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OF THE HUMAN MIND.

II.

MACPHERSON,

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impropriety of his conduct; but the holy man was not to be convinced.

His majesty, finding fair arguments R. De Lagny, of the Acade. ineffectual, at length asked him, how was a great calculator, having be. ground reached the bishop, withcome insensible in his last illness, M.

out reflection or ceremony, replied,

“ About eight!” “Then,” replied Maupertuis approached his bed, and endeavoured to rouse him a little

, by be dug twelve feet, which is four be

the king, "let the grave of Moliere calling out," Mr. Lagny, what is the square of twelve ?"°"'An hun- low the consecrated earth !" Louis dred and forty-four !” replied Mr. the Fourteenth spoke this in a tone Lagny, and soon after expired. So which convinced the churchman that true is it, that people generally re

it would be unsafe to make farther

resistance. tain, to the last moment, whatever predominant paffion marked the tenor of their lives.

The first season of performing the

Fair Penitent, Mr. Powell represent. SINGULAR ANECDOTE

ed the part of Lothario : he had a

dreffer called Warren, who claimed OF CHARLES THE SECOND, FROM

a privilege (which at that time ex

isted, though not always observed) OON after the Rye-house plot of performing the dead part of the was discovered, thinking to be hero, in the fifth act. Powell

, befevere on the character of his bro- ing ignorant of the station his man ther, he exhibited a striking feature had taken, called aloud for him beof his own. The duke, one day, re- hind the scenes, in the middle of the turning from hunting with his guards, last act. The sad representative of found the king in Hyde Park. He death, hearing his master's voice, expressed his furprise how his ma- and knowing that he was passionate, jeity could venture his person alone instantly replied," Here am I, Sir!" at such a perilous time. “ James,” Powell, being ftill ignorant of the replied the king, “take you care of situation of his servant, again called, yourself, and I am fafe. No man " Come here this moment, you son will kill me to make you king!" of a whore, or I will break all the

bones in your skin!” Warren could DRAMATIC ANECDOTES. no longer delay or refift, and jump

ed up, hung with sables, which, as OLIERE, the great comic it were to heighten his embarrafcellent performer. He died, while fuf- bier : this, added to the roar in the taining a part in a comedy of his own house, urged his speed so earnestly, writing, called Le Malade Imagi- that, with the bier in his rear, he naire, in the year 1679, in his grand run against and threw down Calista climacteric. The archbishop of Paris, (Mrs. Barry), overwhelming her who held the amusements of the stage with the table, lamp, book, bones, in detestation, would not suffer his and all the drear lumber of the chara body to be inhumed in consecrated nel-house, till at length he liberated ground. The king being informed himself, and precipitately took his of the obstinacy of this rigid prelate, fight. The play ended abruptly; sent for him into his presence, and but not without leaving the audience began to expostulate with bim on the in high good-humour.

THE

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THE UNIVERSAL HISTORIAN.

NU M B E R II.

HE fifth period of Ancient rality and policy. This kingdom,

History may be reckoned enjoying a peaceful government, its from Cyrus to Alexander, or from inhabitants were at once happy and the year of Rome 216 to that of industrious; and, of consequence, 420.

There we find the succession were prepared to improve and cheof the kings of Persia from Cyrus, rifh the admonitions and the doctrine whose fon Camby ses conquered of that celebrated philosopher. and subdued Egypt. Darius and The sixth period nay be said to Xerxes made several attempts to extend from Alexander's in valion of enilave Greece, at this time the seat Afia, till the ruin of Carthage, or of freedom and of literature ; but from the year of Rome 420 to the were successfully repulsed.

year 608. The event with which In the time of the former of these this period begins, indicates a conmonarchs, who was called Hydal- 'tinuation of the fulfilment of Dapes, to distinguish him from others niel's prophecy, by the origin of of the name Darius, the Romans a new power. Alexander, king of abolished kingly government, by Macedon, and almost folely master the expulsion of their seventh mo- of all Greece, being emulous of the narch, Tarquinius Superbus ; and, title of a universal conqueror, une in the year of Rome 244, established dertook to overthrow the great emthe Consular mode, which at first pire of Persia; in which being fucproduced a weak and troublesome cessful, he carried his victorious republic.

