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of Rome 753

Rome, also about eight hundred the tower of Babel; the introduc. years, the third period may be ing of diverse languages; the peo reckoned. The fourth period may pling of the world by Noah's poftebe said to extend from the founda- rity ; the foundation of the Affyrian tion of Rome to the capture of Ba- monarchy in Nimrod, Ninus, and bylon by Cyrus, in the year of Semiramis; the overthrow of the Rome 2i6. The fifth, from thence four eastern kings, by Abraham and to the invasion of Afia by Alexander his three hundred and eighteen the Great, in the Roman year 420. houshoid servants; the destruction, The fixth, to the total destruction of from heaven, of Sodom and GomorCarthage, in the year of Rome 6o8. rah, with other cities of the Plain, And the seventh, or last period, com- by fire and brimstone ; the incestuprizes the interval between the over ous original of the Moabites and ihrow of Carthage and the Birth of Ammonites, and battard-brood of Christ, which happened in the year the Ismaelites ; also the poets ship,

Argos, and Gigantomachia the GiHaving thus divided Ancient Hif- ants war with their gods, may have tory into periods, we are compelled reference to Noah's Ark and the to treat our subject more at large. builders of Babel.

The firt period contains events During this period, Babylon wag of the highest importance; the built by Nimrod, on the scite of creation of the world from chaos; Babel. After this, but at times not the birth of Adam and Eve, and to be assigned with any certainty, their fituation in Paradise, where, appeared Nineveh, Damascus, Sikowever, it is generally supposed, don, and Thebes in Egypt. The they continued but one night, so kingdom of Sicyon, in Peloponne sudden was their disobedience and sus, was founded, it is said, about so immediate the vengeance of God: A. M. 1915, and that of Athens by God's covenant after the fall of man. Cecrops, who conveyed a colony In this period some useful arts were from Egypt in A. M. 2448. This invented. Enoch, the feventh father period allo presents us with the from Adam, is said not to have died, commencement of that idolatry as osher men, but was translated to which in a short time becaine unithe heavens. Methusalah, who fuc- verfally prevalent : but it must be ceeded Enoch, lived to the age of observed, at the same time, that eight hundred and fixty-nine years. God preserved the purest religion It is necessary to mention the union among the Hebrew patriarchs, by of the righteous potterity of Seth, the covenant he made with Abrawith the depraved offspring of Cain; ham about four hundred and thirty which at length, evil growing pre- years after the fiod. In process of dominant, brought on the general time we see the delcendants of this destruction of mankind, whose off. patriarch, Jacob and his children, spring had probably never revived, departing for Egypt, where they if Noah, a righteous man, had not become a numerous people. It may thereby merited an exception froin be proper to observe, that during the universal deluge, which lasted this period happened the flood of a whole year.

Deucalion in Thessaly, which was Cotemporary with the second pe- mistake by the Greeks for the unisiod, are reckoned the covenant God versal deluge: indeed, they had made with Noah after the food, weighty reasons for this opinion, promising never again to destroy for it almoft ruired their country: mankind by water. The building of The third period con mences with

the Israelites departure from Egypt tory of his country: and about this under the command of Moses; and period also Justinian records the the written law given by God, cal- birth of Homer. From this, inakculated io diftinguish them from ing a transition to the facred seripother nations. While they were en- tures, we observe the fainous comgaged in conquering Canaan, Ni. bat between Abner's men and nus, son of Bel, founded the first those of Joab, wherein twelve of Aflyrian empire; Nineveh, already each side flow every man his opmentioned, becoming the capital. polite upon the place: the giants of Tyre was founded, or rather re- the Philistines cut off by David netved, in the reign of Ninus; about and his thirty-seven Worthies : the twelve hundred and fifty-two years height of poetry, music, and all kind before Christ; a city noted for trade, of philosophy, eminent in David's navigation, and colonies. In Greece, pfalms, and Solomon's three thoualready enlightened by an inter- fand proverbs and one thousand and course with the Egyptians, Hercu- five fongs, with his books of natural les and Theseus distinguished them- philosophy, mentioned in 1 Kings, selves. The liege of Troy, which iv. 32 ; and, lastly, his progress in ended, it is supposed, about the year the art of navigation, by trading of the world 2820, gave these he- with the Tyrians to Ophir for gold. roes an opportunity of displaying Egypt and Chaldea made a rapid their genius and intrepidity. proficiency in arts and sciences; the

