the Roman Catholic Church ; as it can be shown that priests and friars had a large share in concocting and promoting the rebellion. At a meeting in the Abbey of Multifernan in Westmeath, held about a fortnight before the commencement of hostilities, some of the clergy present recommended a general massacre) as the safest and most effectual method of putting down Protestant ascendency : and, though others denounced such inhumanity, and proposed a milder course, the plan of slaughter was not formally condemned. The result proved that it was not forgotten. Evor McMahon, Roman Catholic Bishop of Down and Connor, prompted Sir Phelim O'Neill to the commission of some of his most revolting atrocities. The Roman Catholic clergy of all grades appear ever and anon upon the stage during the worst scenes of this dismal tragedy. But these fathers and brethren of the church militant at length found themselves in a wofully false position. The failure of the conspirators to surprise the Castle of Dublin,3 and obtain possession of its warlike stores, gave, at the outset, a decisive check to the rebellion; and the terrible retribution, which soon followed, illustrated the folly as well as the wickedness of the massacre. Romish writers at length began to extenuate or deny the crimes imputed to their co-religionists; but the manner in which they meet the accusations preferred against them, only shows how hopeless and hollow is any attempt at vindication. In vain they assert that the official documents issued at the time supply no evidence of a massacre. Nothing can be more decisive than the testimony of these very memorials. Nine days after the breaking out of the rebellion the Irish Lords Justices declare that “many disloyal and malignant persons ... have most inhumanly made destruction and

have been an officer in the Civil War.”Pref. to Hist., xi. In ordinary circumstances such men would be considered very respectable witnesses; and they substantiate their statements by documentary or sworn evidence.

1 Even French, Roman Catholic Bishop of Ferns, who now took an active part on the side of the rebels, admits that the Romanists were “the first aggressors." See his Bleeding Iphigenia, preface, pp. 40, 44. Again in his Settlement and Sale of Ireland (pp. 107-8) he says :—“I will not take upon me to justify their first rising,” though, like others of his party, he tries to show that the estimate of the numbers murdered is exaggerated. See his Historical Works, vol. i. Dublin, 1846.

2 The Earl of Castlehaven's Review of his Memoirs, p. 16. Dublin, 1815.

3 To the Reader, xiii. Mr. Hill must have been unacquainted with the facts here stated when, in his Historical Account of the Macdonnells of Antrim, he affirmed (p. 66, note) that “at first, not even an insinuation was expressed of any massacre committed on the Protestants !"

It is, however, but fair to say that, notwithstanding all the Bulls of the Popes, a number of the priests abhorred this butchery. They were, however, in the minority. See O'Conor's Historical Address, part i., p. 55.

6 “Such,” says Leland, “is the account of this assembly given by a Franciscan, who alleged that he was present and a sharer in those deliberations."LELAND, iii. 106. As to the meeting at Multisernan see Lord Somers's Tracts, vol, v., p. 592. See also O'Conor's Hist. Address, part ii. 242.

1 This bishop, it appears, with the exception of Latin, “spoke no other language than the Irish.”-O'Conor's Hist. Address, part ii. 209. He had, at a former period, betrayed his party to the Government. Leland, iii. 91.

· Reid, i. 324.

3 This was prevented by Owen O'Connolly, a Presbyterian and a convert from Popery. Reid's Hist. of Presb. Church in Irelanit, i. 319. His family is said to have lost their property by confiscation ; and one of the chief conspirators, supposing that he would enter readily into a scheme for its recovery, revealed to him the plot on the very night before the castle was to be surprised. He immediately communicated the intelligence to the Lords Justices, and thus the kingdom was saved.

4 This groundless allegation, to be found in earlier writers, has been more recently repeated by Lingard. See his History of England, vol. X., p. 402. London, 1847. Prendergast, in his Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland (second edition. London, 1870. p. 61), has also asserted that “the letters of the Lords Justices during the first months of the Rebellion are silent concerning any massacre.” The evidence here furnished in the text and notes demonstrates the absurdity of such statements.

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