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English not having then any plan- “ the Portugueze, notwithstanding tations in the West Indies, and “ their hatred of them againit the consequently no occasion for ne- " English." The next year capgroes, such ships traded only for tain 'Towerson brought these men gold, elephants teeth, and Guinea back again; whereupon the nepepper. This trade was carried groes Mewed him much kindness. on at the hazard of losing their Quickly after this, another initance Thips and cargoes, if they had of the same kind occurred, in the fallen into the hands of the Portu- case of Captain George Fenser, gueze, who claimed an exclusive who being on the coait, with three right of trade, on account of the vessels, was also attacked by the several settlements they had made negroes, who wounded several of there. In the year 1553, we find his people, and violently carried Captain Thomas Windham trading three of his men to their town. along the coast with 140 men, in The captain fent a messenger, offerthree ships, and failing as far as ing any thing they defired for the Benin, which lies about 3000 miles ransom of his men; but they redown the coast, to take in a load of fused to deliver them, letting him pepper. Next year John Lock know, " That three weeks before, traded along the coast of Guinea, “ an Englit thip, which came in

far as D'Elmina, when he " the road, had carried off three brought away considerable quan “ of their people; and that till tities of gold and ivory. He “ they were brought again, they Speaks well of the natives, and "s would not restore his men, even says,

" That whoever will deal " though they fould give their ki with them must behave civilly, " three thips to releale them.” It “ for they will not traffic if ill was probable the evil conduct of * used.” In 1555, William Tow- there, and some other Englishmen, erson traded in a peaceable manner was the occasion of what is menwith the natives, who - tioned in Hill's Naval History, viz. plaint to him of the Portugueze, " That when Captain Hawkins rewho were then settled in their “ turned from his first voyage to castle at D’Elmina, saying, “They “ Africa, Queen Elizabeth lent for

were bad mell, who made them “ him, when she expresied her con** faves if they could take them, cern, lest any of the African ne

putting irons on their legs.” groes should be carried off with

This bad example of the Por " out their free consent; which tugueze was soon followed by some “ The declared would be deteft. evil-disposed Englishmens for the « able, and would call down the fame Captain Towerson relates, vengeance of Heaven upon the " That in the course of his voyage, “ undertakers.” Hawkins made " he perceived the natives, near great promises, which nevertheless

D'Elmina, unwilling to come to he did not perform; for his next " him; and that he was at last voyage to the coast appears to have " attacked by them; which he been principally calculated to pro"" understood was done in revenge cure negroe ilaves, in order to tell " for the wrong, done them the them to the Spaniards in the West ". year before, by one Captain Indies; which occasioned the fame " Gainih, who had taken away author to use these remarkable " the negroe captain's son, and words: “ Here began the horrid " three others, with their gold,“ practice of forcing the Afrin ** &c. This caused them to join « cans into flavery: an injustice

** and


" and barbarity, which, so sure being plenty of grain, and as there is vengence in Heaven "fruit of several forts, and the “ for the worst of crimes, will “ towns prettily laid out. “ fome time be the destruction of " the 25th, being informed by « all who act or who encourage

is the Portugueze of a town of “ it.” This Captain Hawkins, af negroes called Bymba, where terwards Sir John Hawkins, seems " there was not only a quantity to have been the first English- “ of gold, but an hundred and man who gave public countenance « forty inhabitants, they resolved to this wicked traffic: for An to attack it, having the Portuderson, before mentioned, at page “gueze for their guide; but by 401, says, “ That in the year “ mismanagement they took but 1562, Captain Hawkins affifted “ ten negroes, having seven of “ by subscription of sundry gen. “ their own men killed, and twen... « tlemen, now fitted out three “ ty-seven wounded. They then

fhips; and having learnt that “ went farther down the coaft;

negroes were a very good com “ when, having procured a num. “ modity in Hispaniola, he failed “ ber of negroes, they proceeded " to the coast of Guinea, took “ to the West Indies, where they ri in negroes,

and failed with " fold them to the Spaniards.” " them for Hispaniola, where he And in the fame Naval Chronicle, rt sold them, and his English com at page 76, it is said, “ That " modities, and loaded his three “ in the year 1567, Francis Drake, « vessels with hides, sugar, gin-" before performing his voyage ger, &c. with which he re