arms as far as India. Here we Notwithstanding the pre-eminence cannot forbear copying a descripof Greece at this period, as well in tion of the army of Alexander, (who the science of war as in the cultiva- had the presumption to stile himself tion of philosophy, fome of her a god) from the speech of Charideprincipal cities, impregnable to the mus, an Athenian exile at the court attempts of any enemy, were weak- of Darius: “ The Macedonian army ened by internal divisions. Athens, is grim, horrid of afpect, and clad Lacedemon, and Thebes, contended in iron. The irresistable phalanx is for local superiority, instead of unite a body of men, who, in the field of ing for the common welfare ; when, battle, fear no onset, being pracafter the expiration of about a cen- tised to hold together, man to man, tury and half, Philip of Macedon shield to shield, and spear to spear; effected what had in vain been at- so that a brazen wall inight as well tempted by Darius and Xerxes. be broke through. In advancing,

The Carthaginians and the Greek in wheeling, to right or left, in atcolonies equally poffefled Sicily, tacking, in every exercite of arms, which was sometimes ruled by kings, they act as one man, They answer and sometimes governed by magile the flightest sign from the commantrates elected from among the peo- der, as if bis_soul animated the ple. Syracuse, the most powerful, whole army. Every foldier has a tolerated some of her tyrants, and knowledge of war suflicient for á expelled others.

general.” Alexander, though a comAbout this time, Confucius en mon robber in many refpetis, is nolightened the country of China, by ticed as having a particular venera. the most excelleot precepts of mo- tion for learned men, whole habita

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tions and property he spared amidst very fame year overthrew Carthage, general devastation. Alexander's by means of the second Scipio, Tuccession, divided between his four The seventh and last period of generals, formed the four kingdoms Ancient History commences from of Macedon, Thrace, Egypt, and the ruin of Carthage to the birth of Syria ; the last including Babylonia; Christ, or from the year of Rome and soon after those of Bactriana, 608 to 753. Parthia, Pontus, Capadocia, Bithy Rome now became the mistress nia, and Pergamos." The language of Spain, and of that part of Africa and customs of Greece were thus which had belonged to the Carthaintroduced into Egypt, and great ginians : fhe conquered Numidia part of the east.

and Mauriania; and, carrying her Meanwhile, the Gauls, under arms further into Gaul, effected also Brennus, came into Asia Minor, the entire subjection of Greece, from where they settled in Gallo Græcia, whence were brought the arts and or Galatia. A remainder of love for sciences; and that of Asia Minor, liberty had made the Greeks unite, whence fie derived a taste for luxo and oppose the Achæan league tó urious gratifications. the ambition of the kings of Ma- : The Jews, fubjecied formerly to cedon.

the kings of Perlia, and afterwards Rome acquired strength by the vexed by those of Egypt and Syria, severity of her manners and disci- found in the Maccabecs or Asmopline : le repulsed Pyrrhus, king neans, chiefs of their own nation, of Epirus, fubdued Italy, learned and at the same time pontiffs, strenavigation, and weakened Carthage nuous defenders of their religion by the two first Punic wars, oppol- and privileges. ing to Hanibal her great generals Marius and Sylla, who had triFabius, Marcellus, and Scipio. She umphed over the enemies of Rome, then carried her victorious arms into weakened it by intestine commo. Sicily, Spain, Gaul, and Greece; tions. Pompey, after having overconquered Macedonia by her ge- come Mithridates, king of Pontus, neral, Paulus Æmilius; humbled the conquered the kingdom of Syria, kings of Syria; broke the last ram- and extended the dominion of the part of the liberty of Greece hy, de. Romans as far as the Euphrates, Itroying Corinth, which put an end where alone the Parthians dared to to the Achæan league ; and in the oppose him *. Julius Cæsar com

pleted

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* We trust that most of our readers ries had almost doubled the extent, as will here read with pleasure, a particu. well as the revenues, of the Roman dolar character of Pompcy,whose brilliant minion; for, as he declared to the peosuccesses, and whose unfortunate end, ple on his return from the Mithridatic conspicuously serve to shew the instabi- war, he had found the lesser Afia the lity of all human expectations. boundary, but left it the middle of their

