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ment, happened to say in the shop, to his credit-fide more than he knen " that if he could command fome he poffeffed. Thinking it a mistake, thousands at present, there was a be pointed it out to the clerk, who, certain speculation to be pursued, seeing the entry in Mr. Fordyce: which, in all probability, would turn hand-writing, said, he mul hare out fortunate." This was faid loose- paid it to him. The merchant, ly, without Fordyce's making any however, knowing he had nor, beg. answer, or seeming to attend to it; ged to see Mr. Fordyce, who apand no more paffed at the time. A peared, and told him, “it was al few months afterwards, when she right enough; for that as the hink samç merchant was what they call he had a few months before throws settling his book with the house, he out in his fhop, gained him abort was very much furprised to see the five thousand, he thought him fairly sum of five hundred pounds placed entitled to the tythe of that fum."

CHARACTERISTIC MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

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THE FRENCH,

find reason to change our opinion [From Jardine's Letters from Barbary, &c.]

on going afhore-whether we in

fpc&t the town or country, the shops F the French nation I Mall houses, ofices, the fields, fences

, give you only a few remarks carriages, cattle, or their different en paljant. Stationed in the centre tradesmen at work; the Englid of the civilised world, their charac. fuperiority is every where manifek er, history, and their influence, are in all kinds of workmanship, and too generally known and felt to re more particularly where strength is quire much more illustration--they required either in the work or workare as yet better known to you than menin you to them. Senall as the distance Generally bad mechanics, they is that separates the two nations, can seldom make any thing (trong in the firit boat you observe upon without making it clumsy, nor contheir coast, may be seen the great trive any machine to answer dif

. difference between the two races of ferent purposes without making people, and that difference appears, too complicated. And it seems as if especially at firit, to be muely in ali the bad materials of Europe came favour of our countrymer. The to the French market, as iron, tinEnglish failors who navigate oar ber, leather, tools, and various malveliels are strong, filent, laborious, ters for different irades and manumethodical; those on board the factures. Indeed the London map French vefleis and boats are a poor, ket, I believe, engrofses the bept weak, and ragged race, wrangling of the produce in many things and bustling, rather than working, throughout the commercial work. with great noise but little skill, the You may see im our friend B.'s booki effects not corresponding to their the difference he makes in the price apparent exer ions. On exanining of insurance between a Freneb and the workinan laip and materials of an English Nip. every thing about them of their I fee neither truth nor wisdom is vefféls, utensils, clothing--we, may preaching the doctrine that one fome alieady draw conclusions of the incimes hears maintained of lace by ferior State of the useful arts and fome young men, that their seanca induttry of France. Nor do we

are every way equal to ours. :

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In fome cases we may still think, perceive what is really good or worour prejudice not ill founded, of thy of imitation. You may not, for one Englishman being equal to two example, at first attend to their exFrenchmen. I already know several cellent police to their spacious and trades, in which the work commonly fuperior manner of building, though done is at least in that proportion, badly finished to their polite and I think they are evidently a more agreeable manner to their easy and feeble race, and do not probably simple ways of contriving in some cxert the strength they have, equal of the conveniencies and common to our workwen. But they have modes of life--and to the habits of far more vivacity, cheerfulness, economy which our children may and good humour-a refleis acti- learn. The fmall expence and troue vity, and may feldomer be inclined blo attending their dress, societies, to idleness than Englidh workmen, balls, theatres, we find very com. though their labour is less produce fortable and pleasant, tive. They seemn not so much ena I think we can already perceive groffed by iheir work, as in hatte ta that, notwithstanding their poverty have done. They generally employ and weakness, they may be a hapo more bauds than we do to the faine pier people than so. They fortukind of work. : You know the ex. nately think they have every thing ample of three men to fix a horfeé comme il faut, while we, lullenly Shoe, which with us is done by que. wise and profound, are difcontented

Wich these prepofTetions, forcadily with much of our own, and with suggested by firft appearances, and will more of theirs. We pretend to perhaps a little out of humour with find among khent unany things de. some unexpected troubles and difli reftable, much below, and very little culties in getting that we want, above, nediocrity, except their own which is not uncom.non here, we conceit of themelves, which, permay require some time to become baps happily for them, passes alt fufficiently cool and imparsial 1g ordinary bounds.

NATURAL HISTORY.

ISLAND OF TRINIDAD.

A

ANDERSON'S ACCOUNT OF A BITU- tends into the fea about two miles, MINOUS LAKE OR PLAIN IN THE exactly oppolite to the high moun

tains of Paria, on the north fide of [From Philolophical Transactions, Vol. 79, the gulf. Part 1.]