" round the world, went with " turned home anno 1563, mak Sir John Hawkins in his ex“ ing a prosperous voyage.As “pedition to the coast of Guinea, it proved a lucrative business, the “ where, taking in a cargo of trade was continued both by Haw “ slaves, they determined to steer kins and others, as appears from

«s for the Caribbee islands.How the Naval Chronicle, page 55, Queen Elizabeth suffered so grievwhere it is said, “ That on the ous an infringement of the rights “ 18th of October, 1564, Cap- of mankind to be perpetrated by “ tain John Hawkins, with two her subjects, and how the was

fhips of 700 and 140 tons, failed persuaded, about the 30th year of • for Africa; that on the eighth her reign, to grant patents for “ of December they anchored to carrying on

from the “ the south of Cape Verd, where north part of the river Senegal, " the Captain manned the boat, to an hundred leagues beyond Si" and sent eighty men in armour erra Leona, which

gave " into the country, to see if they present African company, is hard « could take some negroes; but to account for. " the natives flying from them, In the accounts relating to the “ they returned to their ships, African trade, we find this melan“ and proceeded farther down choly truth farther asserted by some “ the coast. Here they staid cer of the principal directors in the “ tain days, sending their men different factories; particularly A. « ashore, in order (as the author Brue says, “ That the Europeans " says) to burn and spoil their “ were far from defiring to act as " towns, and take the inhabi. “ peace-makers amongit the ne<< tants.

The land they observed groes; which would be acting "' to be well cultivated, there “ contrary to their interest, since

" the

a trade


to the

"I set on

“ the greater the wars, the more we treat concerning buying them, “ llaves were procured.” And “ they are all brought out together William Bosman also remarks, “ in a large plain, where, by our «. That one of the former com surgeons, they are thorouglıly “ manders gave large sums of mo “ examined, and that naked, both

ney to the negroes of one nation, men and women, without the least " to induce them to attack fome “ distinction or modesty. Those “ of the neighbouring nations, “ which are approved as good, are or which occafioned a battle which

one Aide ; in the mean " was more bloody than the wars “ while a burning iron, with the of negroes usually are." This « arms or name of the company, is confirmed by J. Barbot, who " lies in the fire, with which ours says, “ That the country of D’El are marked on the breast. When «' mina, which was formerly very we have agreed with the owners “ powerful and populous, was in “ of the flaves, they are returned so his time so much drained of its “ to their prisons; where, from “ inhabitants by the intestine wars " that time forward, they are kept “ 'fomented amongst the negroes at our charge, and cost us twoby the Dutch, that there did not

pence a day each slave, which “ remain inhabitants enough to till “ ferves to subsist them, like crimi. «c the country'

or nals, on bread and water; so that, Our author is so extremely zea to save charges, we send them lous in the cause which he defends, on board our lips the very firit that he is sometimes guilty of ex opportunity ; before which, their aggeration ; but that is certainly “ matters ftrip them of all they to be excused, as the motive arises so have on their backs, so that they from the noblest principles, those come on board stark naked, as of virtue and religion.

so well women as men. In which We shall conclude our account "i condition they are obliged to of this work, by the following ex “ continue, if the matter of the tract, relating to the shocking mode fhip is not so charitable (which used in carrying on this disgraceful “ he commonly is) as to beitow trade.

something on them to cover their « The account given by Sir os nakedness. Six or seven hundred William Boiman is as follows : are sometimes put on board a " When the slaves which are “ vessel, where they lie as close

brought from the inland coun “ together as it is posible for them “ tries come to Whidah, they are to be crouded.”

put in prison together; when



historian. However, as detached AŞ S every political concern of im- pieces, they will be esteemed valu

portance will be judiciously re. able, both at the present and at a gistered under our head of Na- future period, as we intend to select TIONAL EVENTS, we mean, in this the remarkable and the well authenplace, to give such occurrences only ticated; we mean not to be folie as are not worthy the notice, or that citous for the early and the mar. would degrade the dignity, of the vellous.


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enemy ?"


