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furnish Prof. Koch with his bacteria in the organizing stage of tubercles. This assertion of fibrine being extravasated into and around tubercles is no mere guesswork. It is a great scientific fact, and an absolute necessity in nature's watchful and unceasing, conservative care over us, for which, however, Prof. Koch seems not to make the slightest allowance.

The fibrine exuded into the tissues around tubercles becomes condensed and organizes (under the inflammation that softens the tubercles) into the firm and impervious wall that outlines and divides its putrid contents from the surrounding healthy tissues.

The fibrine extravasated into the tubercle and upon its immediate surface, and there organizing, is what gives us the fibrous stage of all tubercles that have such a stage. Then, when the tubercle softens, the organized fibrine in it softens with the rest; that is, undergoes retrograde metamorphosis, or breaks down in the exact inverse order of its original construction by separating into fibrils, and these fibrils breaking up into segments, or the so-called rod-like bacteria, while the segments separate into their original granules, or the assumed micrococci, and furnish Prof. Koch with all the bacteria he claims to exist in tubercles. So much for bacteria in general in tubercles. Now we come to another and more specific point, that may seem to many difficult to surmount. Prof. Tyndall quotes Koch on the following" point: "It was,” he says, “in the highest degree impressive to observe in the centre of the tubercle cell the minute organism which had created it." And the editor of the New York Medical Record says, in speaking of Koch's "minute bacillus " of tubercles: "It is rod-shaped, and from one fourth to one half the length of a red blood corpuscle." These are specific and positive assertions as to the form, size, and nature of the bodies which Koch claims to have seen: and let it be understood that no question is here raised as to his having seen such bodies. He has undoubtedly given us the facts correctly upon that point, but it is his assumption as to the nature of these objects that is disputed, and to understand this we must again digress to other

matters.

Many times during the last twenty years have I asserted that every tubercular cell is nothing but a decolorized red blood corpuscle, and with this paper I submit a sheet illustrating this fact. The causes of this change of the natural healthy cells of the blood to the most deadly of all morbid cells that prey upon organized life is as far removed from bacteria as heaven is from that place to which the writer expects to be speedily consigned for having written this paper.

It is the circulation of the colored blood corpuscles in the too watery blood of the consumptive that decolorizes many of them;

that is, the older and weaker of them, just as other organic structures of color are bleached when having to exist in a medium that is too watery for their nature. Then they (these decolorized blood corpuscles) are deposited or congested in the capillaries, and fibrine is poured out around them, where it coagulates to enclose the mass, and the whole becomes an organized tubercle. In many, if not in all, cases, in the first stage of the disease, other blood corpuscles, not decolorized before their deposit, become also congested along with those that are, and many times independently of them, under the strong congestive tendencies of some tuberculous subjects, after which such corpuscles are also decolorized by the chronic or subacute inflammation which they excite, have fibrine extravasated and organized around them, and they, too, then become tubercular corpuscles, and constitute in mass a tubercle.

Here, then, is the simple story of the immediate cause of the organization of all tubercles wherever formed in animal life, and with which bacteria has no more to do in any case than they have to do with the creation of healthy blood corpuscles in the first instance, or than we had with the creation of the world.

A little further explanation of facts, and then we will be prepared to understand Prof. Koch's bacteria within the tubercle cell, as well as those distributed through the tubercular mass outside of the individual cells, which has already been explained. We all know the fact that fibrine is held in perfect solution in the serum of the blood, and also that it passes through the walls of the capillaries, while thus held in solution, without the slightest apparent hindrance, or as readily as it would through a sieve; and we further know that the serum and whatever is in solution in it, fibrine and all, pass just as readily through the walls of the blood corpuscles inwardly to mingle with their contents as they do through the capillary walls. Indeed the liquid contents of the blood corpuscles are the same as the serum of the blood, with hematine added thereto, to give them their color. And still again all know, or ought to, that wherever blood stagnates under congestion, and especially so under inflammation, the fibrine in the serum commences at once to coagulate into granules which soon unite to form fibrils. Lehmann says, this coagulation of the fibrine "goes on within the vessels of the living body as soon as the blood ceases to circulate."

Well, then, what happens to the fibrine held in solution in the serum which is retained in the congested vessels, must also happen to the fibrine held in solution in the serum retained within the walls of the blood corpuscles; that is, it must be coagulated first into granules, which soon join together into minute fibrils within the corpuscles. There can be no other possible result,

because wherever fibrine stagnates, and especially when brought under inflammatory action, as in all softened tubercles, there it universally coagulates.

Then, all tubercular corpuscles being simply decolorized blood corpuscles, and nothing else, which hold within them fibrine in solution, this must be coagulated in the way above pointed out, and thus furnish Dr. Koch with his bacteria here, too, the same as throughout the mass of tubercle outside the special cells. You will remember the point in this connection already given from the editor of the New York Medical Record, that the tubercular bacteria of Koch "is rod-shaped, and from one fourth to one half the length of a red blood corpuscle," which would be the exact condition of the fibrils of fibrine coagulated within the blood corpuscles, as just described.

And here, as it seems to me, is all there is of this much-talkedof discovery, which has led, or is rapidly leading, to a new bacteria craze, which, unless stopped, must still further divert the minds of physicians from disease as it really is in nature, and from their true duty in healing the afflicted, by creating bugbears that they know nothing of or how to combat, and which only leaves them helpless in the midst of doubts and fears that have no foundation whatever in fact.