The Jews, by this time, had take former had at once a conqueror and en pofleision of the Promised Land, legislator in her king Soloitris, who destroying and driving out its na- rendered his country no less celetive inhabitants. These chosen peo- brated for excellent laws than for ple were at first governed by judges, fuperb edifices. While the Arabs, of whom Joshua, the conqueror, was and afterwards the Jews and Syrians, the firit; and, afterwards, by kings, carried on a trade, by navigation, of whom David and Solomon are with India, the Phoenicians also exthe most diitinguilhed. “The first tended their navigation, and settled of these,” says a learned and pious colonies on all the coasts of the Meauthor, “grew famous by the over diterranean, in Africa, Spain, and throw of Goliah in fingle combat, Sicily. They founded Carchage aand thereupon after, the bringing bout A. M. 3112. in, for a vantage, three hundred fore The Assyrian kings reigned at that skins of the Philipines.The latter time in Upper Afia. China was alwas eminent for wisdom ; and fi- ready remarkable for her civil ponithed the Jerusalem Temple in the licy. The warlike Scythians made year of the world 3000. In the incursions in Europe and Asia. 20reign of Rehoboam, ten of the roafter, legiflator of Bactriana, taught twelve tribes revolting, occafioned the Magi the science of altronomy, the formation of two kingdoms, that the worihip of the sun, and the art of of Judah, and that of Israel ; a di- governing. There were also, about vifion which mutually weakened this time, priests and philosophers each party.

in India, called Bramins or Brach. Concurrent with these times Plu- mans, and Druids in Gaul. tarch mentions theobseure pofterity Scarcely any thing is known of of Æneas in Italy, and brute in those Celtic nations which over-ran Engiand. Eufebius speaks of Co. Gaul, Britany, part of Spain, and drus, the last king of Athens, who the north of Italy; or of the Teupurchased by his own death the vic- tones, who were divided into tribes,



and filled that part of Europe af. Romulus seven hundred and fiftyterwards called Germany, at that three years before, the birth of Our time for the most part a wild de- Saviour. A short time after this, fart overgrown with woods. The Nabonaffar founded the kingdom of more northern nations were still less Babylon; and in the fifty-fourth known, having remained longer in year of Rome, Dejoces formed that a ftate of barbarism.-Eighty years of Media, and built Ecbatana. Both after the fiege of Troy, the descend. these kingdoms were taken out of ants of Hercules, or Heraclidæ, Allyria. Cyaxares ruled in Media, returned into Peloponnesus, where and Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon : they reigned in divers cities, as Ar- the latter subdued many nations; in gos, Lacedemon, Corinth, and My- particular Jerusalem, carrying her cene. The Olympic Games, institut- king and people into captivity. ed by Hercules, and laid aside, were Cyrus, the Persian monarch, at renewed, A.M.3228, and celebrated length overcame the Babylonian and every fifth year: these games formed Lydian kings: this conqueror fucan æra from which the Greeks dated ceeded his uncle Cyaxares in Media, ever after. About A. M. 3128, Ly- and united those four powerful kingcurgus gave laws to the Spartans. doms under his own dominioo, in Athens, and most of the Greek the year of Rome 216. He percities, had now shaken off the kingly mitted the Jews to return back to yoke, and erected themselves into Judea, the seventy predicted years republics. Greece, having made a of their captivity being now expired. rapid progress in navigation, after When they were settled in their own having increased her strength, and country, they rebuilt Jerusalem and improved her civilization by the re- the Temple. ception of foreign colonies, founded The Greeks, about this time, were fome, in her turn, on the coasts of diftinguished for their knowledge in Asia Minor, in Sicily, and in the the arts and sciences, which they more northern parts of Italy. Kings, learnt of the Egyptians and Phoeof the posterity of Æneas, reigned nicians. Solon, one of their wife at Alba : from these Romulus and men, gave laws to the Athenians Remus were descended; who, be about the year of Rome 160. Sixfore they laid the foundation of teen years after the Ionians founded Rome, re-established their grandfa- a colony at Marseilles ; and, thortly ther Numitor on the Alban throne. after, the Gauls under Bellovese,