I quit my old friend for my new OF THE MARQUIS OF WORCESTER,

When a musquet-ball, at the FROM LLOYD'S MEMOIRS OF THE LIVES, ACTIONS, SUFFERINGS, marble pillar in the withdrawing

siege of Ragland, glancing on a AND DEATHS, OF NOBLE, REVEREND, AND EXCELLENT PER

room, where this lord used to divert SONAGES.

his friends, hit his head, and fell

flat on the ground, he said, “ That HARLES I. having par- he was flattered to have a good

doned some gentlemen, who head-piece in his younger days; had considerably prejudiced his in- but he was certain that, in his old terest in South Wales, this facetious age, he had one which was mula nobleman told him, That was the

quet-proof.” way to gain the kingdom of heaven,

Vain glory, he used to say, was but not his kingdom on earth.” He like chaff, that kept a man's fpirits would frequently railly his majesty warm, as that did the coin. “ If . by quotations from the old poets, you sét a man on his horse," said and particularly would repeat these he, “ let him have his horse!" lines from Chaucer

Being told, when highly advanced A king can kill, a king can save; in years, that he should be buried A king can make a lord-a knave!

at Windsor, he replied, " Then When he saw a deformed, worn- fall I take a better cafile when out old woman, he would say, “How dead, than ever I lost when alive." happy were it for a man going to Sir Thonias Fairfax, wondering bed to his grave, to be first wedded at his cheerfulness when he was to this woman!” Being forbid the ncar death, was answered, “ That use of claret, when afflicted with he suffered cheerfully, because he the gout, “ What,” said he, “thall did not before reckon upon it."




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This nobleman, though a firm This circumstance is the more reCatholic, was an active advocate markable, as this king was not over in the defence of Charles the First, and above tender in other facred who said of him, " That he found points. not any where else so much faith, no pot in Israel!”-He encountered many difficulties and disgraces, at

CHARACTERISTIC about the eightieth year of his

age ;

ANECDOTES AND CUSTOMS was deprived of his estates, and committed to prison, where he died OF THE BAVARIANS: FROM BARON in an abject condition ; deserted,


GERMANY. though not despised.

FTER speaking indifferently INSTANCE

of the people of rank, this

author proceeds to describe the geneOY UNCOMMON MODERATION.

rality of the inhabitants. “ They HE Earl of Caemarron, in are," says he, "immerfed in the

the reign of King James I. moft scandalous debauchery. Every being at dinner, one day, at the night the streets re-echo with the house of his father-in-law; a phy. Boife of drunkards issuing from the fician, either belonging to, or of numerous taverns where they have the acquaintance of the family, gave been revelling and dancing. Whothis noble earl the lic direct.' The ever is at all noble here must keep company present appeared in the ut- miscuouslove. In this respect, things

his miftress; the rest indulge in promost astonishment at the impudence very calmly replied, " I will take the character given it by an oflicer of this son of Esculapius; but the earl are not much better in the country.

“ Bavaria, indeed, well deserves the lie, but I will never take phyfic of Gascony, of being the greatest of him: he may speak what does not become him ; I will not do wbat is

brothel in the world. unworthy of me!"

" The country people are ex• tremely dirty. A few miles distans

from the capital, one would hardly ANECDOTE

take the hovels of the peasants for OF WILLIAM RUFUS.

the habitations of men. Many of

them have large puddles before the WO monks applied to William doors of their houles, and are obliged

to step over planks into them. The purchafe an abbot's place; and they thatched roofs of the country people, both strove to outvie each other in in many parts of France, have a the largeness of their offers. A much better appearance than the third monk, as it happened, was pre- miserable huts of the Bavarian peafent; who, observing a strict filence, fants ; the roofs of which are coverthe king laid to him, as if to encou- ed with stones, in order that the flates rage the best bidder" And what may not be carried away by the wilt thou give for the place ?"- wind. Mean as this looks, cheap as “ Not a penny!” answered he; nails are in the country, and often “ for it is against my conscience." as half the roofs are torn away by On which Rufus replied, " Then strong winds, yet canoot the rich thou, of the three, best deservest the farmer be persuaded to nail his shinpreference, and thou fhalt have it !” gles properly together. In short,


Turiusking of England, to

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