OUR LONDON LETTER.

A SPECIAL general meeting of the governors and subscribers of the London School of Homoeopathy was held on the 15th of December last year. It was called for the purpose of receiving the report of a subcommittee which had been appointed to revise the rules and laws of the school, and for the transaction of other business connected with the reconstruction of the school. There were seven medical governors present, five being a quorum, out of a total of thirty or forty. The necessary business having been completed, Dr. Hughes, without previous notice, proposed the following resolution: "That any student who has diligently attended the lectures during one winter and one summer session of the school, and who has passed satisfactorily an examination in the principles, materia medica, and practice of homœopathy, and who has passed a clinical examination in the wards of the hospital, shall be awarded the diploma of 'Licentiate in Homœopathy,' and shall be entitled to add L. H.' to such titles, qualifying him to practise, as he may possess or may hereafter obtain." This resolution was carried, on the understanding that it should apply only to students who possessed a qualification to practise medicine in Great Britain or in the country to which they might belong;

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and then, that the new diploma might at once obtain a standing in the homœopathic profession, the following resolution, proposed by Dr. Bayes, was carried: "Physicians and surgeons of good repute, who have practised medicine or surgery for five consecutive years preceding the 25th of December, 1881, may be elected, without examination, to the title of L. H.,' provided they apply to medical council of the London School of Homœopathy before the end of December, 1883, and are elected by a majority of the council."

Thus was set on foot quite a new extension of the aims and scope of the London School of Homœopathy. The objects of the promotors of the scheme are stated to be,

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I. To offer additional attraction to students to attend the instruction of the school. Hitherto the authorities have been crippled in such attraction, having had no power to grant a diploma or qualification signifying that the student had diligently applied himself to the study of homoeopathy.

2. To assist young homoeopathic practitioners in opening up new fields of homoeopathic practice. A diploma would at once secure the confidence of the public who desired to be treated homoeopathically. And

3. As a guaranty to the public that the practitioner selected is qualified by study and examination to practise homoeopathy. Whether the institution of this diploma is the best means to attain these ends, whether in itself it is a legal institution, and whether its adoption is likely to conduce to the best interests of homoeopathy, are points which have been keenly discussed amongst homoeopaths the last few months.

The first open sign of opposition came from the British Homoopathic Society; and it will be agreed that a condemnation of any movement in connection with homoeopathy coming from the leading homœopathic society ought to have some weight with the promoters of that movement.

At an unusually large meeting of the members of the society, held in March, by a majority of two to one, the diploma was declared to be "contrary to the spirit of the laws of the society and calculated to damage our position as members of the medical profession." Since that time the poor "L. H." has been assailed from all quarters and in all manner of ways, so much so that at a recent meeting of the governors of the school any further action in the matter of granting the diploma was deferred for six months. It ought to be mentioned that, prior to the vote of the society, a circular was sent by the honorary secretary of the school to two hundred and sixty-nine practitioners of homœopathy in the country. In this circular the advantages of the "L. H." were set forth in detail, and each practitioner was invited

to apply for it; or, if he objected to its being instituted, he was invited to state his objections. Much sport has been made of this circular by the opponents of the diploma, and it must be confessed that when the "L. H." had become an accomplished fact it was somewhat late to invite objections to it. As a result of the canvass, however, eighty-five applied for the diploma, twenty-nine sent objections, while one hundred and fifty-five expressed no opinion. In view of this, after the vote of the society, and after all that has since been said and written upon the subject, it is very difficult to form an idea on which side would be ranged the majority of homoeopathic practitioners; but one fact is clear, the greater number of influential men stand as opponents of the scheme.

The chief objection that has been raised to the "L. H." is that it is illegal. The School of Homœopathy is not a chartered institution, but only a private body, having a definite object, - the teaching of homoeopathy. It cannot therefore grant a license except it be of a bogus character; and those who know the dislike which medical men in this country hold to anything bearing such a character will easily understand the force of this objection. Indeed, it was because of this objection on the part of many friends of the school that the granting of the diploma was deferred for six months, so that in the mean time application might be made for a charter of incorporation for the school, and all doubts as to the legality of its diploma be removed. It is more than doubtful, however, that such an application will be successful, especially as a charter for granting medical degrees has recently been refused to the new Victoria University at Manchester. The whole system of licensing and granting degrees is undergoing reconsideration in high quarters; and there appears to be a convergence of opinion in favor of the establishment of the " one portal system," or a state examination for all candidates for medical qualification. Thus many friends of the School of Homœopathy wish that the diploma scheme may be set aside for the more modest plan of simply certifying a man's knowledge of homoeopathy after examination, and for a united homoeopathic body to aim at securing, in the event of the "one portal system" being adopted, the compulsory education in homoeopathy of all medical students.

Another objection offered to the new diploma is, that, as a designation, it is calculated to mislead the public. A license to practise homœopathy is not necessary. According to our laws, a man otherwise qualified cannot be prevented from adopting any particular theory or practice of medicine or surgery.

One of the arguments put forward by the promoters of the "L. H." in favor of that particular designation has given rise to

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