“ Pompey had early acquired the sur- empire. He was about six years older name of the Great, by that fort of me. than Cæfar; and while Cæfar, immerrit, which, from the constitution of the fed in pleasures, oppressed with debts, republic, necessarily made him great; and fufpected by all honest men, was a fame and success in war, superior to hardly able to lhew his head, Pompey what Rome had ever known in the most was flourishing in the height of power celebrated of her generals. He had tri- and glory; and, by the consent of all umphed, at three leveral times, over the parties, placed at the head of the rethree different parts of the known world, public. This was the post that his am Europe, Asia, Africa; and by his victo- bition seemed to aim at, to be the firfi

maa

pleted the entire subjection of Gaul, Under the peaceful reign of Auand carried the Roman standard gustus was born Jesus Christ, in from the banks of the Rhine to Judea, of the Virgin Mary, agreethose of the Thames. But whilst able to the covenant God had made this republic became so formidable with Adam, Noah, and Abraham, by her arms, her manners were cor- independant of the promises afterrupted by luxury; and the was the wards communicated by the protheatre of civil wars, first between phets to the Jews, that in their naCæsar and Pompey, and afterwards tion should be born the Saviour between Augustus and Anthony. of mankind, of a pure and unspot

Cæsar, ever successful, reigned ted virgin. with absolute sway over his coun, try, under the title of Perpetual Here we conclude our general Dictator; and after him Auguftus, sketch of Ancient History, in conthe first who assumed that of Em sequence of the reasons which peror. Cato and Cicero perished, have been previously mentioned, after many unsuccessful attempts to In our next, we shall begin with preserve the public liberty. Rome the Middle Age ; on which, as becoming a monarchy, added Egypt well as on the succeeding divito her dominion.

fions, we mean to be more diffuse. man in Rome; the leader, not the ty- observed the fame discipline, a perpetual sant of his country; for he more than modelty, temperance, and gravity of once had it in his power to have made outward behaviour; yet in the licence him :If the master of it without any of camps the example was more rare risk, if his virtue, or his phlegm at least

, and striking. His person was extremely had not restrained him: but he lived in graceful, and imprinting respect ; yet a perpetual expectation of receiving froin with an air of reserved haughtiness, the gift of the people, what he did not which became the general better than care to seize by force and, by foment. the citizen. His parts were plausible, ing the disorders of the city, hoped to rather than great; fpecious, rather than drive them to the necessity of creating penetrating; and his views of politics him dictator. It is an observation of but narrow, for his chief instrument all the hiltorians, that while Cæsar made of governing was diffimulation ; yet he no difference of power, whether it was had not always the art to conceal his conferrei lor usurped, whether overthole real femiments. As he was a better folwho lood, or those who feared him; dier than a statesinan, fo what he gained Pompy seemed to value none but what in the camp he usually lost in the city; was Gffered ; nor to have any desire to and though adored when abroad, was govern, but with the good-will of the often affronted and mortified at home, governed, What leisure he found from till the imprudent opposition of the lehis wars, he employed in the study of nate drove him to that alliance with polite letters, and especially of elo- Craffus and Cæfar, which proved fatal quence, in which he would have acquire both to himself and the republic. He ed great fame, if his genius had not took in these two, not as the partners, drawn hir'n to the more dazzling glory but the ministe:s rather of his power ; of arms; yet he pleaded several caules that by giving them fome thare with with applause, in the defence of his him, he night make his own authority friends an 1 clients; and fome of them uncontrollable: he had no reason tv apin conjuni tion with Cicero. His lan- prehend that they could ever prove his guage was copious and elevated; his rivals; fince neither of them had any sentiments just; his voice sweet; his credit or character of that kind which action noble, and full of dignity. But alone could raise them above the ws; his talents vere better formed for arms a fuperior fame and experience in war, than the go wn; for though in both he with the militia of the empire at their

devotion :