This cupe, or head-land, is about Most remarkable production fifty feet above the level of the sea,

of nature in the island of and is the greatcit elevation of land Trinidad, is a bituminous lake, or on ebis fide of the island. From the rather plain, kpown by the name fca it appears a mats of black vitriof Tar Lake; by the French called fied rocks; bello ou a clofe examiLa Buay, from the resemblance to, nation, it is found a composition of and antwering the intention of, hip bituaigous. fcuriæ; vitrified land, pitch. It lies in the leeward side and earth, cemented together; in of the island, about b.ilf way from some parts beds of cinders only are the Bocas to the south end, where found. In approaching this cape, the Mangrove swamps are inter- there is a strong fulphureous smell, rupted by the land-banks and bills; fonetimes disagreeable. This fmcil and on a point of land-which ex- is prevalent in many parts of the

3 1 2

ground

ground to the distance of eight or cult and tedious, being beceffrated ten miles from it.

to plunge into the water a great • This point of land is about two depth in paffing from one areola to miles broad, and on the cast and another.' The trueft idea that can west sides, from the distance of about be formed of its surface wiil te i half a mile from the sea, falls with from the areolæ and their rania gentle declivity to it, and is joined fications on the back of a turtle. to the main land on the south by Its more common confiitence and the continuation of the Mangrove appearance is that of pit-coal, the fwamps ; so that the bituminous colour rather greyer. It breaks into plain is on the highest part of it, small fragments, of a cellular apand only separated from the sea by pearance and glofly, with a number a margin of wood which surrounds of minute and thining particles init, and prevents a distant prospect terspersed through its fubitance; it of it. Its fituation is similar to a is very friable, and, when liquid, favannah, and, like them, it is not is of a jet black colour. Some parts seen till treading upon its verge. of the surface are covered with a Its colour, and even surface, present thin and brittle scoria, a little eleat first the aspect of a lake of water ; vated. but I imagine it got the appellation As to its depth, I can fornu no of Lake when seen in the hot and idea of it; for in no part could I ary weather, at which time its fur: find a substratum of any other fub face to the depth of an inch is ftance; in some parts 1 found cal. liquid, and then from its cohesive cined earth mixed with it. quality it cannot be walked upon. Although I smelt fulphur very

It is of a circular form, and I strong on palfing over many parts fuppose about three miles in cir- of it, I could discover no appearance cumference." At my first approach of it, or any rent or crack through it appeared a plane, as smooth as which the teams might iffue ; proglais, excepting some small clumps bably it was from some parts of the of slírubs and dwarf-trees that had adjacent woods: for although lultaken possession of some spots of it ; phur is the basis of this bituminous but when I had proceeded some matter, yet the smells are very dilo yards on it, I found it divided into ferent, and easily distinguished, for areolæ of different sizes and shapes : its smell comes the nearest to that the chasms or divisions anastomofed of pitch of any thing I know. I through every part of it; the fur- could make no impression on its furface of the areolæ perfectly hori. face without an axe : at the depth zontal and smooth; the margins un- of a foot I found it a little lofter, dulated, each undulation enlarged with an oily appearance, in mail to the bottom till they join the cells. A little of it held to a bera opposite. On the furface the margin ing candle ipakes a hissing or crackor first undulation is distant from ing noise like nitre, 'emising small the opposite from four to fix fcet, fparks with a vivid Aame, which ex. and the same depth before they tinguishes the moment the candle is çoalesce ; but where the angles of removed. A piece put in the fire will the areole oppose, the chasms or boil up a long tiine without fufferramifications are wider and deeper. ing much diminution : after a long When I was at it, all these chasms time's severe heat, the surface will were full of water, the whole form- burn and form a thin scoria, under ingone true horizontal plane, which which the rest remains liquid. Heat rendered my investigation of it diffi- seems not to render it fluid, or oc