About the year of the world A. M. settled in the north of Italy; and 3184 the Affyrian empire ended, in others in Germany, under his brothe perfon' of its effeminate monarch ther Segovese. Rome, under her Sardanapalus. It was, however, re- first kings, acquired a confiderable newed by Phul, in A. M. 3227; degree of stability, by incorporating but was foon after totally dismem- the adjacent towns' fhe had conbered, by the separation of more quered, particularly those of Alba, than one powerful kingdom, into the number of her citizens.

The fourth period of Ancient History extends, as we have before Our readers may expect the conobserved, from the foundation of clusion of Ancient HISTORY, Rome to the taking of Babylon by in Number II. when we fall, Cyrus.--Rome, the mistress of the of course, come to that of the habitable globe, was founded by

Middle Age.






means of creating confidence in Ires TION OF FRANCE-TURKISH AND land, and inspiring the natives with RUSSIAN WAR-SLAVE TRADE- affection for their natural relatives in

England. The emancipation of their. OF ORANGE-UNION OF RUSSIA

legislature by the repeal of statute AND GERMANY.

the 6th of Ġeo. III. by which the POR the clearer understanding ufurped controul of the British par.

of the modern history of this liament was given up, hath promoted country, which we intend to com• trade, and established manufactures; mence with the first month of the hath considerably augmented their present year, it is neceffary to give thipping; and of course increased i flight sketch of the principal events their wealth, which must ultimately which occurred in the year 1787 ; circulate through the empire. The a period which hath given rise to power by which Ireland was heremany occurrences, which must oper- tofore ruled, has now given way to ate with very considerable influence

able influence the operation of mild authorityon the politics of future times.

jealousy to reciprocity of obligation, Short as the year must appear in the The police has been strengthened, calculation of time, the operations the magistrates are obeyed, and the of the last have made material al- people begin to rise from oppression terations in the religion, philofo, and poverty, to the enjoyment of phy, politics, and commerce of the those comforts which flow from inworld. Philosophy hath opened the dustry, freedom, and a wise dispenmind's eye, even of the vulgar. In fation of justice. the Roman Catholic countries, late The storm which broke out in Holly blinded by superstition, and de. land, and threatened annihilation to based by priestcraft and tyranny, in- the office of Stadtholder, is now blown tellectual liberty hath spread with over. Unaflisted by France, iovaded astonishing influence, and political by Prussia, and threatened by Great freedom hath followed her footsteps: Britain, the disaffected, after very indeed, mankind seem to have adopt- little bloodshed, were forced into ed, as general principles, that in re- submission; whereby the power, ligion chere can be no dictates con- which they would have overturned, trary to wisdom; and in politics, hath been augmented in strength, THAT BY WHATEVER RIGHT ONE and the Prince of Orange hath been COUNTRY POSSESSES LIBERTY, BY able to form alliances, for the fole The same right EVERY Other purpose of supporting, what he calls, COUNTRY MAY CLAIM IT.

his rights and privileges. The deThe COMMERCIAL TREATY be. serrion of France from the cause of tween Great Britain and France, to the Hollanders, was not, however, which such strong and pointed op- as hath been fallaciousy represented, pofition was made in both houses of the consequence of political treaparliament, is now, on the evidence chery, but the result of her own inof experience, admitted to be founded ternal imbecillity and convulsions. in found policy and wise speculation; France feels, to her forrow, the efand will probably prove a means of fect of the American war. The unitingin amity rival nations, hereto- allistance the afforded to the insure forejcalous and envious of each other.


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