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devotion : all this was purely his own; in this ruin of his fortunes, what gratitill, by cherishing Cæsar, and throwing tude was there to be expected from a

into his hands the only thing which he court governed by eunuchs and mercewanted, arms, and military command, nåry Greeks? all whose politics turned, he made him at last too strong for him- not on the honour of the king, bat felf, and never began to fear him till it the establishment of their own power ; was too late. Cicero warmly diffuaded which was likely to be eclipfed by the both his union and his breach with Cæ- admission of Pompey. How happy had far; and after the rupture, as warmly it been for him to have died in that still, the thought of giving him battle: fickness, when all Italy was putting jf any

of these counsels had been fol. up vows and prayers for his fafety! lowed, Pompey had preserved his life or, if he had fallen by the chance of and honour, and the republic its liberty. war, on the plains of Pharsalia, in the But he was urged to his fate by a natu. defence of his country's liberty, he had ral superstition, and attention to those died ftill glorious, though unfortunate; vain auguries, with which he was flat. but, as if he had been reserved for an tered by all the Haruspices : he had seen example of the instability of human the same temper in Marius and Sylla, greatness, he, who a few davs before and observed the happy effects of it, but commanded kings and consuls, and all they assumed it only out of policy, he out the nobleft of Rome, was sentenc of principle: they used it to animate their die by a council of Naves; mur foldiers, when they had found a pro- by a base deserter ; cast out naker bable opportunity of fighting; but he, headless on the Egyptian ftrand against all prudence and probability, was when the whole earth, as Velleiu encouraged by it to fight to his own ruin. had scarce been sufficient for his : He faw his mistakes at last, when it was ries, could not find a spot up out of his power to correct them; and last for a grave. His body wa in his wretched fight from Pharsalia, on the shore by one his freed-in was forced to confeis, that he had trust- the planks of an old filhing-boui, ed too much to his hopes; and that his ashes, being conveyed to Cicero had judged better, and feen far were deposited privately, by i ther into things than he. The refolu. Cornelia, in a vault by his Alb, wie tion of seeking refuge in Egypt finished The Egyptians however rail the fad cataftrophe of this great man : nument to him

on the pic the father of the reigning prince had been adorned it with figures of bi izah highly obliged to him for his protection being defaced afterwards by inte .d a kone, and restoration to his kingdom; buried almost in sand and rule vas and the son had sent a considerable fleet sought out, and restored by Dous pies to lis alliance in the present war: but ror Hadrian.-MIDDLETC

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HISTORY OF NATIONAL EVENT).

FOR THE YEAR 1788. THE STRENGTH AND GRANDEUR OF vested of her territorial 1. 1 si s in

THE BRITISH NATION - TREATY America, she still retains h rimer WITH THE DUTCH – IMPEACH- dignity, grandeur, and ... ; nor MENT OF MR.HASTINGS-SITUA has this loss in the lezi dini ished TION OF FRANCE--POLICY OF

her respectability amc: the other 'THE PRUSSIAN KING-IMBECILLITY OF SPAIN STATE OF POR

powers of Europe, who le caue to

folicit her alliance au iacion. TUGAL.

In Afia, her empire'. 1.reased; HE war on the continent has and her commercia

in the least disturbed ei- France hath already o dinfinitether the public or domestic peace of ly to her advantage.

m; position Great Britain. Though recently di- given to this treaty;

car. Fox,

Lord

ty with

not

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