cupy

cupy a larger space than when cold; destructive to thips in this part of trom which, I imagine, there is but the world. little alteration on it during the dry Besides this place, where it is months, as the solar rays cannot found in this solid state, it is found exert their force above an inch liquid in many parts of the woods ; below the surface. I was told by and at the distance of cwenty miles, one Frenchman, that is the dry from this about two inches thick, season the whole was an uniform round holes of three or four inches {mooth mass; and by another, that diameter, and often at cracks or the ravins contained water fit for rents. This is constantly liquid, use during the year : but neither and smells stronger of tar than when can I believe ; for if, according to indurated, and adheres strongly to the first assertion, it was an homo. any thing it touches ; grease is the geneous mass, something more than only thing that will diveft the hands an external cause must affect it, to of it. give it the present appearances : The soil in general, for some disa nor without some hidden cause can tance round La Bray, is cinders and the second be granted. Although burnt earths; and where not To, it the bottoms of these ramified chao- is a strong argillaceous foil ; the nels admnit not. of absorption, yet whole exceedingly fertile, which is froin their open exposure, and the always the case where there are any black furface of the circumjacent sulphureous particles in it. Every parts, evaporation must go on amaz. part of the country, to the distance ing quick, and a fhort time of dry, of thirty miles round, has every apweather must soon empty thein; nor pearance of being formed by confrom the fituation and structure of vulsions of nature from subterrathe place' is there a possibility of neous fires. In several parts of the supply but from the clouds. To woods are hot springs; some I tried, flew that the progress of evapora- with a well graduated thermometer of tion is inconceivably quick here,' at Fahrenheit, were twenty deg. and the time I visited it, there were, on twenty-two deg. hotter than the atan average, two-thirds of the time, mosphere at the time of trial. From incessant torrents of rain ;' but from its position to them, this part of the the afternoon being dry, with a illand has certainly experienced the gentle breeze, (as is generally the effects of the volcanic eruptions, case during the rainy season in this which have heaped up those prodiisland) there evidently was an equi- gious mallestof mountains that terlibrium between the rain and the ininate the proviụce of Paria on the evaporation ; for in the courfc of north ; and no doubt there has been, three days I saw it twice, and per- and fill probably is, a communica. ceived no alteration on the height tion between them. One of these of the water, nor any outlet for it mountains opposite to La Bray in but by evaporation.

Trinidad, about thirty miles distant, I take this bituminous fubftance' has every appearance of a volcanic to be the bitumen asphaltum Lin- mountain : however, the volcanic NÆI. A gentle heat renders it duc, cffurts bave been very weak here, tile; hence, mixed with a little as no trace of them extend above grease or common 'pitch, it is much two miles from the sea in this part used for the bottoms of ships, and of the itland, and the greater part of for which'intention it is collected by it has had its origin from a very dif. many, and I Thould conceive it a ferent cause to that of volcanos ; preservative against the borer, so but they have certainly laid the

foun

foundation of it, as is evident from Continent that nearly join it: for the high ridge of mountains which the great indux of córrents into the furrounds its windward side to pro. gult of Paria from the coasts of tect it from the depredations of the Brazil and Andalusia must bring a ocean, and is its only barrier against vall quantity of light earthy partithat overpowering element, and may cles from the mouths of the numeproperly be called the fkeleton of the rous large risers which traverse iland.

these parts of the Continent ; but From every examination I have the currents being repeiked by these made, I find i he whole island formed ridges of mountains, eddies and of an argillaceous carth, either in smooth water will be produced its primitive state, or under its dife where they meet and opple, and ferent metamorphoses. The bases therefore the earthy particles would of the mountains are composed of subGde, and form banks of inud, and fchiflus argillaccous and talcum'litboo by fresa accumulations added would margo; but the plains or low.lands foon form dry land; and from these remaining nearly in the same moist causes it is evident such a tract of ftate as at its formation, the compo- country as Trinidad mutt be formed. nent particles have not experienced But these causes till exill, and the the viciffitudes of nature so much as effect from them is evident; for the the more elevated parts, consequently illand is daily growing on the leeretain more of their primitive forms ward side, as may be seen from the and properties. Așargillaceous earth mud-beds that extend a great way is formed from the sediment of the into the gulf, and there conitanulý ocean, from the situation of Trini- increase. But from the great influx dad to the Continent, its formation from the ocean at the south end of is calily accounted for, granting the ifland, and its egress to the Alfirst the formation of the ridge of lautic again, through the Bocas, a mountains that bound its windward channel must ever exist between the fide, and the high mountains on the Continent and Trinidad.

SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

IN THE LIFE OF

It was agreed on, that the first INTERESTING CIRCUMSTANCES

time Gebhard should mount guard, BARON TREN C K.

he Mould undertake to clean out my

dungeon, and that, while filling my (Concluded from Page 396.]

jug with water, he should avail himn. Gave this letter, and the necef- self of the opportunity to contey

sary instructions, to Gethard, in the money into it. This he hapthe fame manner he conveyed the pily accomplished: I was only furpaper to me:, his wife rouk' the prised to find, instead of a thousand packet to Gummern, and put it Aorins, having promised the other safely into the port. At length, the thoufand to Gethard, the entire 15th of August arrived. Some time fum, five pistoles excepted, which however elapsed before Gef hard was was all he would, on any account, placed sentinel near my prison ; but consent to take for bis trouble. i how great was my joy, when I heard found means afterwards, howerer, him Yay, one day, « Every thing to prevail op him to accept the thouhas succeeded!”

land florins; but he never used them;

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